This volume includes the articles originally published in Volume XXIII, Nos. 1-2 (2018) of Brill’s journal Early Science and Medicine with one additional chapter by Timothy D. Walker and an updated introduction.Cover illustration: Detail of An interrogation room of the Spanish Inquisition with two priests and an accused heretic. Engraving by Bernard Picart, 1722. Credit: Wellcome Collection, <https://wellcomecollection.org/works/yp9wv5w3>. CC BY 4.0.The Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available online at http://catalog.loc.govLC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2019933096Typeface for the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic scripts: “Brill”. See and download: brill.com/brill-typeface.isbn 978-90-04-38645-7 (hardback)isbn 978-90-04-38646-4 (e-book)Copyright 2019 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Brill Hes & De Graaf, Brill Nijhoff, Brill Rodopi, Brill Sense, Hotei Publishing, mentis Verlag, Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh and Wilhelm Fink Verlag.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher.Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill NV provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change.This book is printed on acid-free paper and produced in a sustainable manner.