Indexʾa-301ʿAbd al-Masīḥ, George78–81ʿAbduh, Dāwūd237Abdullah bin Abd Rahman311Abdullah bin Talib311absolute object4 f.abstract representation182abstract structure24abstraction19 f., 23–26ʾAbū ʿAmr28, 298ʾAbū Ḥayyān69, 94–96, 102, 200, 278ʾAbū Muslim61ʾAbū ʿUbayd61ʾAbū ʿUbayda64, 73accusative40, 113, 207, 222 adverbial225–232 locative198 of condition225–232 of state225–232 temporal198 see naṣbaccusative nominal205acrophony principle125action198, 202, 205, 207 f., 227, 229activated utterance250 f.active voice18ʾāḏana55asymmetry, between first/second person56addressee31 f., 42 f., 51 f., 56, 241, 250 f., 283 f., 291 see listeneradjectival phrase285–289adjective247, 257–260, 266, 276, 285, 287 annexation of286 f. attributive256, 263 in Persian187 f.adjunction21ʾaḍmara37 f., 43, 45, 50 f.ʿAḍud al-Dawla65adverb of place214, 218, 220 f., 243, 245 of time143, 213 f., 218, 220 f., 234, 245ʾafāda259, 262, 264 f.ʾafʿāl al-qulūb91ʾafʿāl see fiʿlaffected object199affective object199, 205Afšār, Ṣadrī183agent198, 204, 286 virtual310ʾaḫaff47, 113 see ḫafīfʾaḫaṣṣ247 f.ʾaḥdaṯa208ʾAḫfaš, ʾAbū l-Ḥasan Saʿīd ibn Masʿada al-62, 134, 238 f.ʾaḫḫara108ʾāḫir246ʾaḥkām see ḥukmʾahl al-ṣināʿa71ʾAḥmad ibn Naṣr, ʾAbū l-Ḥasan134ʾAḥmad, Kabīr al-Dīn134–136Ahmar, May106 f.ʿāʾid71, 246ʾaʿjamī12ʿAjlānī, al-63ʾajnabī287ʾĀjurrūmiyya see Ibn ʾĀjurrūmʾakalūnī l-barāġīṯ47akhiran314aksara297al-233, 235, 237 f., 240, 245, 247–249, 254, 285al- relative243 f., 246ʿalam260ʿalāma33 f., 38, 41, 45, 49, 57ʿalāma li-l-ʾiḍmār46ʿalāma li-l-jamʿ45, 47ʿalāma muḫtaṣṣa45ʿalāma ẓāhira47 f., 54ʿalāmat al-ġāʾib49ʿalāmat al-ʾiḍmār36 f.ʿalāmat al-jamʿ45ʿalāmat al-mutamakkin45ʿalāmat al-nudba45ʿalāmat al-taʾkīd45ʿalāmat al-taʾnīṯ45, 47ʿalāmat ʾiḍmār46–48, 54 f.ʿalāmat muḍmar37, 41, 46, 48, 54ʿalāmat tamām al-kalām286Al-Ani, Salman15ʾAlfiyya see Ibn Malikʾalḥaqa242Aliane, Hassina2, 8, 10–29ʾalif299ʾalif al-istifhām109allaḏī279 f.al-ʾiḫbār bi-289–291Al-Munajjid, Ṣ.133Al-Nassir, Abd al-Munim301alphabet124 f., 275 teaching of125alphabetic arrangement125–128ʾAltōnjī, Muḥammad78–81ʿamal37, 40, 44, 89, 92 f., 100 f., 215, 222ʾaʿmala101ʾamāta l-fiʿl42ambiguity170, 259, 289–291 in Jawi script307Ambrosiana manuscript2, 133–156ʿāmil5, 91, 93 f., 97 f., 116, 119, 208, 217 f., 291, 306ʿamila89, 102ʿamila fī5, 102ʾamkan47ʾammā71ʾamr72, 109 f., 175, 225 f.amyag312ʾan244, 280 f., 285, 291 f. elision of61ʾan al-muwaṭṭiʾa279–282analogical extension16, 228analogy23, 116, 228 f.anaphora30, 242anaphoric use235, 240animal, domestic241animate242ʾanna82, 244annexation254, 256 f., 263–268, 274 f., 285 f., 288, 291 formal264 semantic264anomalous structure288antecedent52, 93, 163, 167, 171, 176, 178, 248 explicit167 implicit167, 176 of relative235 f. redundant177anteposing116–119 see frontingapocopate158, 176apodosis76, 79 f., 168, 171, 174, 277–279 negative282, 284 of law281 of oath278–281, 283apposition249, 261 explanatory255, 259, 261, 263, 266 f. coordinated265Arab, as ethnicity marker7Arabic acquisition of295 as linguistic marker7 teaching of295ʿarabiyya12Aramaic89Aristotle22, 172Arps, Bernard297arrow22, 26arthatatv313arti298article, definite246, 254, 285 f.ʾAʿšā, al-42ʾAsfarāyīnī, al-67ʿĀṣī, Mišāl al-78–81, 255, 261ʿAskarī, ʾAbū Hilāl al-74ʾaṣl6, 14 f., 17 f., 20 f., 113, 116, 121, 123, 186 f., 190, 193 f., 212–214, 216 f., 287, 312riʿāyat al-291ʾasmāʾ al-sitta, al- see six nounsʾasmāʾ see ismʾAsmar, Jirjis78–81ʾAsmar, Rājī78–81ʾAstarābāḏī, al-3, 227 f., 230, 260, 264, 276–278, 281–291ʿaṭf bayān255, 261, 265 f.ʾaṯqal113attribute285attributive phrase, in Persian193Aussant, Émilie6autonomy, of realization15ʾaw, with subjunctive61awalan314ʾawṣala220ʾawwal113 f.ʾawwal al-ʿadad114axiom24ʾayna114, 177 f.ʿAynī, al-67Ayoub, Georgine1, 4, 30–60ʾayyun168, 177 f., 243 f.ʾaẓhara40, 44ʾAzharī, ʾAbū Manṣūr Muḥammad ibn ʾAḥmad al-77, 126ʾAzharī, Ḫālid ibn ʿAbdallāh al-66, 298ʾAẓnag, ʾIbrāhīm ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Ṣanhājī311Baalbaki, Ramzi2 f., 14, 16, 19, 61–88, 106 f., 113, 125 f., 182, 195, 199, 212 f., 217, 281, 286, 288 f.bāb14–17, 19–21, 23–25bāb al-ʾiʿmāl101badal34 f., 249, 266, 305Badīʿ Yaʿqūb, ʾImīl see Yaʿqūb, ʾImīl Badīʿ135, 255, 261Baġāwī, ʾAbū Muḥammad al-Ḥusayn ibn Masʿūd al-301Baġdādī, al-280–283, 289bahasa298bahuvrīhi compound187Bakkāʾ, Muḥammad Kāẓim al-134, 136Bakrī, Muḥammad ibn ʾAbī Ġassān al-63bal80banā ʿalā39 f.baris di atas302, 306baris di bawah302, 306baris di depan302, 306baris hadapan302Basrans45, 80, 101, 237, 286Baṣriyyūn65Baṭalyawsī, al-228bayān108, 205, 266Bayhaqī183bayyana205Bedouin informants102 f.Bedouin speech14, 212, 215 f., 219, 222, 228 f., 244bentar301Benveniste, Émile4, 30 f.beralif299Berber296, 312 Kabylian312Berg, L.W.C. van den297Bernards, Monique225, 276bināʾ50, 123binding problem23bi-transitive117 see ditransitiveBlachère, Régis171blame260Bloomfield, Leonard12 f.Boethius165Bohas, Georges12, 106 f.Boogert, Nico van den311 f.bound pronoun220, 286, 289–291Bruinessen, Martin van298Brunschvig, Robert100Brustad, Kristen255burhān176Cachia, Pierre281Carter, Michael5, 11 f., 18–20, 38, 62, 89–105, 136, 179, 182, 203, 225, 255 f., 266case4, 34case marker275, 283Caspari, Carl Paul 255category22–24, 26 definition of22category construction23 f.Category Theory8, 22–26cause120center of attention250Chatti, Saloua173circumstantial accusative68, 76, 78circumstantial qualifier204clarification256, 258–260, 267, 283class19 f.class membership19 f.clause, qualifying256clitic36clitic pronoun, in Persian191cliticization34, 56 double52 f.clitics46coalescence19, 22, 25cognate object3 see absolute objectcognitive linguistics4cognitive verb283co-limit23, 25colonial administration British303 Dutch303communication, successful110communicative purpose115completion265–267complexity22compound187 f., 190 f. in Persian6, 182 f., 192–195concept24conciseness71, 83, 121concrete universal23conditional280 f.conditional logic6, 158 f.conditional particle6, 79, 157 f., 164, 167 f., 170conditional sentence76, 91, 159, 166 f., 170 f., 175, 179, 278 f.conditionality6, 157–181conjunction164 f., 235, 244consequent167, 178 f.consequent, implied177consonant185 as case markers275, 291constituent16–18 redundant284context235, 237, 242, 250 pragmatic53conversation manual304Coptic296copulative phrase, in Persian193co-referential286 f., 291correctness217correspondence178 f. between elements19 of structure20, 24 of transformations21corroboration260counterfactual158, 162curriculum, of grammar61creation, of language278Daḥlān, ʾAḥmad Zaynī298dalāla266dalla ʾalā276Damāḏ see Rufayʿ ibn Salama Damāḏḍamīr4, 30–60, 309ḍamīr ʿāʾid246ḍamīr lāʾiq243ḏamm257, 260ḍamma299, 301 f., 312ḍarb99Dardjowidjojo, Soenjono313 f.Ḍarīr, al-228Ḍarīr, Hišām ibn Muʿāwiya al-63Ḍarīr, Muḥammad ibn Saʿdān al- see Ibn Saʿdānḍarūra278, 288ḏāt202Dāʾūd Rūmī298Dayyeh, Hanadi3, 106–122, 212 f.declension306deep level18deep structure187defective noun75definite114, 268definite article246 254, 285 f.definite expression254, 258 f., 261, 263–265, 267definiteness3 f., 107, 113, 233–252, 286 see definitiondefiniteness hierarchy see hierarchy, of definitenessdefinition253–272deictic54, 234 f., 243 f., 251deixis235, 240deletion21, 189 f., 300 in Persian191demonstrative54, 233–238, 240, 242–245, 247–249, 251demonstrative pronoun3 f., 171Derenbourg, Hartwig135, 139description260determinate261, 268determination4, 253–272determinative phrase, in Persian193determiner254Devanagari script302Dévényi, Kinga157, 164deviation from ordinary speech215, 218 from the basic structure275Dichy, Joseph5, 123–132dictionary5, 123–132 Arabic-Farsi127 digital129 French129 modern129 Persian183 semasiological123dictionary arrangement123–132Diem, Werner285Dienstmaleisch304Dieterici, Friedrich96, 102, 183 f.diminutive of ism mubham237 f. of relative239diphthong, in Persian185direct object214, 286direct speech91discourse function30, 32discourse, reality of34distinction261distributional analysis8, 12–14, 16, 20, 25distributionalism26ditransitive verb56diwal311ḍ-m-r35domain, of quantifier167 f.Donatus102doubly transitive verb289–291doubly-transitive see ditransitiveDrewes, Gerard298Druel, Jean2, 133–156dual275ḏū ṭāʾiyya243Dutch303, 313Dutch Indies297, 303dwilingga298economy15, 17education in Persian312 Islamic182, 295–297, 305 f. primary312 f.effected object199effective object5, 198–211Ehresmann, Andrée22Eilenberg, Samuel22elision43 of verb73, 92Ellermann, David23ellipsis39, 43, 258Elmedlaoui, Mohamed312elucidation267emergence problem23emphasis82, 283 f.endophora242English313enunciation31 f., 34, 53enunciative hypothesis106 f.epistemological arrangement128equational sentence90equivalence class20 f.equivocity258, 260 f.Errington, Joseph304error in terminology77 f. linguistic74 f., 77 of ʾiʿrāb72 spelling306Euclid176event164evolution, of theory7exegesis in Malay298 of the Qurʾān28, 38, 300–303existential import172, 173explanatory apposition255, 259, 261, 263, 266 f.explication258explicit pronoun36, 44expression definite254, 258 f., 261, 263–265, 267 indefinite254, 258–261, 263–265, 267extension analogical16, 228 f. of category204 f. of construction213, 218 of qualification255 of speech213, 216, 219 of technical terms203 f.fa-70, 164 f., 169, 278 conditional79 omission of278 with subjunctive61faedah308fāʾida16, 258, 260 f., 282, 284, 309fāʾida lafẓiyya284fāʾida maʿnawiyya284fāʿil32, 35, 55, 71, 107 f., 117, 198 f., 201 f., 204, 208, 226, 288, 305, 309, 313fāʿil muḍmar40fāʿil muqaddar310fāʿil, nāʾib ʿan70familiar250fann100farʿ14 f., 17, 20 f.Fārābī, al-6, 157, 169Farḥāt, Jarmānūs96–98, 101Fārisī, al-65, 205, 227, 229 f., 253Farrāʾ, al-39, 64, 99 f.farraġa96faṣl34fatḥa299, 302, 312fayida193Fazārī, al-66feminine11399figurative sense212fiʿl18, 32, 35, 202 f., 305, 308, 311fiʿl al-muḫāṭab160fiʿl al-šarṭ6fiʿl māḍī71fiʿl majhūl83fiʿl maʿlūm83fiʿl muḍāriʿ82fiʿl muḍmar39, 42, 160fiʿl muẓhar39fiʿl šakk wa-yaqīn118f-ʿ-l23, 27Fleisch, Henri255focus250 f.formalism26 f.freedom, of the speaker3, 25, 111, 119Friedmann, Yohanan220function words313functor22furūʿ see farʿfuṣḥā14Ġaḍḍāb, Faraj Muḥammad al-285ġāʾib4, 30–34, 37, 51, 53, 56 f., 191ʿalāmat al-49ġarīb125ġarīb al-Ḥadīṯ77Gätje, Helmut254, 258Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Maurice171ġayr239 f., 248 f.ġayr qaḍiyya172ġayr wājib32, 10geminated verb142–150Generative Linguistics41, 287generative structure20genitive113, 159 see jarrgenitive pronoun45genus233–252, 257, 259 see jins proper name for241geometrical proof176Gille, Christiane94, 102Giolfo, Manuela1–9, 157–181, 244Givenness Hierarchy4glossaries, Berber-Arabic312glosses134 Arabic in Latin manuscripts102glottal stop300Goguyer, Antoine95, 102, 261Goldblatt, Robert23 f.Goldenberg, Gideon202government5, 89, 102, 285 disrupted283 of adjective285 of participle285grammar Berber312 f. Christian102 European30 for beginners61–88 Germanic311 Greco-Latin313 Greek30 Hebrew8 Hindi313 Hindustani303 Indian30 Indonesian313 Javanese297 Latin296, 304, 311 missionary296 pedagogical61–88 Persian6, 8, 182–197, 302, 312 Romance311 Sanskrit303 Syriac8 Urdu313 Western304, 311Greek grammar30Groeneboer, Kees303group structure21Guillaume, Jean-Patrick6, 106 f.Ġulām Ṯaʿlab see Zāhid, ʾAbū ʿUmar al-Gully, Adrian200Gundel, Jeanette249 f.ḫabar112, 118, 160, 305, 310, 313ḫabar mufrad309ḥadaṯ32ḥadd115ḥadd al-lafẓ107ḥaḏf43, 177, 183, 190, 213 f., 216, 299ḥaḏf al-jawāb177Hadj Salah, Abderahmane21ḫafīf15Ḥāfiẓ184, 187Ḥafṣ300 f.Ḥafṣ ʿan ʿĀṣim298ḥāl3, 33, 80, 204 f., 225–232, 241, 276 f., 305ḥāl fī l-ḥaqīqa, al-276ḥāl maḥkiyya277ḥāl muqaddara277ḥāl muqārina277ḥāl muwaṭṭiʾa276 f., 291Ḫalaf al-ʾAḥmar64Ḫalīl, al-5 f., 42, 45, 64, 67, 123–126, 128, 158, 168, 170–173, 175, 177 f., 212, 222, 279–281ḫallaṣa257Ḥāmiḍ, ʾAbū Mūsā al-63ḥaml17hamza300 f. writing of299hamza bayna bayna301Ḥamza, Muḥammad Fawzī135Hamzé, Hassan204ḥaqīqa276ḥāl fī l-276mafʿūl fī l-208 see ʾiḍāfa; mafʿūl ḥaqīqīḥaqq al-ṣadr73ḥaqq bi-l-ṣadāra, al-107, 111, 114 f.ḥaraka17 f., 185, 228ḥarf18, 109, 123 f., 185, 187, 275, 308 f., 311, 314ḥarf al-ʿilla307ḥarf al-istifhām115ḥarf al-istiṯnāʾ94ḥarf al-jazāʾ158, 168, 170 f.ḥarf al-mujāzāt158, 168ḥarf al-munādāt309ḥarf al-šarṭ71, 158ḥarf al-ziyāda126ḥarf ʿaṭf70 f.ḥarf ʾiḍrāb80ḥarf imtināʿ li-mtināʿ78 f.ḥarf ʾiʿrāb47ḥarf istidrāk80ḥarf istiqbāl70, 80, 83ḥarf jarr208, 299, 214, 222, 309ḥarf jarr zāʾid83ḥarf jawāb76ḥarf jazm71ḥarf madd17ḥarf maʿnā305ḥarf muʿtall128ḥarf nafy70ḥarf naṣb70ḥarf tafṣīl71ḥarf tanfīs80, 83ḥarf tawkīd71, 82harf yang mati see matiḥarf-i nidā189 f.Ḥarīrī, al-228ḥarrafa172Harris, Zellig2, 13 f., 20 f., 24–27Hārūn, ʿAbd al-Salām134 f.Hashim bin Musa305Ḥassānīn, Fatḥī237ḫaṭṭ123hayʾa276ḥayawān242Haywood, John124, 127 f.ḥaẕf190, 192–194 see ḥaḏfḫazl43heaviness48, 113 of construction286 f.Hebrew296Hedberg, Nancy249 f.Heselwood, Barry255heuristic arrangement128, 130hierarchy93 between notions113 between parts of speech113 Givenness249–251 metaphor of103 of definiteness233, 242, 247–251 of pronouns34, 52 f., 57 of qiyās19 f., 24 hierarchy problem23ḫiffa113hijāʾ67ḥikāya91ḥīna170Hindi302, 313Hindustani302–304Hodges, Wilfrid5 f., 157–181Holtz, Louis102Houtman, Frederi(c)k de304ḫ-ṣ-ṣ253ḥudūd see ḥaddḥukm15, 17Humbert, Geneviève133–135, 141ḥurūf314 see ḥarfḥurūf al-hijāʾ67ḥurūf al-maʿānī67 f., 81huwa huwa113Ḫwārazmī, al-101hypothetical logic165, 178hypothetical sentence165, 170hysteron-proteron106, 111, 116, 119–121ʿibāra70ʾibhām242Ibn ʾĀjurrūm98, 206, 297, 306, 308Ibn al-ʾAnbārī, ʾAbū Bakr64Ibn al-ʾAnbārī, ʾAbū l-Barakāt17, 204, 217 f., 228, 261, 263, 275, 310Ibn ʿAqīl95 f., 102, 235, 242 f., 264, 298Ibn al-ʾAṯīr77Ibn Bābašāḏ228Ibn Barrī228Ibn al-Dahhān227, 230, 265Ibn Durayd76, 126, 128, 204Ibn Fāris35, 126–128, 130, 257 f.Ibn al-Ḥājib157, 186, 227, 229, 260, 264, 276, 286, 289Ibn Ḫālawayhi64, 204Ibn Ḫaldūn74Ibn Ḫarūf66, 141, 258Ibn al-Ḫaššāb219, 228Ibn al-Ḫayyāṭ64Ibn Hišām3–5, 61–89, 92, 95–97, 99–101, 157, 200–203, 205–207, 245 f., 249, 260–263, 265, 267, 276 f., 282 f., 298Ibn Jinnī64, 66, 82, 125 f., 228, 253, 256–258, 263, 266, 275, 286, 288Ibn Kaysān63 f.Ibn Mālik66, 79, 95, 100, 102, 227, 230, 243 f., 255, 263, 266, 297Ibn Manẓūr77Ibn Muʿṭī228Ibn al-Nadīm62–64Ibn al-Nāẓim227, 230Ibn Qutayba64, 90, 100Ibn Saʿdān, Muḥammad al-Ḍarīr63Ibn al-Sarrāj3 f., 49, 56, 64, 116, 119–121, 206, 212 f., 217, 219–221, 223, 227 f., 238–240, 248, 283Ibn Sīda77Ibn Sīnā5 f., 157–181Ibn Šuqayr63, 227Ibn al-Ṭarāwa65Ibn al-Warrāq205, 208, 253, 275Ibn Yaʿīš48, 206, 227, 229 f., 240 f., 243, 247–249, 260, 264, 276 f., 284, 290ibtadaʾa111ibtidāʾ15, 91, 107, 110–114, 118ʾiḏ83ʾiḏā71, 79, 163–167, 170–173ʾiḍāfa81, 218, 249, 255, 263, 266, 288, 305ʾiḍāfa ḥaqīqiyya263ʾiḍāfa lafẓiyya264ʾiḍāfa maḥḍa263 f.ʾiḍāfa maʿnawiyya255, 263–265ʾiḍāfat al-maʿnā275ʾiḍāfat al-šayʾ ʾilā l-ʾajnabī287ʾiḍāfat al-šayʾ ʾilā nafsihi287ʾiḍāfat al-ṣifa287ʾīḍāḥ261 f., 265–267ʾīḏān282identifiability107identification250 f.ʾiḍmār4, 30–60, 160, 236, 258ʾiḍmār, ʿalāmat al-36, 46–48, 54 f.ʾiḫbār ʿan ġāʾib32ʾiḫbār bi-llaḏī289–291ʾihmāl166iḥtimāl260iḫtiṣār215iḫtiṣāṣ73, 253ʾījāb166ʾījāz71, 82, 121, 215ʾilġāʾ281, 283ʿilla116, 120 f., 307ʿillat al-ʿilla120ʿilm al-ʿarabiyya14ʿilm al-ḥadd8ʿilm al-istidlāl8ʿilm al-naḥw120ʿilm-i maʿānī313ʾiʿmāl101ʾimmā lā43Immediate Constituent analysis11 f.imperative80, 109, 175, 194imperative sentence110imperfect verb74, 80implication164 f., 172implicit38implicit element43, 49 f.implicit noun40, 44implicit pronoun36implicit verb44, 161imposition, of language260Imruʾ al-Qays282 f.imtizāj265ʾin6, 157–159, 161 f., 164–166, 168, 170 f., 173 f., 178, 279, 282ʾin, virtual162inanimate242ʾināṯ, nūn al-82inclusion27incompetence, linguistic77indefinite114, 268indefinite expression254, 258–261, 263–265, 267indefinite noun107indefiniteness see indefinitionindefinition205, 253–272independent pronoun73, 289, 292indeterminate261, 268indetermination253–272Indo-European183, 187Indonesia297Indonesian7, 313infinitive, in Persian188infiṣāl15, 291initial noun32initial position107, 114 f.ʾinna82, 93, 284ʾinnamā214inqaṭaʿa31ʾinšāʾ253insertion284intended meaning106, 110, 115, 120intention communicative27, 32 of the speaker17 f., 26, 32, 106, 108, 182, 187, 214–217, 219, 250, 278, 291interlocutor159, 215, 259 see addressee; listenerinterrogative114, 175, 238, 245interrogative particle115interrogative sentence108, 110invariants21ʾiʿrāb7, 61–88, 256, 306 error of69Īravānī183 f., 192–194, 312irreality157ʾišāra241 f.ʾIṣfahānī, Mirza Ḥabīb-i312Islamization, of Southeast Asia302ism18, 20, 241, 305, 308ism al-ʿalam45ism al-ḥadaṯ4ism al-ʾišāra241–243ism al-jins242ism al-mutakallim55ism ḫāṣṣ45ism mawṣūl71, 200, 299ism mubham3, 54, 233–252ism muḍmar39 f.ism mufrad16ism-i fāʿil189, 192–194ism-i mafʿūl189, 192ism-i mansūb192–194ʾisnād17, 112istaʿmala228istiʿāra204istidrāk80, 309istīfāʾ71, 82istifhām18, 108 f., 175ištiġāl35, 95 f., 102istiġnāʾ115iṣṭilāḥ204, 260, 314istilah314ištimāl215istiqbāl81, 258ištirāk258, 260, 262ʾitbāʿ25ʾiṯbāt300iʿtibār17ʾiṭlāq, ʿalā l-200 f.ittasaʿa212ittisāʿ al-kalām3, 212–224ittiṣāl290iżāfa, in Persian182, 188, 190izālat al-labs290izālat ištirāk258ʾiẓhār38 f.Jaʿd, Muḥammad ibn ʿUṯmān al-63Jāḥiẓ61 f.Jakobson, Roman47 f.jamʿ113, 275, 314jamʿ taksīr17 f., 21jamʿ, ʿalāmat al-45, 47jamāʿa35jamād242jamak314jāmiʿ17, 20, 25jāmid261Jārburdī, al-264Jarīr223Jarmī, al-63, 134jārr112jarr245, 174, 186, 208, 288 f., 291Javanese297, 303 f.jawāb158, 160, 168, 174 f., 177jawāb al-ʾamr76, 80jawāb al-šarṭ76, 79 f.jawāb al-ṭalab80Jawharī, al-64, 94, 127, 130Jawi script299jayyid56, 107jazāʾ168jāzim76, 80jazm72Jazūlī, al-228Jeremiás, Éva6, 182–197, 312Jespersen, Otto202Jihāmī, Jīrār78–81jins100, 259Johor, Malay of305Johor, Sultanate of297Jones, Alan278jumal see jumla66jumla66, 68 f., 79jumla fiʿliyya69jumla ismiyya69jumla kubrā69jumla ṣuġrā69jumla ẓarfiyya69jurative particle73Jurjānī, al-4 f., 106 f., 200–202, 204 f., 207, 216, 228, 253, 258 f., 276Jurjānī, ʿAli ibn Muḥammad al-Sayyid al-Šarīf al-258, 265jussive80juzʾiyya166ka-73kāf al-ḫiṭāb242Kaffawī, al-101Kafrāwī, al-298kalām40, 50, 305kalām al-ʿArab38, 120kalām al-Zanj wa-l-Rūm61kalima314kalimat314kalimāt al-šarṭ157Kaptein, Nico304, 306karm313Karmānī, al-64kartā313Kasher, Almog2, 4 f., 69, 182, 198–211kas̱īr al-istiʿmāl192kasra299, 302, 312kasra-yi iżāfa194kata298, 308kata benda313kata depan314kata kerja313kata sambung314kata sifat314kata tugas313kaṯrat al-istiʿmāl43kay244kayfa115Ketelaar, Johan Josua303Khalidov, A.B.133Kirmānī312Kisāʾī, al-62 f., 309 f.knowledge, transmission of129Koningsveld, Pieter-Sjoerd van102konjungsi314Kouloughli, Djamel Eddine106 f., 254, 267Kratzer, Angelika6, 164 f., 167, 176Kridalaksana, Harimurti295, 311kriya298Kufans45, 101, 140, 238, 247, 281, 310kull170kullamā6, 157, 164 f., 167, 170, 172kulliyya82, 166kunya241282–284la-93, 277 f., 280–282Labadī, Muḥammad78–81labs290lafaz308lafẓ123, 183, 192, 214, 216 f., 204 f., 308lafẓ, fī l-111, 215lafẓī see fāʾida lafẓiyya; ʾiḍāfa lafẓiyyalaġw178, 281lāḥiqa313laḥn62, 76lāʾiq, ḍamīr243lam71lām al-ibtidāʾ93, 284lām al-muʾḏina, al-277lām al-muwaṭṭiʾa li-l-qasam, al-277 f.lām-ʾalif125lan70language and mathematics21 as behavior18 as social behavior12 auxiliary295, 297, 302, 313 f. holistic approach to26 indigenous295 f. vernacular296, 311lanjut300laqab241Larcher, Pierre198, 207, 253, 255, 276Larkin, Margaret200Latin grammar296latitude, of speech213law39, 78 f., 157–164, 244, 280–282 virtual162 f.lawlā281Lawrence, Kelvin305Layṯ ibn Muẓaffar, al-42, 126legal science170, 253Lentin, Jérôme24Leow, Rachel303, 305letter275level deep18 of analysis15 surface18, 186, 189 underlying182, 186, 188–190, 193, 214Levin, Aryeh3, 44, 46 f., 52, 112, 174 f., 182, 187, 198 f., 207, 212–224, 275, 278Lewis, David164, 165, 167lexicography5, 8, 123–132 Persian183 f.lexicon5mubawwab67li-34, 208lightening286lightness48, 113, 286, 288lingua franca, Malay as297, 303listener108–110, 119literal meaning, of linguistic terms203–206literal sense214, 216Littré, Émile126loanword Qurʾānic89 Arabic in Berber312 Arabic in Indonesian313 Arabic in Malay299, 302, 311 Arabic in Persian312 Arabic in Urdu313 Dutch in Indonesian313 Persian in Malay311 Perso-Arabic in Urdu302 Sanskrit in Hindi302, 313 Sanskrit in Javanese297 Sanskrit in Malay311logic162 f., 257 f. conditional6, 157, 159 Greek157 Peripatetic165logical subject40 f.looking-up arrangement127luġa204luġawiyyūn62Luġda63 f.Lumsden, Matthew188Lyons, John199, 20573, 91, 177 f., 244, 279–281mā ḏā94mā l-kāffa284maʿānī l-Qurʾān62mabdūʾ bihi115mabnī72, 83mabnī ʿalā40, 112 f.mabnī ʿalā l-sukūn82mabnī li-l-majhūl17Mac Lane, Saunders22macrostructure123maḍā31mādda126madḥ257, 260māḍī71 f., 169madrasa102mafʿūl108, 117, 198 f., 206 f., 214, 218, 287, 305, 309mafʿūl ʿalā l-saʿa218–222mafʿūl al-natīja199mafʿūl bihi198, 200–203, 205 f., 208, 305mafʿūl bihi muḥdaṯ199mafʿūl bihi mutaʾaṯṯir199mafʿūl dūnahu94mafʿūl fīhi99, 198, 305mafʿūl ḥaqīqī198, 208mafʿūl lahu208, 305mafʿūl maʿahu208, 305mafʿūl muṭlaq4, 97–99, 198–211, 227, 305mafʿūl ṯānī118, 289, 291maḥall55, 68 f., 71, 73, 76, 80Maḥallī, Jalāl al-Dīn al-298maḥḍ287 see ʾiḍāfa maḥḍamaḥḏūf187, 278maḫfūḍ8maḥkī277mahmā177Mahmoudian, Morteza13 f.Maier, Hendrik303Majapahit, Empire of297majāz200majhūl184majlis129 f.majrā16, 51majrūr34, 45, 246, 288makān113, 115, 168makna314maknī238maktūb186Malay6 f., 295–318 Classical303 negation in309 of Johor305 prepositions in309Malay grammar6–8, 295–318Malay word order310Malaysia297malfūẓ186Malḫ, Ḥasan75mamdūd300Mammeri, Mouloud312mamnūʿ min al-ṣarf83maʿmūl96maʿmūl al-ṣifa287maʿmūl fīhi93 f., 119maʿnā72, 193, 204, 214–221, 223, 299maʿnā l-mujāzāt158maʿnā l-šarṭ160maʿnā maqṣūd193maʿnā, fī l-215, 287maʿnaviyāt313maʿnawī see fāʾida maʿnawiyya; ʾiḍāfa maʿnawiyyamanfī282mansūb, ism-i192–194manṣūb34, 99, 206, 288manuscript Ambrosiana133–156 Kazan133, 140 Toledo102manuscript transmission129 f.manuscripts129 f. of the Kitāb133–156manʿūt78, 258, 266manzila16, 20, 39, 48, 55, 93, 103, 158–160, 170, 178, 279 f.mapping23maqāyīs14maqāyīs al-luġa20maqṣūr300Marāġī, Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-63marfūʿ34, 37, 44, 287maʿrifa37, 50, 113 f., 235, 237, 254, 258–265marked48Markedness Theory48marker47–49, 57 of definition254 of determination254 of indeterminacy in Persian190 of feminine55Marogy, Amal1, 8, 107, 111 f.Maróth, Miklos165martaba93, 103maʿrūf111masadd114masculine113maṣdar3, 41, 97 f., 187, 190, 199 f., 203, 205 f., 218 f., 226, 229, 246maṣdarī82Massignon, Louis21matā177 f.Mataram, Empire of297matbūʿ93, 261, 266Mathematical Category Theory2, 10 f., 22 f., 26 f.mathematics21, 26mati299 f., 306maʿṭūf51, 73mawḍiʿ12, 14 f., 48, 50, 53, 114, 159, 200, 226, 228mawḍūʿ266mawqiʿ37, 114mawṣūf51, 93mawṣūl93, 243mawṣūl ḥarfī244mawṣūl ismī244mawṣūla241Māzinī, al-55, 61, 134measure23 f.Melayu yang asli305membership24 in category22memory129 f. long term250 short-term250menghadhafkan299 f.mengithbatkan300mengwakafkan299mengwasilkan299mentahkikkan299mental representation41 f.mentashilkan299menthabitkan300menukarkan299menyebutkan299metaphor204mī-, in Persian186, 191microstructure124mind, of the speaker40 f.missionaries European296 Persian302miṯāl11, 15–26, 95miṯāl jāmiʿ17miṯl239, 248modal sentence173model24Moeliono, Anton313 f.morpheme47 absence of48morphism22 f.morphological arrangement127Mosel, Ulrike20Muʿāḏ al-Harrāʾ61muʾaḏḏin278muʾaḫḫar108muʿallim76, 125muʾannaṯ113muʾaṯṯir263Mubarrad, al-3, 54–56, 61, 64, 99, 116–119, 121, 133 f., 140, 212 f., 218, 220, 226–228, 230, 237 f., 257mubawwab67mubham3 f., 6, 54, 158, 170 f., 173, 233–252mubtadaʾ32, 34, 111–115, 160, 222, 305, 309 f.mubtadaʾ muḍmar40, 44mubtadaʾ muẓhar44mubtadiʾ65, 69, 72, 120muḍāf263, 265muḍāf ʾilayhi264muḏakkar113muḍāriʿ71 f., 80muʾḏin see lām al-muʾḏina, al-muḍmar4, 30–60, 174, 242muḍmar, ʿalāmat37, 41, 46, 48, 54Mufaḍḍal ibn Salama, al-64mufassirūn75mufīd308mufradāt66Mughal Empire302 f.muḥaddaṯ51muḥaddaṯ ʿanhu32 f., 37, 46, 54muḥaddaṯ bihi32muḫaffaf194muḥāl106Muhallabī, ʾAḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-63Muḥammad ibn Qādim63Muḥammad Maʿṣūm ibn Sālim298Muhammad Said bin Sulaiman311muḥarraf174muḫaṣṣiṣ253, 266muḫāṭab4, 30–34, 37, 43, 46, 53, 56, 109, 215, 259muhla71muhmal166muḫtalas184muḫtaṣar fī l-naḥw63 f.muḫtaṣar naḥw63Mujāšiʿī, al-66, 228mūjaz71mukallam31mukammal266mukammil265 f.mumahhid277munādā73, 83, 187, 189 f.munāsaba17munfaṣil33, 46, 171, 289Munsyi, Muhammad Ibrahim311muqaddam107 f., 193muqaddar17, 183, 190, 277 f., 310muqārin277Muqātil38 f., 49muqayyad198muqsam282muqsam ʿalayhi282muʿrab7murād73, 259, 265Murādī, al-69murakkab308muʿrib70 f., 77 f., 79musallaṭ100musamman242Musayyib ibn ʿAlas280musnad112, 114, 313musnad ʾilayhi112, 114mustaqarr114mustaqbaḥ287mustaqbal79muštaqq192, 276mustatir71mustawfā71mutaʿaddin201mutaʿallim69, 80, 119, 166mutaʿalliq71mutadarrib69, 71mutaḥarrik184 f.mutakallim4, 30–34, 37, 53, 55 f., 114, 120, 190mutamakkin16mutamakkin, ʿalāmat al-45mutamakkin, ẓarf218muṭlaq198muṭṭarid228muttaṣil33, 56, 164 f., 171–173, 289muwaḍḍiḥ261, 265muwāfaqa17, 178 f.muwaṭṭiʾ5, 274–294 see ḥāl muwaṭṭiʾa; la- al-muwaṭṭiʾamużāf ilayh193 f.muẓhar36, 39, 45, 49nāba160Nāfiʿ298nafs53nafy al-jawāb282Naḥḥās, al-64, 133naḥw12, 66, 70, 306naḥwiyyūn51, 62nahy110nāʾib ʿan al-fāʿil70Naiki, Ryoichi235Naʿja, Suhā75nakira113 f., 237, 254, 258–266nama298, 308, 311naqd al-ʾiʿrāb74naqd al-šiʿr74nāqiṣ174Nardella, Umberto313nasaq266naṣb72, 275, 286–289, 291nāṣib76, 80, 112, 287nastaʿlīq script302naʿt78, 255, 257 f., 261 f., 266naʿt sababī285natural language10nawʿ100, 229, 260Nawawī, Muḥammad298naẓāʾir see naẓīrnaẓīr13–16, 19negation73 in Malay309negative particle282 f.Nevin, Bruce13nidāʾ31, 187, 189Nīl, ʿAlī Fūda67, 69nīm-fatḥa184niyya17 f., 26, 39 f., 49 f., 55 see speaker, intention ofnominal relative244 f.nominal sentence75, 95, 107nominalization170nominative113, 215 see rafʿnon-definiteness255non-observable entities41 f., 49norm16, 107, 110 f., 213noun113 ambiguous239–245, 247–249, 251 definite233, 237 f., 244, 247, 249 derived276 implicit40, 44 indefinite248, 266, 309 proper233, 235, 238, 240, 244 f., 247 f., 251 underived276 f.noun phrase definite233, 235 f., 238, 240, 244 f., 247 f., 251 indefinite234, 239 non-referential233 f. referential233 f.nudba, ʿalāmat al-45numerals136, 151–155nūn al-ʾināṯ82nūn al-wiqāya34nunation266 see tanwīnoath277–280 implicit280 omission of278object107 f., 117, 287, 313 absolute4 f. affected199, 202 affective199, 205 cognate3 direct214, 286 effected202 effective202 inner202 of a preposition208 of result199, 202, 205 second289–291object suffix, in Persian191Occam’s Razor14 f.Ogloblin, Aleksandr297, 314omission213 f., 216, 227, 278 f., 284, 286, 307 of the ḥarf al-ʿilla in Jawi script307 of the marker of completeness286 of the oath278omitted verb246operation22, 24, 26operator5, 21, 91, 94, 96 f., 99, 101, 103, 119, 208optative verb40oral transmission129 f.ordering principle, in dictionaries5, 123–132overt sign48Owens, Jonathan8Pakistan313panjang301paradigmatic axis292paradigmatic relations13parpratyaya313participation23 by universality25 in a structure27participle3, 54, 222, 229 f., 246, 276, 285 active143, 214, 226–228, 310 in Persian188 f., 192 passive198, 202 f., 207, 228, 243 redundant291 relative244 f. of oath277–279particularization4, 253 f., 256–260, 262–268parts of speech20, 188, 214, 296, 207, 311 f. in Persian grammar312passive verb71, 219, 222passive voice18past continuous, in Persian191Patras, Frédéric25pedagogical grammar2, 61–88Peled, Yishai203, 278, 281, 288 f.Pelletier, Francis165Pellò, Stefano312pendek300perbuatan308, 311perfect verb71performative32Peripatetic logic165perkataan308permutation124permutative265permutative arrangement125–127Persian182, 296, 302, 304, 312 adjective in187 f. compounds in6, 182 f., 192–195 education in312 grammar6, 8, 182–197, 302 infinitive in188iżāfa in182, 188, 190 participle in188 f., 192 parts of speech in312 past continuous in191 pluperfect in191 present stem in188 verbal noun in188 word order in191Persian poetry184, 186 f., 195, 312Persian prosody185 f.Persian vowel names312personal pronoun285pesantren297 f., 302phonetic order124–126phonetic realization48 f.Piaget, Jean21pīš302, 312pity260pluperfect, in Persian191plural275pluralis314poetic license278poetry278, 288 Old Arabic212, 216 Persian184, 186 f., 195, 312Polotsky, H.J.214polysemy258possessive, determinative in Persian190postposing116–120pragmatic context53pragmatic property50praise260prayer41predicate112 f., 117, 313 anteposing of114 nominal289predication32, 40predicative relation285prefiks314prefix313 f.preparation274–291preposisi314prepositional phrase198, 243, 245prepositions, in Malay309present stem, in Persian188preservation, of structure18 f.proficiency in reading295 linguistic74, 76 f.pronominalization50–52pronoun3 f., 30–60, 233–236, 238, 240, 242, 244 f., 247–249, 251 bound33 implicit36 independent290 nominative37 personal30 resumptive244proper name4, 47, 51, 241, 254, 260proposition171prosody, Persian185 f.protasis79, 171, 280Pruvost, Jean129Punjabi313purusa297pūrvapratyaya313Putten, Jan van der295, 305Qabāwa, Faḫr al-Dīn78–81qabīḥ52, 56, 159, 186qabuḥa53qaddama108qaddara278qaḍiyya166, 172qāʿida67, 70Qālī, al-126qāsa52qasam277–279qaṭʿ hamza-nya299qawāʿid al-ʾiʿrāb70qawāʿid see qāʿidaqayd, bi-lā201Qazwīnī, al-256Qifṭī, al-62qirāʾāt298, 301qiyās14–18, 19–23, 25 f., 116, 213, 226–230qiyās muṭṭarid228qiyāsī227, 229 f.qualification255, 257 f., 260–263, 267qualifier93, 256, 276quantification164 f., 167, 176, 254quantifier167, 170qubḥ, ʿalā288Qurʾān12, 278 exegesis of298, 304 language of14 recitation of300šawāhid from65 suppression in177 variant readings of301, 313Qurṭubī, al-278, 280-rā, in Persian191Rabāḥī, ʾAbū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Yaḥyā al-133, 135, 137 f.rābiṭat jawāb al-šarṭ79radd ʾilā l-ʾaṣl17, 19, 21radicals27, 124, 126rafʿ72, 76, 80, 112, 275, 285–288rafʿ al-ʾiḍmār258rafʿ al-ištirāk258, 260rāfiʿ112, 287Rahman, Tariq302–304Raja Ali Haji7, 295, 304–311Rāzī, al-278Reckendorf, Hermann255 f., 267recurrence15redundant281–284redundant antecedent177redundant constituent284redundant particle291reference4 generic234 f., 251 homophonic234 f. non-specific233 f. of pronoun49–52 specific233 f., 235 unspecific235, 251referent intended250 of pronoun248 of proper noun247 f.referential cognition249referentiality8, 233 f.reflexive53regere89, 103regularity19 f., 26relativeal-243 f., 246 particle244 f.relative clause235 f., 242–246, 263relative pronoun71, 94, 233, 235–238, 240–245, 249, 251, 279 f.representation250 abstract182 activated250 mental41 f.Rescher, Nicholas165resemblance23Resnik, Michael26resumptive pronoun244Retsö, Jan255rhyme288 in Persian193rhyming order127, 130rhythm284, 288Riau, Sultanate of297, 303 f.riʿāyat al-ʾaṣl291Riddell, Peter295, 298–302Roman, Johannes304Ronkel, Philippus van305 f.root, formal123 f., 127rubba92, 248rubbamā91Rufayʿ ibn Salama Damāḏ61rules, of grammar70Rummānī, al-64, 90 f., 94, 100, 102, 228, 309 f.sa-80 f., 83saʿa288ʿalā l-214, 218–222ḥāl al-288saʿat al-kalām212sābiqa313Sadan, Arik3 f., 54, 225–232, 235Saʿdī184, 187ṣadr244ḥaqq al-73ṣaḥḥaḥa91ṣāḥib al-ḥāl276ṣāḥib al-ṣifa111Ṣāḥib ibn ʿAbbād, al-126šāhid64 f., 67, 82Sakaedani, Haruko3, 233–252sākin184 f.Sakkākī, al-8, 157Šalawbīnī, al-227, 229salb166sallaṭa5, 89–105samāʿ103samaʿ, ʿalā l-229samāʿī227, 229 f.Šams-i Qays184–186, 193Sanskrit297, 302, 313Šantamarī, al-135, 227šāraka257 f.ṣarf190, 306Šarīf al-Kūfī, al-228ṣarīḥ see ṣifa ṣarīḥa; waṣf ṣarīḥšarṭ79, 175šarṭī162, 164, 171 f.šarṭiyya166Sartori, Manuel4, 253–272Saussure, Ferdinand de12šawāhid see šāhidsawfa80 f.Šaybānī, ʾAbū ʿAmr al-125Ṣaymarī, al-227, 229Schoeler, Gregor129scholasticism102school, Islamic297Schubert, Lenhart165script Devanagari302 Jawi299nastaʿlīq302 spelling errors in306 see ḫaṭṭsemantic contribution284semantic see maʿnawīsentence imperative110 types of69 see jumlaset theory22Sheyhatovitch, Beata5, 274–294shwa185Sībawayhi1–11, 14–19, 23, 25–27, 30–60, 64, 74, 79, 89, 91, 99 f., 106–122, 133–158, 161–163, 167, 169, 171, 173–175, 178, 195, 204, 212–215, 217, 219–223, 225–232, 235–237, 239 f., 247, 253, 257, 279–284, 286, 300 f.šibh239 f., 248šibh jumla81ṣifa34, 51, 92 f., 256 f., 259, 261, 305ṣifa ṣarīḥa243sifat314ṣifat-i mušabbaha192, 194sign absence of47 f. overt48 zero see zero signṣila93, 243 f., 281similarity16 f., 19 f.ṣināʿa70, 72–74, 77, 82ṣināʿatāni, al-74Sindhi313ṣinf100singkat300Singkilī, ʿAbd al-Raʾūf al-298–302Sinnū, ʾAhyaf78–81Sinnū, Hiba78–81Sīrāfī, al-5 f., 53, 55, 135, 144, 157–181, 227–230, 240, 247, 253Širbīnī, al-99, 206six nouns274 f., 291Sous311Southeast Asia295–318spatial expressions54speaker100 f., 107, 110, 115, 117 f., 288 as arbiter107, 111, 115, 119, 121 as learner107, 118–121 as originator107, 120 f. choice of119, 288 freedom, of3, 25, 111, 119 intention of106, 108, 182, 187, 214–217, 219, 250, 278, 291 intention of, see niyya role of3, 292 tendency towards lightness286species234, 257, 259 f. see nawʿ animal241specification256 f., 263, 267 f., 286specificity247 f., 255speech participant30speech situation31–33, 40spelling error, in Jawi script306š-r-k258state see ḥālstructural analysis24Structuralism24 f.Structuralist Linguistics2, 8, 13student, of grammar67–69, 70, 74 f., 77, 81 f.subject107 f., 117 logical32 f., 40 f. of nominal sentence240 of active participle214 of passive verb204, 214 of verbal sentence285subjectivity in language30subjunctive after wa-, fa-, ʾaw61subordinate clause244substance202substantivum313Sūdī, Muḥammad184, 186–192, 194 f.suffix313 f.sufiks314Suhaylī, al-199, 229suhūlat194sukūn82, 299sukūt15, 115Suleiman, Yasir10–12sulṭān89Sundanese303suppletive insertion182suppression38 in the Qurʾān177surface level18, 186, 189Suyūṭī, al-134, 201, 298syllogism15, 162, 172syntagmatic relation13, 292Syriac89, 296Syriac grammar8Tābirī, Hānī78–81ta fāʿil76tāʾ marbūṭa47, 301taʾaḫḫara96tābiʿ93, 256, 266ṯābit300tabyīn204, 283taʿdiya94tafḍīl262tafsīr160, 177Tahānawī, al-101, 183taḫfīf6, 43, 182–197, 222, 299taʾḫīr18, 106–122taḥlīl173 f.taḫlīṣ253, 256–258, 262 f., 265, 267taḥliya51taḥqīq299taḥqīq, ʿalā l-208taḥqīr17, 21, 237taḫṣīṣ4, 253–268tāʾ-i āḫir191tāʾ-i ḫaṭāb191taʾkīd283, 305taʾkīd, ʿalāmat al-45takmīl265–267ṭalab80Ṯaʿlab64, 134, 140, 227Talḥūq, Muḥammad Beg al-Lubnānī98Talmon, Rafael64tamakkun113tamām al-kalām, ʿalāmat286tamhīd282, 288tāmm245tamṯīl16, 38, 54tamyīz204 f., 276, 305ṯanāʾ257Tanaka, Nozomi233, 235, 237, 240, 242tanāzuʿ96 f., 101tanbīh18tanfīs81taʾnīṯ, ʿalāmat al-45, 47tankīr253–256, 258, 265–267tanvīn184tanwīn46–48, 75, 184, 266, 286, 289, 299 f.tanwīn, absence of48 f.taqaddama96taqdīm106–122, 192 f.taqdīm wa-taʾḫīr3taqdīr3, 6, 16, 54, 99, 173–177, 182–197, 208, 212, 216–218, 227, 258, 278, 306taqdīr, ʿadam-i194taqdīr-i kalām190taʿqīb70taqrīb76, 80taqṭīʿ186taqyīd201taraḥḥum261taʿrīf4, 253–256, 258, 263–267tarkīb182, 187tarkīb-i vaṣfī188tartīb70 f.tartīb ṭabīʿī174tašābuh16, 19tasallaṭa89–105tasalluṭ al-ʿāmil100 f., 103tasalluṭ al-fiʿl99taṣarrafa52taṣawwara259tašbīh192tašdīd184, 299tashīl299taskīn184taslīṭ101taslīṭ al-fiʿl99 f.tasmiya116taṣrīf98taswīf81tata bahasa298taṯniya18, 275tawābiʿ see tābiʿtawḍīḥ258–263, 265–267taʾwīl218tawkīd36, 52, 261–263, 281tawsīʿ80tawṭiʾa5, 274–294tazelɣa312teachers, of grammar75 f.teaching, of grammar62, 66temporal expressions54term definite257 technical203 f.terminology54, 82, 253 grammatical70–72, 78–83, 100 f., 203–206, 218 of Malay grammar298–311 of Persian grammar312 of pronouns54–56 of redundancy284test, linguistic289Testen, David277, 279textbook62thematization112theme112, 240ṯiqal113topic111–114, 117topicality107, 110topicalization112transformation21 f., 26, 287, 289–291 correspondence of21transitive verb94, 219transitivity94translationese302Troupeau, Gérard35, 94, 102, 255, 257truth conditions163ṯulāṯī21ṯumma71Turkic296Turkish, Osmanli186type identifiable250ʿUkbarī, al-207 f., 228, 276ʿUmar ibn Lajaʾ288ʾumma235underlying level182, 186, 188–190, 193, 214uniquely identifiable250universal, concrete23universal principles26universality12unmarked48Urdu296, 302, 313ʾUšmūnī, al-298ʾuṣūl al-fiqh8ʾuṣūl see ʾaṣlutterance31–33, 41, 106, 111, 114, 213, 216 actual43 f.Vanbremeersch, Jean-Paul22variant readings, of the Qurʾān298, 300vaṣf-i tarkībī192, 194verb32, 113 cognitive283 description of31 elision of73, 92 geminated142–150 imperfect74, 80 implicit44, 161 movement234 of condition6, 161 of doubt and certainty116–118 optative40 passive71, 219, 222 perfect71 transitive94, 219 vicarious202verbal noun3, 97, 225–232, 246 see maṣdar in Persian188verbal phrase, in Persian190verbal sentence, inverted95Versteegh, Kees1–9, 11, 38, 157, 159, 161, 182, 185, 189, 193, 212, 216, 278, 281, 283, 288, 295–318Viain, Marie295vidheya313vocative31, 237 in Persian187, 189 f.voegwoord314Von Fintel, Kai164 f.voorzetsel314vowel184 f. long184 f. prosodic185vowel insertion184 f.vowel names302 in Persian312vowel signs, in Jawi script306 f.vowels as case markers275 in Persian185 writing of299wa-208 circumstantial75 with subjunctive61waḍʿ al-wāḍiʿ260waḍʿ, bi-l-308wāḥid113wājib31 f.waqaʿa31, 225 f., 235, 259wāqiʿ79waqf15, 299waṣala ʾilā208waṣf187 f., 256, 262, 276waṣf ṣarīḥ246waṣl299waṣl hamza-nya299Waššāʾ, al-63waṣṣala266Watson, Janet255waṭṭaʾa276Weiss, Josef89Wensinck, Arent Jan255werkwoord313word order3, 32, 107 f., 110 f., 114 f., 290 in Malay310 in Persian191Wright, William254–256, 267wuqūʿ161wuqūʿ al-šarṭ161Yamanī, al-227, 229yaʿnī186 f.Yaʿqūb, ʾImīl Badīʿ78–81, 135, 255, 261Yāqūt63 f.Yazīdī, ʿAbdallāh ibn Yaḥyā ibn al-Mubārak al-63Yazīdī, Muḥammad ibn al-ʿAbbās al-63Yazīdī, Yaḥyā ibn al-Mubārak al-63Zacharski, Ron249 f.Zadeh, Travis312Zāhid, ʾAbū ʿUmar Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wāḥid al-134ẓāhir47 f., 54, 287ẓāhir al-ṣināʿa72ẓāhir see ʿalāma ẓāhirazāʾid6, 174, 281 f., 284, 312Zajjāj, al-63, 92 f., 100, 278, 280Zajjājī, al-3, 64–66, 93, 100, 227 f., 257 f., 275Zamaḫšarī, al-66, 92, 127, 135, 137 f., 164, 206, 227–229, 240, 243, 246 f., 253, 259 f., 264, 277 f.Zamalkānī, al-227, 229zamān113, 168zamān ḍayyiq80zamān wāsiʿ80ẓarf81, 198, 216, 218–222, 243, 245ẓarf li-mā maḍā83ẓarf li-mā yustaqbal79, 83ẓarf mustaqbal71ẓarf mutamakkin218–220ẓarf zamān99, 206, 222żarūrat-i vazn190Zawzanī183zebar302, 312zero sign47–49zīr302, 312ziyāda174, 281, 283Zubaydī, al-64, 76
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