Contributors

Daniel Alves

studies the physiology of acoustic communication and has worked with insects and fish. He is currently completing his PhD at the University of Lisbon, Portugal. While a firm believer in the merits of animal experimentation, he believes that any improvement in the humaneness of animal experimentation is a desirable goal, and that science should always strive to ensure that animal sacrifice leads to advancements in human knowledge.

Gutemberg Alves

is a cell biologist with a PhD in biochemistry, and a professor at the Fluminense Federal University, Brazil. As coordinator of the Clinical Research Unit of the Antônio Pedro Hospital, he leads a research line in toxicological in vitro assays. Alves is a member of the Pyrogen Testing Consortium, in cooperation with the National Network on Alternative Methods (RENAMA). He is a founding member of the 1R Institute for Promotion and Research for the Replacement of Animal Experimentation (www.Instituto1R.org). As a member of Rede de Desenvolvimento Humano (Human Development Network), Alves also leads the development of strategies for teaching and using in vitro assays as alternatives in health and science classes.

Kathy Archibald

is the director of Safer Medicines Trust, United Kingdom. After graduating in genetics from Nottingham University, she worked in drug development for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies (Searle Pharmaceuticals, MediSense). She then worked as a field teacher for a nature conservation charity, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), and the children’s charity, Action for Children. In 2005, Archibald founded Safer Medicines Trust, to confront the unspoken problem in pharmaceutical research of the poor relevance of much research (based on animals) to human medicine. Safer Medicines Trust exists to improve the safety of medicines for patients through an increased focus on human biology throughout the drug development process.

Rober Bachinski

studied biological sciences (2009), holds a Master’s degree in public health and environment with an emphasis on environmental toxicology, and a PhD in science and biotechnology (2015). He is dedicated to the study of new research methods that do not use animals and is experienced in in vitro toxicological methods, cellular interactions, development and validation of analysis methods, humane education, and animal ethics. Bachinski is also working to implement humane education in Brazil and end speciesism in science. He is a founding member and the current Director of the 1R Institute for Promotion and Research for the Replacement of Animal Experimentation (www.Instituto1R.org).

Jarrod Bailey

PhD, is the Senior Research Scientist at Cruelty Free International (formerly the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection [BUAV]). His chapter on genetically modified animals in this volume reflects his background as a genetics researcher. He spent seven years investigating the possible causes of premature birth in humans and has extensive experience in evaluating the scientific validity and ethics of animal experiments. Bailey has examined and reviewed the limitations of using animals in various fields, including the testing of substances that can cause birth defects and cancer; the use of non-human primates in various forms of medical research, including HIV/AIDS, cancer, and hepatitis; the use of genetically modified animals generally; and the use of dogs, monkeys, and other species in testing new human drugs. He has authored several substantial scientific petitions and submissions of evidence to a variety of inquiries into the validity of animal research worldwide and several book chapters by invitation.

Christiane Baumgartl-Simons

Dr. med. vet., is the deputy chairwoman of Menschen für Tierrechte – Bundesverband der Tierversuchsgegner e.V. (People for Animal Rights Germany – Federal Association Against Vivisection). After studying veterinary medicine and completing her doctorate, Baumgartl-Simons worked in the curative treatment of large and small animals for 14 years. Animal experiments have been of particular interest to her since 1983. She has worked for People for Animal Rights since 1995 and her main focus has been animal experiments, animal-free methods, and lobbying. She is a member of several committees and boards including, German Federal Animal Welfare Committee, Committee Pursuant to Section 15 of the German Animal Protection Act, and Advisory Board for Animal Welfare. For several years, Baumgartl-Simons has considered the strategies for withdrawing from animal experiments. Her work has culminated in ideas for a masterplan in the form of five pillars. She is pleased to have the opportunity to share her ideas in this volume.

Charlotte Blattner

is a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard Law School, Cambridge MA, working at the intersection of environmental law and animal law. Previously, she was a postdoctoral fellow at the Department of Philosophy at Queen’s University, Canada, where she explored the utility of thinking about animals as workers. She received a PhD in international and animal law from the University of Basel, as part of the “Law and Animals” doctoral program. In her PhD, Blattner developed ways in which states can respond to the ongoing regulatory race to the bottom in animal law, notably, through extraterritorial jurisdiction. She is a former visiting international scholar at Lewis & Clark Law School and has worked as a research fellow for the foundation Tier im Recht, based in Zürich, Switzerland. Blattner has authored numerous publications in animal law, international and trade law, as well as environmental law. The disconcerting underdevelopment of animal law and the need to evaluate law critically, in light of our growing knowledge of the non-human animal world, prompted her to explore means for a paradigm change for animals in research.

Vanessa Carli Bones

is a postdoctoral fellow at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil, with an emphasis on the welfare of animals used in laboratories. She studied veterinary medicine at the Federal University of Santa Maria and completed her Master’s degree and PhD in veterinary sciences at the Federal University of Paraná. In her Master’s and PhD studies, she focused on the welfare of laboratory animals and methods to replace them. During this time, Bones had opportunity to participate in several scientific events in this area, including the World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences. She is experienced in the areas of animal welfare, animal ethics, and alternatives to the use of laboratory animals. At present, she is trying to identify legal violations in the use of animals in laboratories in Brazil and is working as a technical advisor to the Regional Council of Veterinary Medicine of Paraná, Brazil.

Robert Buttrose

has an honors degree in philosophy and a Master’s degree in cognitive science from the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. He has worked for the Australian Commonwealth Government, universities, and the private sector. Buttrose is a member of the Victorian Schools Animal Ethics Committee and the management committee of Humane Research Australia, the country’s largest anti-vivisectionist organization. He has written articles (in collaboration with Monika Merkes) about animal experimentation, animal ethics committees, the use of primates for medical research, and the lack of transparency of the animal research industry.

Karynn Vieira Capilé

has an undergraduate in philosophy and veterinary medicine and a Master’s degree in veterinary science. She is a doctoral candidate in bioethics, applied ethics, and public health. Her research focuses on animal ethics and alternative methods to replace animal use.

Constança Carvalho

is a psychologist and is currently working on her PhD in biology. Her research focuses on the contribution of non-human animal models to the current understanding of psychiatric disorders (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder). During her training as a psychologist, and in her early years working with human patients, Carvalho was unaware of the number of animals used as models for psychiatric disorders in research. Her ongoing research on this topic has led her to believe that a paradigm shift is crucial since the use of animal models in this field is hardly useful and is, thus, unethical.

Sarah Cavanaugh

received her PhD in microbiology and immunology from Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, United States. Her research involved utilizing mouse models of viral infection and immunity in the central nervous system. During her time in the laboratory, Cavanaugh began to reflect on the ethics and utility of using animal models to accomplish her goal of contributing to the advancement of global human health. After receiving her doctorate, Cavanaugh opted to leave the bench, and she has used her education and experience to advocate for human-relevant alternatives to animal models in research areas, including Alzheimer disease, infectious diseases, and alcohol abuse.

Mara-Daria Cojocaru

is a lecturer in practical philosophy at the Munich School of Philosophy, Germany. In 2014, the government of upper Bavaria was looking for new members to expand the committees it is legally required to consult in evaluating applications for animal experiments, and Cojocaru agreed to become a member. She expected that she would be able to contribute to debates on animal experimentation that conform to the highest scientific and ethical standards and to do something for laboratory animals. While the experience was conflictual in many ways, Cojocaru still believes that progress is possible, in particular by developing pragmatic approaches to the problems surrounding animal research and testing. Among other things, that means emphasizing the values integral to science, instead of forcing ethics and science to compete. Cojocaru is also a member of Minding Animals International and Minding Animals Germany. Non-human animals play a prominent role in her non-academic writing as well (www.maradariacojocaru.weebly.com).

Robert Coleman

is a pharmacologist committed to promoting the use of human cells and tissues in the pharmaceutical research and development process. After 30 years in the Glaxo group of companies, he left to co-found Pharmagene (now Asterand Bioscience), the world’s first drug research and development company to work exclusively with human cells and tissues. Coleman was awarded an honorary DSc, in 2003, by DeMontfort University, United Kingdom (UK), for achievements in humanizing the research and development process. In 2005, he became an independent consultant; and from 2007–2016 he worked with Safer Medicines Trust as Science Advisor, then UK Science Director. Coleman has spoken at many international conferences and has authored more than 90 peer-reviewed papers and book chapters. Most recently, he edited a book in the Royal Society of Chemistry’s Drug Discovery series, titled, Human-based Systems for Translational Research. He retired in 2016.

Marie Crandall

MD, MPH, FACS, is Professor of Surgery at the University of Florida Jacksonville, United States, Director of Research for the Department of Surgery, and Associate Program Director for the General Surgery Residency. She is currently a member of the Division of Acute Care Surgery. Crandall performs emergency general and trauma surgery, staffs the Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU), and is an active health services researcher. She has published extensively in the areas of injury risk factors and outcomes, disparities, geographic information systems in trauma research, gun violence, and violence prevention. Crandall is also an animal rights activist and has advocated extensively on behalf of decreasing the use of animals in surgical training, medical training, and medical experimentation.

Tamara Drake

is the Director of Research and Regulatory Policy at the Center for Responsible Science (CRS), United States. Prior to working for CRS, Drake’s 30-year career included founding and running a successful nonprofit and working in busy, high-profile law firms. She was also a volunteer Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) and EMT instructor. CRS was founded to promote advances in regulatory science and advocate for the use of human-relevant test methods in pharmaceutical development by bringing policy up to date with existing science. Drake coordinates research regarding regulatory testing methods for new product development, monitors agency rule-making changes, and drafts guidance policies. She has co-authored three Citizen Petitions to the Us Food and Drug Administration, requesting regulatory change to update decades-old preclinical testing requirements, to allow for and incentivize use of human-relevant test methods and to protect clinical trial participants.

David Feinstein

MS, MD, helped establish the Center for Medical Simulation in Boston, United States, and has taught many simulation-based courses over its 25-year history. He helped develop the first simulation-based, clinical anesthesia first year courses, taught by the Harvard anesthesia departments, and has helped develop and teach numerous crisis resource management (CRM) courses for many medical domains. Feinstein helped establish the Carl J Shapiro Simulation and Skills Center at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. He has extensive training in simulation-based learning and has been an instructor of simulation-based, team training for more than 25 years. He has taught CRM for residents, fellows, and faculty in the Harvard Medical School teaching hospitals. Inspired by his dog Rusty, Feinstein promotes the use of simulation as a replacement to animal models in medical education.

Arianna Ferrari

studied philosophy in Milano and Tübingen and holds a PhD from the University of Tübingen and the University of Torino. Her doctoral research focused on ethical and epistemic issues in the genetic modification of animals in biomedical research. She has worked for several German universities and research centers and is now Head of Strategy at Futurium gGmbH, a museum about the future in Berlin. Ferrari has extensively published on the use of animals in research, in particular, on the exploitation of animals in the life sciences. She coedited the first handbook on human-animal relationships in German.

Shalin Gala

is a vice president of international laboratory methods in the Laboratory Investigations Department at People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), where he works on domestic and international campaigns to convince corporations, government agencies, and military officials to replace the use of animals in experiments and medical training exercises. His work has been covered in numerous publications, including the New York Times and Army Times. Gala and co-authors published a study in the United States military medical journal, Military Medicine, regarding the use of animals in medical training among NATO nations. Gala is involved in supporting legislative efforts to replace the Us military’s use of animals in trauma training drills with human simulation technology; and he oversees a novel corporate partnership that has mostly replaced animal use in the largest global, civilian-trauma management course. Gala holds a Bachelor’s degree in Anthropology from Washington University in St. Louis, Us.

Rita de Cassia Maria Garcia

is a Professor in the Veterinary Medicine Department at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. She studied veterinary medicine at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo (1988). She completed her Master’s degree (1996) and her PhD (2009) in the Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, São Paulo University. Her Master’s research focused on experimental epidemiology, applied to the control of zoonoses, on the prophylaxis of human rabies. Her doctoral thesis is titled, Study of the Canine and Feline Population Dynamics and Evaluation of Strategies for Dogs and Cats Populations Management. Garcia specialized in public health, animal welfare, clinical pathology, homeopathy, and shelter medicine at the University of Florida and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in the Department of Legal Medicine, Medical Ethics, Social and Work Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo. She is a board member of the Technical Institute of Animal Education and Control (ITEC), the Brazilian Association of Legal Veterinary Medicine (ABMVL) and the Brazilian Veterinary Medical Association of Animal Welfare (AMVEBBEA).

John P. Gluck

is Professor Emeritus at the University of New Mexico and Research Professor at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, United States. He earned his PhD in comparative psychology and experimental psychopathology at the University of Wisconsin, under the mentorship of Harry F. Harlow. Gluck completed a Clinical Psychology Fellowship at the University of Washington, Department of Psychiatry, and a Fellowship in Bioethics at Georgetown University and the National Institutes of Health. His writing is concerned with the missing ethical elements of animal research justification and includes the books, Applied Ethics in Animal Research published by Purdue University, and The Human Use of Animals: Case Studies in Ethical Choice, published by Oxford University Press and co-authored with Tom Beauchamp, F. Barbara Orlans, Rebecca Dresser, and David Morton. In 2016, the University of Chicago published his memoir Voracious Science and Vulnerable Animals: A Primate Scientists Ethical Journey.

Ray Greek

graduated from the University of Alabama School of Medicine in 1985 and completed his residency in 1989 at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States. While in Madison, Jean Greek completed her DVM. Their careers led the Greeks to discuss anatomy, pathophysiology, drugs, and disease in various species. They pursued this topic, writing numerous books and articles. Ray Greek then collaborated with Niall Shanks PhD, and the two carried out research that led to the concept of Trans-Species Modeling Theory. The Greeks are interested in the ethics of animal use as well as the science.

Lawrence Hansen

MD, is professor of Neurosciences and Pathology at the University of California, United States. His motivation for writing a chapter for this book is the conviction that if cruelty to animals is not wrong, then nothing is wrong. Yet, in 40 years at academic medical centers he has witnessed countless instances of animal cruelty committed by otherwise seemingly ethical fellow faculty. When challenged about hurting and killing animals, his colleagues usually respond that vivisection is ethically justified because its results will translate into improved human healthcare and reduced suffering, so the ends justify the means. Hansen’s chapter subjects this oft-cited rationale for animal research to empirical analysis by reviewing the clinical efficacy of animal research as determined by meta analyses. He also explores how painful experimentation in the name of sciences escapes society’s legal prohibitions, which would otherwise result in prosecution for felonious animal cruelty.

Thomas Hartung

MD, PhD, is the Doerenkamp-Zbinden-Chair for Evidence-based Toxicology with a joint appointment for Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States. He holds a joint appointment as Professor for Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Konstanz, Germany. Hartung is the Director of the Centers for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) at both universities. CAAT hosts the secretariat of the Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration, the Good Read-Across Practice Collaboration, the Good Cell Culture Practice Collaboration, the Green Toxicology Collaboration, and the Refinement Program. As Principal Investigator, he heads the Human Toxome Project funded by the National Institutes of Health, Transformative Research Grant. Hartung is the former Head of the European Commission’s Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), Ispra, Italy, and has authored more than 500 scientific publications.

Kathrin Herrmann

has always felt a deep connection to other animals and their need for protection. This and her passion for medical science led to her decision to study veterinary medicine and specialize in animal welfare science, ethics, and law. Herrmann currently works at the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States. She is a Diplomate of the European College of Animal Welfare and Behavioural Medicine and a founding member of Minding Animals Germany and of the European Association for Critical Animal Studies. For almost a decade, Herrmann worked as a federal inspector trying to protect animals used in research and education and, in this way, frequently witnessed the limitations and shortcomings of animal protection laws; the current regulatory system does not properly safeguard non-human animals. She decided to initiate this book project to highlight the problems associated with non-human animal use in science and to show ways to work towards a paradigm change. She feels certain that with the collective competence and knowledge of the 51 featured experts, the shifting paradigm will be accelerated and, one day, will grow into a scientific revolution.

Christiane Hohensee

Dr. rer. nat., is the Scientific Advisor for Menschen für Tierrechte – Bundesverband der Tierversuchsgegner e.V. (People for Animal Rights Germany – Federal Association against Vivisection). She is the project manager for InVitro+Jobs, an information platform on animal-free research and development, as well as SATIS, a platform on animal-free studies and education. Hohensee studied biology and geography at Freie Universität Berlin, as well as toxicology in a Master’s course at Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin. She completed her Master’s thesis at Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine on mechanistic studies of signal cell migration pathways. Hohensee is a member of the European Society for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EUSAAT) and the SET Foundation (Stiftung zur Förderung der Erforschung von Ersatz – und Ergänzungsmethoden zur Einschränkung von Tierversuchen). She is pleased to contribute her ideas towards the abolishment of animal experiments.

Kimberley Jayne

PhD, MSc, BSc, AFHEA, has over a decade of research and educator experience working to protect animals in zoo and laboratory environments. She started in animal welfare and behavior and is now working exclusively from an animal protection perspective. Jayne works as a Senior Science Researcher for Animal Defenders International and the Lord Dowding Fund for Humane Research, who work to phase out animal use in research and entertainment and fund scientific research into non-animal methods. From her time working in this field, and through co-editing this Volume, she has already seen attitudes shifting about animals used in research among academics and scientists, which is why books such as this are so important to bring together professionals from a diverse range of backgrounds.

Jane Johnson

is an applied philosopher with a longstanding interest in the ethical and epistemological issues generated by the use of non-human animals in research. Her work focuses on reconceptualizing how we think of animals in experimentation with a view to changing how they are regarded and treated. Given her commitment to transforming the situation of animals in research, Johnson embraced the opportunity to contribute to a book dedicated to that purpose.

Jim Keen

has been an academic and the United States government veterinary and biomedical researcher for 27 years. His research emphasis is infectious and zoonotic livestock diseases. As an epidemiologist, his research is observational, i.e. study of disease in its natural habitat – even when that “natural habitat” is a beef feedlot, the most unnatural bovine environment ever conceived. Regrettably, for several years in the 1990s, Keen injected malignant cancer cells into the peritoneal cavity of hundreds of laboratory mice for monoclonal antibody bio-reagent generation. He began a slow conversion from industrial-animal agricultural supporter, apologist and enabler, to livestock well-being advocate in 2009. Keen was a whistleblower of experimental livestock cruelty and abuse at the US Department of Agriculture, Meat Animal Research Center in Nebraska, published on the front page of the New York Times in January 2015. His current interests are combating industrial agriculture’s damage to people, the planet, and animals.

Sarah Kenehan

is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at Marywood University in Scranton, United States. She works primarily in areas of social and political philosophy and applied ethics. Her interest in animal ethics, in particular, began with her relationship with her rescue dogs, Jack and Dublin, many years ago, which then inspired a conversion to veganism and participation in many forms of animal welfare advocacy.

Andrew Knight

caused controversy by refusing to kill animals during his surgical and preclinical training, as a Western Australian veterinary student, in 2000. Instead, he helped establish a humane surgical training program, based partly on neutering homeless animals from animal shelters. Knight is Professor of Animal Welfare and Ethics, and Founding Director of the Centre for Animal Welfare, at the University of Winchester; an EBVS European and RCVS Veterinary Specialist in Animal Welfare Science, Ethics and Law; an American and New Zealand Veterinary Specialist in Animal Welfare; a Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, and a Senior Fellow of the UK Higher Education Academy. He has over 65 academic publications and a series of YouTube videos on animal issues. These include an extensive series examining the contributions to human healthcare, and to veterinary and other education, of invasive procedures on animals. This work formed the basis for his 2010 PhD thesis and his subsequent book, The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments.

Kori Ann Kosberg

is a graduate from the University of Wisconsin, United States, with a Bachelor of Science in Bacteriology. She is an animal rights activist and volunteers with the San Diego Humane Society.

Lisa Kramer

is Professor of Finance at the University of Toronto. She has also been a Visiting Scholar in the

Department of Psychology at Stanford University and the Rady School of Management at the University of California, United States. She graduated in 1998 with a PhD in Finance from the University of British Columbia. In addition to her primary areas of research in finance and behavioral economics, Kramer is interested in the application of multidisciplinary insights from academic research to the practice of animal advocacy. She previously served as a member of the board of directors for nonprofit organizations, including the Vancouver Humane Society and Mercy For Animals Canada; and she has co-organized large-scale, public-awareness campaigns, such as Why Love One But Eat the Other? subway ads that have appeared in Toronto and other cities in Canada and abroad.

Emily McIvor

is Science Policy Advisor for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) United Kingdom. She previously worked on European Union policy for organizations, including the European Coalition to End Animal Experiments and the Humane Society International. McIvor has been a member of the European Partnership on Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing Mirror Group since 2005, and contributed to the European Commission’s Technical Expert Working Group on Revision of Directive 86/609/EEC. In 2008, Emily led the Make Animal Testing History campaign, culminating in the European Parliament event Replace Animal Experiments in Europe, calling for the remit of the European Commission’s Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) to be extended to include biomedical research. In 2015, she presented at the Citizens’ Initiative (Stop Vivisection) European Parliament Hearing. In 2011, McIvor received the Henry Spira Award for her contribution to animal welfare; and, in 2013, she was awarded the LUSH Special Prize to celebrate the implementation of the European Union ban on cosmetics animal testing and sale of newly animal tested cosmetics ingredients.

Monika Merkes

holds a PhD in public health from La Trobe University, Australia. She has spent her professional life as a social researcher, developing social and health policy in state and local governments, the community sector, academia and as a consultant. Merkes has a particular interest in the links between the health and wellbeing of humans, other animals, and the environment. She is an Honorary Associate of the Australian Institute for Primary Care & Aging at La Trobe University, the President of Humane Research Australia, and a member of the Victorian Schools Animal Ethics Committee. She blogs at https://ozsheba.wordpress.com/.

Fozia Noor

a pharmacy graduate, completed her PhD at Heidelberg University. She worked as a research associate at Saarland University, where she completed her habilitation in 2017. The focus of her research is a systems biology approach to pathways-based toxicology using advanced in vitro tools. Noor has developed in vitro tools, especially 3D organotypic cultures of liver for long-term toxicity studies; and she has applied in vitro metabolomics to these systems to understand pathways involved in adverse effects. Her work on in vitro alternatives and in vitro metabolomics has been published in leading peer-reviewed journals. Noor is currently working at the Luxembourg Center of Systems Biomedicine in medical translational research.

Rita Leal Paixão

studied veterinary medicine at the Federal Fluminensee University, and philosophy at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro; she has a Master’s Degree in veterinary pathology, a Master’s Degree in environmental sciences and a PhD in public health from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Paixão has been a professor at the Fluminense Federal University since 1990. She has experience in veterinary medicine and bioethics, with an emphasis on animal ethics, environmental ethics, research ethics, and animal welfare. She is a founding member and was the director of the Brazilian Society of Bioethics, and is a founding member of the 1R Institute for Promotion and Research for the Replacement of Animal Experimentation (www.Instituto1R.org).

John Pawlowski

PhD, MD, is a professor of anesthesiology at the Harvard Medical School (HMS). His interest in medical simulation started many years ago, as he sought ways to replace the use of dogs in medical education. With the development of high-fidelity, whole body mannequins, important physiology lessons could be taught in place of live animals. He has advanced the use of simulation in the instruction of basic science and patient safety in medicine. At HMS, Pawlowski designed the first simulation-based replacement to the dog lab. As Co-Director of the HMS pharmacology course, he pioneered the use of simulation to demonstrate pharmacological principles. As Co-Director of the Simulation and Skills Center at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Pawlowski has extended the use of simulation-based educational tools for the training of healthcare providers. He is continuously reminded of the importance of animal-free methods of teaching by his dear sheepdog Cazzie.

John J. Pippin

MD, FACC, is a graduate of Harvard College (Cambridge, MA) and the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States, and completed a cardiovascular research fellowship at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (Dallas, TX), United States. In recent years, Pippin has written on the failure of animal research to translate research findings to human medicine, especially in the areas of Alzheimer disease, diabetes, and heart disease. He strongly believes that progress in the study, prevention, and treatment of Alzheimer disease requires the replacement of unreliable animal research with human-specific research. He is currently Director of Academic Affairs for the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, DC.

Francesca Pistollato

PhD, has worked for many years in Europe and the United States to promote ethical standards and reliable research outcomes using human-based methods in biomedical research and in Alzheimer disease research, in particular. During her previous and current work at the European Commission, Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, Pistollato’s main research focus has been the implementation of novel, human stem-cell-based in vitro models for neurotoxicity and developmental neurotoxicity testing, promoting a paradigm shift in traditional, animal-based methodological approaches in toxicology and biomedical research.

Rebecca Ram

is a scientific research consultant. After a decade working in Phase IIV clinical trials within the pharmaceutical and contract research organization sector, she became a scientific consultant in order to focus on alternatives to animal experiments and the campaign to replace animal use in research, as well as continue her work in some clinical research projects. She has an MSc in toxicology and a BSc in applied biology. Ram has worked or provided scientific support for a number of organizations, including GlaxoSmithKline, University College London Hospital, Simugen, Genomics England, Cruelty Free International, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Animal Defenders International, Vier Pfoten (Four Paws), Animal Aid, TRACKS Investigations, One Voice, and, most recently, the Lush Prize, Safer Medicines Trust, and Alliance for Human-Relevant Science.

Craig Redmond

is an animal protection researcher and part of the team that coordinates the Lush Prize (www.lushprize.org), the largest annual fund supporting the complete replacement of animals in toxicology research. He has three decades of experience working across a broad range of animal protection and other social justice issues as a campaigner, researcher, investigator, and photojournalist. Seeing animal experimentation as a violation of the rights of animals, Redmond is keen to promote the 1R of absolute replacement as a more ethically and scientifically valid substitute for the 3Rs, which still rely on the exploitation and death of animals. 1R, not 3Rs, is the underlying principal of the Lush Prize, which was founded in 2012.

Alexandro Aluísio Rocha

is a veterinarian, a specialist in clinical treatment and surgery of companion animals. He holds a Master’s degree in animal health and is a doctor in the physiology of organs and systems. Rocha is a professor of animal anatomy and physiology in the Department of Animal Science of the Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Brazil, and a member of the animal ethics committee of UFVJM, as well as the former director of the University’s animal facility. He handles animal welfare and protection projects and helps develop methods that apply the biophysical principles of animals’ physiology for their replacement in practical classes of physiology, such methods that seek to provide students with an understanding of the phenomenon present in the physiological mechanisms of the body’s organs and systems. In the discipline of animal anatomy, Rocha only uses ethically-obtained cadavers, and he developed artificial models to illustrate the animal body and reduce students’ exposure to formaldehyde vapors.

Adam See

is a doctoral candidate in philosophy at the City University of New York, an adjunct Professor of Environmental Ethics at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, and an animal rights activist. His current written work focuses on contemporary intersections between animal ethics and animal cognition, as well as communication and collaboration in great apes. The subject matter of his most recent academic presentations has been issues of animal experimentation, particularly relating to the ethics of behavioral research on non-human primates.

Peter Singer

first became known internationally after the publication of Animal Liberation (1975). His other books include: Democracy and Disobedience (1973); Practical Ethics (1979; 2011, 3rd ed.); Ethics into Action: Henry Spira and the Animal Rights Movement (1998); The Expanding Circle (1981; 2011, new ed.); One World (2002; One World Now, 2016, revised ed.); The Ethics of What We Eat (2006), co-authored with Jim Mason; The Life You Can Save (2009); The Most Good You Can Do (2015); Ethics in the Real World (2016); and Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction (2017), co-authored with Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek. Singer is professor of bioethics at Princeton University, an appointment he holds jointly with an appointment as Laureate Professor at the University of Melbourne, Australia. He was made a Companion of the Order of Australia (AC) in 2012. He is the founder and board chair of The Life You Can Save, a nonprofit that fights extreme poverty.

Anna Smajdor

has had a longstanding interest in questions related to animal ethics, since early childhood. Her work in medical and research ethics has contributed to her interest in finding a normative framework that makes sense of both human and non-human animal interests. In particular, Smajdor is interested in looking beyond questions of moral status as determinative of our treatment of other organisms, to focus on the dispositions of humans as moral agents. As a philosopher working in applied ethics, Smajdor has participated in a number of ethical review and research ethics committees. This experience has strongly influenced her conviction that a different paradigm is needed for the understanding of moral relationships between animals and human beings.

Katy Taylor

is Director of Science and Regulatory Affairs at Cruelty Free International (formerly the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection [BUAV]) and the European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE). She manages the scientific output of both organizations, ensuring their call to end animal testing is supported by sound scientific argument. Taylor represents both organizations at international regulatory forums, including the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in Paris, the European Medicines Agency in London, and the European Chemicals Agency in Helsinki. She has a BSc in zoology from the University of Sheffield, UK, and a PhD in veterinary behavioral epidemiology from De Montfort University, UK. An animal welfare scientist by training, and personally dedicated to animal protection, Taylor is now one of Europe’s foremost experts on the scientific, legal, and ethical issues on the use of animals in testing and its alternatives.

Luis Vicente

is a biologist, with a PhD in evolution and habilitation in animal behavior. He has been a professor at the University of Lisbon, Portugal, and other European universities for 40 years. Vicente is the author of more than 200 papers, books, and book chapters. He has broad research interests, including animal behavior, animal ethics, philosophy, and ecology. Vicente is the head of the Philosophy of Life Sciences Department of the Center of Philosophy of Sciences at the University of Lisbon. He is a founding member of the Portuguese Society of Ethology and the Portuguese Association of Primatology. He is the President of the Institute for Territorial Management and Reorganization. In the beginning of his career as a researcher, he used animal models, but he moved away from this paradigm mainly for ethical reasons.

Philipp von Gall

is a postdoctoral researcher in the field of agricultural and animal politics at the University of Hohenheim, Germany, and a freelance consultant for public and nongovernmental institutions. In his research, von Gall focuses on bringing animal philosophy and philosophy of mind to the forefront of social and political conflicts surrounding human-animal relationships. Since 2012, he has been a member of the animal experimentation commission advising the competent authority on animal research proposals submitted for licensing in Berlin. His experiences with this institution, and with the ethics of animal experimentation, motivated him to contribute to this book. Von Gall believes that in order to achieve a paradigm shift in animal research, we must develop innovative and more effective instruments to represent the interests of non-human animals in legal and political decision making.

Sabina V. Vyas

is a public health consultant focused on advancing chronic disease prevention through plant-based nutrition. She is committed to improving population health by reducing barriers and increasing access to, and availability of, health promoting foods, especially for vulnerable populations. She has worked extensively for leading public health agencies, such as Kaiser Permanente and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in United States. Vyas has worked directly with patients, provided training and technical assistance at the population level, and addressed obesity prevention in schools and chronic disease prevention in communities through policy, systems, and environmental improvements. She received her Master’s degree in public health degree from the University of Southern California, United States, and is certified in plant-based nutrition by the T. Colin Campbell Center for Nutrition Studies & eCornell.

Malcolm Wilkinson

studied physics at Oxford University. He has been involved in microelectronic and microfluidic technology development in large corporations and start-up companies. Working in Cambridge, United Kingdom, from 1992 to 2006, Wilkinson supported spin-outs from universities and raised over US$15 million in funding from venture capital and government grants. In 2006, he founded Kirkstall Ltd., a company with a license to cell culture technology from the University of Pisa. Kirkstall developed this research into a commercial interconnected cell culture system, in which organoids mimic human metabolism. Wilkinson is co-author of several papers on in vitro models of toxicity and a contributing editor of a recently published book on In Vitro testing. Having realized the inadequacy of animal models for predicting human clinical response to drugs, he is a now a champion for the use of organ on a chip technology to replace animal testing for the development of safe drugs.

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