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List of Contributors

Daniel Abel-Schaad

is a researcher specialising in the field of paleobotany, who has developed his career both in public and private institutions. His main interests are plant ecology from a palaeoecological perspective, and its implications on the conservation and management of relict species in Mediterranean mountains.

Francisca Alba-Sánchez

is Professor at the University of Granada, Spain. Her research expertise is in palaeoecology, conservation biology, plant-environment relationships and ecological niche modeling. She has focused on glacial refugia and postglacial spread for Mediterranean and North African relict plant/vertebrates species.

Flavio Anselmetti

is a geologist at the Institute of Geological Sciences and the Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research at the University of Bern. He specialises in sediment-based reconstructions of climate change, natural hazards, as well as human-environment interactions.

Daniel Ariztegui

is Professor of Limnogeology and Geomicrobiology at the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Geneva (Switzerland). He uses marine and lacustrine sediments as archives of (paleo) environmental changes, as well as of present and former anthropogenic impact on the environment. He is a sedimentologist and geochemist by training, and is particularly interested in understanding biogeochemical cycles in lakes. He was recently elected president of the International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS).

Ellen Arnold

is an Associate Professor of History at Ohio Wesleyan University. She is the author of Negotiating the Landscape: Environment and Monastic Identity in the Medieval Ardennes (2013) and is currently working on a cultural history of early medieval rivers.

Brunhilda Brushulli

is an oil and gas engineer and obtained a Masters in Geosciences in the Faculty of Geology and Mining at the Polytechnic University of Tirana (Albania). She works as a geological engineer for the Directorate of Hydrogeology in the Albanian Geological Survey (Tirana). She has participated in several projects focused on the assessment and monitoring of groundwater, gas and oil resources in Albania. She also analysed the sediments and pore waters of Lake Butrint, under the supervision of Prof. Flavio Anselmetti, at the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology in 2012. Her recent publications include co-authorship of “Human-climate interactions in the central Mediterranean region during the last millennia: the laminated record of Lake Butrint (Albania)”, Quaternary Science Reviews (2016).

Yolanda Carrión Marco

is a researcher at the Department of Prehistory, Archaeology and Ancient History of the University of Valencia, Spain. She specialises in charcoal analysis and her research deals with woodland exploitation, landscape reconstruction, land use and the history of species. Her recent work includes the study of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic charcoal records from Iberian and North African sites.

Alexandra Chavarría

is Associate Professor of Medieval Archaeology in the Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Padua, Italy. She specialises in the study of late antique and early medieval urban and rural landscapes, settlements, burials and churches. Her recent publications include A la sombra de un imperio. Reyes, obispos e iglesias en la Hispania tardoantigua (2018), and the edited volume Ricerche sul centro episcopale di Padova : ricerche 2011–2012 (2017).

Petra Dark

is an archaeological scientist based in the Department of Archaeology, University of Reading. She specialises in the analysis of pollen and other plant remains for reconstructing human-environment interactions on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Her publications include The Environment of Britain in the First Millennium AD (2000) and, as co-author, The Landscape of Roman Britain (1997).

Merle Eisenberg

is a post graduate research associate and lecturer at Princeton University. He studies Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages along with environmental history. He has forthcoming publications on the Justinianic Plague in Past & Present and Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies.

Carmen Fernández Ochoa

is Professor of Archaeology at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. She has directed the excavation of the city of Gijón since 1982, and also directs several other excavation and research projects on Roman Spain. Her work has focused on the study of different aspects of the Romanisation process of Hispania, especially in the the north-west of the peninsula and Asturias. She has published more than a hundred works on this subject.

Martin Finné

is a researcher at the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University. His main research focus is on Holocene climate in the eastern Mediterranean and the paleoclimatology and socio-environmental dynamics of southern mainland Greece. His recent publications include the peer-reviewed paper “Late Bronze Age climate change and the destruction of the Mycenaean Palace of Nestor at Pylos”, PLOS ONE (2017), and the book chapter “Climate change and ancient societies—facing up to the challenge of chronological control”, in The Resilience of Heritage: Cultivating a Future of the Past (2018).

Assunta Florenzano

is a palynologist and archaeobotanist. She is a post-doc researcher and Adjunct Professor of Botany at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy). Her research interests are Quaternary palynology and paleoecology, pollen analysis from archaeological deposits, anthropogenic impact on vegetation, and the study of cultural landscape transformations in the Mediterranean basin. Her recent publications focus on archaeopalynological evidence of cultural landscapes in the central Mediterranean, with emphasis on non-pollen palynomorphs, like coprophilous fungi, as indicators of pastoral activities.

Ralph Fyfe

is a Professor at the University of Plymouth, UK. He specialises in the analysis of pollen from sedimentary basins. He works across a range of spatial scales, from the site-level (on archaeological projects) to national and continental-scale synthesis of vegetation patterns across Europe.

Didier Galop

is a researcher at the GEODE – Université Toulouse Jean Jaures (France). He specialises in the study of the temporal dynamics of vegetation, and the anthropisation of high mountain environments in south-western Europe.

Benjamin Graham

is an Assistant Professor in the Department of History at the University of Memphis. He studies the Mediterranean environment in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. He is presently writing a book about the production and consumption of olives in early medieval Italy.

John Haldon

is a history Professor at Princeton University and Director of the Princeton Climate Change and History Research Initiative. His research focuses on the social, economic, institutional and cultural history of the medieval eastern Roman (Byzantine) empire, in particular in the period from the 7th to the 12th c.; on state systems and structures across the European and Islamic worlds from late ancient to early modern times; on the impact of environmental stress on societal resilience in pre-modern social systems; and on the production, distribution and consumption of resources in the late ancient and medieval world. His most recent books include A Tale of Two Saints. The Martyrdoms and Miracles of Sts. Theodore ‘the Recruit’ and ‘The General’ (2016) and The Empire That Would Not Die: the Paradox of Byzantine Survival, 640–740 (2016).

Kyle Harper

is Senior Vice President and Provost and Professor of Classics and Letters at the University of Oklahoma. His work has focused on the social and environmental history of the Roman empire and Late Antiquity. His books include Slavery in the Late Roman World, AD 275–425 (2011); From Shame to Sin: The Christian Transformation of Sexual Morality in Late Antiquity (2013); and The Fate of Rome: Climate, Disease, and the End of an Empire (2017).

Richard Hodges

is President of The American University of Rome. He has been on the faculty at the University of Sheffield and the University of East Anglia, as well as Director of the Prince of Wales’ Institute of Architecture, and Williams Director of the University of Pennsylvania Museum. He was Scientific Director of the Butrint Foundation. His most recent books include Dark Age Economics: a New Audit (2012) and the The Archaeology of Mediterranean Placemaking (2016).

Adam Izdebski

is adiunkt at the Institute of History of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. From the summer of 2018, he is also the leader of the ‘Byzantine Resilience’ Independent Max Planck Research Group at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena. He specialises in late antique, Byzantine and environmental history. His recent publications include A Rural Economy in Transition. Asia Minor from Antiquity into the Early Middle Ages (2013), and a series of papers co-authored in the special issue of the Quaternary Science Reviews (2016) devoted to climatic and environmental history of the Mediterranean, which he also co-edited. He is a member of Princeton University’s Climate Change and History Research Initiative.

Katerina Kouli

is a palynologist, and is Assistant Professor of Palaeontology-Palaeobotany-Geoarchaeology at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece). Her research is focused on Quaternary vegetation of the Mediterranean, and a main part of her work considers human impact on vegetation and the study of Holocene cultural and natural landscapes. She has participated in several research projects of both geological and archaeological interest, including numerous archaeological excavations. Her work has been published in international scientific journals, book chapters and conference proceedings.

Jamie Kreiner

is Associate Professor of History at the University of Georgia. Her current research highlights the relationships between early medieval politics, religion, and agriculture. She is the author of Legions of Pigs in the Early Medieval West (forthcoming with Yale University Press) and The Social Life of Hagiography in the Merovingian Kingdom (2014).

Inga Labuhn

is a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Geography, University of Bremen, Germany. The present work was carried out at the Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden. She specialises in Holocene climate reconstructions based on proxy records from tree rings, lake sediments and speleothems. She is the lead author of “French summer droughts since 1326 CE: a reconstruction based on tree ring cellulose δ18O”, Climate of the Past 12 (2016) 1101–17: doi: 10.5194/cp-12-1101-2016; and “Holocene hydroclimate variability in central Scandinavia inferred from flood layers in contourite drift deposits in Lake Storsjön”, Quaternary (2018) 1.2: doi: 10.3390/quat1010002.

Tamara Lewit

is an Honorary Fellow in the School of Historical and Philosophical Studies at The University of Melbourne, and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, London. She specialises in the study of Roman and late antique farming, rural settlement, technology, and trade. Her recent publications include “The second sea: exchange between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea in Late Antiquity”. Post-Classical Archaeologies 5 (2015) 149–74, and “Oil and wine press technology in its economic context: screw presses, the rural economy and trade in Late Antiquity”, Antiquité Tardive 20 (2012) 137–49.

José Antonio López-Sáez

is a Tenured Scientist in the Institute of History at the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Madrid, Spain. His research interests include: palaeopalynology and archaeopalynology (pollen, spores, non-pollen palynomorphs) from different periods (Palaeolithic to Middle Ages) and different sedimentary contexts (lakes, peat bogs, archaeological sites, palaeosoils, etc.); and prehistoric agriculture, with particular emphasis on its origins and expansion in the Mediterranean, Mesoamerica, and high-mountain environments during the Holocene.

Alessia Masi

has a post-doc position at Sapienza University in Rome. She specialises in the archaeobotanical and palynological analysis of Mediterranean sites mainly located in Italy, Turkey and the Balkan peninsula. She is one of the pioneers in the use of stable isotopes in archaeobotany to infer paleoclimate and cultivation practices. She deals with the reconstruction of past vegetation, its evolution, and the uses of plants, with particular attention to the effects of human impact and population resilience.

Lucas McMahon

is a doctoral candidate in the Department of History at Princeton University. His research focuses on Byzantine political and economic history of the 7th through 12th c., and his dissertation examines the dissemination and movement of information within and around the Byzantine empire.

Anna Maria Mercuri

is a biologist, palynologist and archaeobotanist. She is Associate Professor of Systematic Botany and head of the Laboratory of Palynology and Palaeobotany at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy). She is the coordinator of the Group of Palynology and Palaeobotany of the Italian Society of Botany. Her main research topics focus on long-term human impact and global change in the Mediterranean and Saharan areas (including two papers in the journal Nature Plants). She has directed European and national projects on past/present vegetation and cultural landscape development, and on the integration between palaeoecology and archaeology in the Mediterranean basin.

Lee Mordechai

is the inaugural Postdoctoral Fellow in Byzantine Studies at the University of Notre Dame. He studies the interaction between premodern complex societies in the eastern Mediterranean and the environment. His recent publications include “History meets palaeoscience: consilience and collaboration in studying past societal responses to environmental change”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018) and “Short-term cataclysmic events in premodern complex societies”, Human Ecology (2018).

Mario Morellón

geologist, is a lecturer of Geodynamics at the University of Cantabria (Santander, Spain). He investigates lake and estuarine sediments as archives of past climate changes and human-environment interactions over the last millennia from the late glacial to the Anthropocene. His recent publications include: “Early Holocene humidity patterns in the Iberian Peninsula reconstructed from lake, pollen and speleothem records”, Quaternary Science Reviews (2018) and lead author for “Human-climate interactions in the central Mediterranean region during the last millennia: the laminated record of Lake Butrint (Albania)”, Quaternary Science Reviews (2016).

Michael Mulryan

is Honorary Research Fellow at the University of Kent (UK) and Associate Researcher at the École Normale Supérieure, Paris. He is the volume editor of Late Antique Archaeology and its supplementary series. He was a DFG Research Fellow at the University of Tübingen in 2018, and was Deputy Director of the University of Kent Ostia Field Project. His interests lie in late antique urban topography. His recent publications include Spatial Christianisation in Context: Strategic Intramural Building in Rome From the 4th–7th c. AD (2014). He is currently compiling a volume on the archaeology of late antique Ostia.

Timothy P. Newfield

is an Assistant Professor in the Departments of History and Biology at Georgetown University. An environmental historian and historical epidemiologist, his recent journal articles have addressed late antique animal disease (Journal of Roman Archaeology), 1st millennium volcanism (Geology; Climatic Change), Frankish malaria (Early Medieval Europe), the need for collaborative multidisciplinary scholarship in environmental history (Journal of Interdisciplinary History), and premodern societal resilience to climatic change (PNAS).

Almudena Orejas Saco del Valle

is a researcher at the department of Archaeology of the Institute of History, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. She is a specialist in landscape archeology, applied to the Roman provinces. She works on several regions of the north-western Iberian Peninsula, particularly in Roman gold mining areas. She has participated and chaired national and international projects and networks (COST Actions, JPI-Heritage). She is co-editor of the volume La Fábrica de Tabacos de Gijón. Arqueología e historia de un espacio milenario/  The Tobacco Factory of Gijón. Archaeology and History of a Millenary Space (2015) and she is currently coordinating further research at the Gijón Tobacco Factory (2016–18).

David J. Patterson

is a PhD Candidate at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. His research focuses on the environmental history of early medieval Europe, and particularly on weather and climate in the Frankish world. He is interested not only in the ground realities of weather and climate, but also in the cultural perception of meteorological phenomena and medieval ways of thinking about weather.

Leonor Peña-Chocarro

is a researcher at the Instituto de Historia (Spanish National Research Council) in Madrid. She works on plant macro-remains (seeds and fruits) from different periods, with a special interest in the origins and development of agriculture. She has recently edited a three volume book series: EARTH: the Dynamics of Non-Industrial Agriculture: 8000 Years of Resilience and Innovation (2014 and 2015).

Sebastián Pérez-Díaz

is an environmental archaeologist specialising in the synchronism between cultural and environmental changes. He has focused his research on: the synergisms between socio-cultural, climatic, and environmental processes during the Upper Pleistocene; on the first farmers and the spread of agriculture; and on the management of historical landscapes.

Eleonora Regattieri

is a junior researcher at the Earth Science Department of the University of Pisa. The focus of her research is the reconstruction of past climate and environmental variability in the Mediterranean region, through the geochemical and chronological study of continental carbonates (speleothem and lake sediment). Her recent publications include: “A MIS 9/MIS 8 speleothem record of hydrological variability from Macedonia (FYROM)”, Global and Planetary Change (2018), and “A Last Interglacial record of environmental changes from the Sulmona Basin (central Italy)”, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (2017).

Stephen Rippon

is Professor of Landscape Archaeology at the University Exeter, UK. His research focuses on the development of the countryside across the Roman and Medieval periods, and the evolution of regional variation in landscape character. His recent publications include Kingdom, Civitas and County (2018), The Fields of Britannia (2015) and Making Sense of an Historic Landscape (2012).

Neil Roberts

is Professor of Physical Geography, at the University of Plymouth, UK. He is the author of The Holocene: an Environmental History (3rd edn. 2014), and is editor of Quaternary Science Reviews. He researches the environmental history of the Mediterranean via the natural ‘archive’ preserved in lake sediments, including diatom, stable isotope, pollen and micro-charcoal analyses. These enable the reconstruction of past climate changes and landscape transformations brought about by human activities.

Laura Sadori

is a palynologist and archaeobotanist, and Full Professor of Systemtic Botany at the University ‘La Sapienza’, Rome (Italy). She is vice-president of the International Federation of Palynological Societies. She carries out palaeoecological studies aimed at evaluating the degree of human impact and climate change in the Mediterranean basin, collaborating with geologists, archaeologists and historians. She has published more than 150 scientific articles, and is included in the list of Top Italian Scientists.

Abigail Sargent

is a Ph.D student in the History Department at Princeton University. She focuses on legal status and rural communities in high medieval north-west Europe. She will be publishing the article “The ecology of the Crusader states”, in A Companion to the Environmental History of Byzantium (2018) this year.

Gaia Sinopoli

is an Italian palynologist and archaeobotanist with a Ph.D in Earth Sciences, curriculum Environment and Cultural Heritage. She has studied the pollen from the sediments of Lake Butrint (Albania) to reconstruct the environmental changes that occurred during the last four millenia in the area. Her recent publications have been focused on the climate reconstruction of the Last Interglacial Complex, on the basis of high resolution pollen data from the sediments of Lake Ohrid (Albania/FYROM), the oldest lake in Europe.

Paolo Squatriti

teaches pre-modern European history at the University of Michigan. He specialises in the medieval environmental history of Italy. Cambridge University Press released the paperback edition of his Landscape and Change in Early Medieval Italy: Chestnuts, Economy, and Culture in 2017.

Giovanni Stranieri

is a researcher and Lecturer in Medieval Archaeology at the Centre d’histoire, archéologie, littératures médiévales (CIHAM/UMR 5648), Lyon (France). He currently works on southern Italy, the Adriatic region and Auvergne (France). His research interests are focused on landscape archaeology, agrarian production, land divisions and spatial organisation in the Middle Ages.

Raymond Van Dam

is Professor Emeritus in the Department of History at the University of Michigan. His research focuses on Roman, Early Medieval, and Early Byzantine history, and his books include Rome and Constantinople: Rewriting Roman History During Late Antiquity (2010) and Remembering Constantine at the Milvian Bridge (2011).

Bernd Wagner

is Assistant Professor for Quaternary Geology at the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Germany. The focus of his studies is palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on lake sediment successions from the polar regions to the Mediterranean. He has more than 100 publications in international, peer-reviewed journals. Most recently, he compiled a special issue of the journal Biogeosciences (2016) that examined the environmental and evolutionary history of Lake Ohrid, Europe’s oldest lake.

Mark Whittow

(1957–2017) was University Lecturer in Byzantine Studies and a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He was a medieval historian and archaeologist, specialising in the Mediterranean and Byzantine worlds, AD 500–1300. His major publications included The Making of Orthodox Byzantium, 600–1025 (1996), and “The Late Roman/Early Byzantine Near East”, in The New Cambridge History of Islam 1 (2010).

Penelope Wilson

is Associate Professor of Egyptology in the Department of Archaeology, Durham University, UK. She specialises in Egyptian settlement archaeology in the Nile Delta from the earliest Neolithic periods to the modern day, as well as Ptolemaic hieroglyphic texts. She directs excavations at Sais (Sa el Hagar) as the Delta Survey project of the Egypt Exploration Society. Her recent publications include: Sais I: The Ramesside to Third Intermediate Period (2011), Sais II: the Prehistoric Period (2014) and, with D. Grigoropoulos, The West Delta Regional Survey: Beheira Kafr el Sheikh Provinces (2009).

Jessie Woodbridge

is a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the University of Plymouth (UK). She is currently conducting research that aims to reconstruct changes in European land cover throughout the Holocene using pollen data. Her research background is based on palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, specifically in relation to understanding human impacts and past climate trends.

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