IndexAboab da Fonseca, Isaac18, 20, 22, 65n7Aboab, Immanuel277Abraham110, 321Abraham, Philip118, 119Abravanel, Isaac4, 24, 36, 186, 254, 277Adler, Hermann138Adler, Nathan Marcus137Agrippa I (Herod Agrippa)313Agrippa II76, 129, 199, 228, 245, 252n68, 253n76, 262n128, 277, 313, 314, 316, 317Aguilar, Grace136, 137, 143Ahad Ha’am144, 265, 305Akibah, Rabbi327, 328Albinus, Lucceius302Alexander (son of Herod the Great)232Alexander II, Czar152–154Alexander Jannaeus170, 171Alexander the Great57, 68, 79, 80, 110, 130, 131, 143, 270Alexandria25, 26, 83, 93, 116, 270, 320Alsace206Amalek341Amelander, Menaḥem Man42–44, 48, 49, 51–56, 58–61, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72–84Americas, the13, 31, 54, 63, 313United StatesAmman161Ammonites161Amsterdam5, 8, 10, 12, 18, 19, 20, 24–27, 39, 42, 43, 45, 46, 54, 55, 62, 64, 65, 72, 77, 78, 80, 82–84Angel, Moses107Anhalt-Bernburg188, 221An-sky, S.268anti-Jewish, antisemitic, antisemitism5, 9, 10, 32, 33, 39, 117, 118, 125, 133, 142, 192, 208n78, 211, 215, 261, 279, 325, 326, 328Antiochus IV Epiphanes159, 162, 172–174, 179comparison to Haman180Antiochus VI Dionysus175Antwerp251Apion117, 271Apocrypha115, 139, 220n10, 302Apollonius270apologetics20–22, 27, 32, 33, 38, 39, 78, 93n34, 192, 203n65, 205, 208, 253, 349Arabia, Arabs63, 228Archelaus168Arias, Joseph Semah18n2, 20, 22–23, 29n53Aristotle21, 57, 89Arnold, Christopher23, 46n14Arrian131Ashkenaz, Ashkenazim44, 48, 51, 53–55, 58, 60, 67, 84, 121Ashkenazim and Christians12, 58, 60Ashkenazim and Sephardim5, 13, 46, 48, 54, 58, 60, 65, 107–109Athens90Auschwitz339Avineri, Shlomo311, 312Babylon, Babylonian160, 177, 180, 293Baden211Bannus275, 276Barlaeus, Caspar23, 46n15Barrios, Daniel Levi (Miguel) de25–27, 45, 65–66Baruch Schick of Shklov150Basnage, Jacques27, 43–61, 66, 69n21, 77n42, 134, 261Bathsheba227Beer, Peter69n19, 96n47, 275Behrend, Henry138, 139, 140n161Beirut, Berytus83, 228Belarus145, 264Ben Ze’ev, Judah Leib94Benisch, Abraham106Berdyczewski (Bin Gorion), Micha Josef11, 69n20, 281–308Berdyczewski (Bin Gorion), Rahel286, 287Berenice, Beroniki11, 199, 278, 312n18, 313, 314, 316, 317, 323, 324Berlin10, 189, 193, 201, 203, 219, 231, 272, 286, 287Berry, Charles, Duc de194Bialystok144Bible, biblical35, 36, 39, 79, 87, 89, 119, 135, 137, 142, 201, 204, 205Hebrew Bible; New TestamentBikkure ha-‘ittim92, 94, 95, 96n45, 96n47, 128Bin Gorion, Emanuel11, 281–308Birmingham118, 132–134, 199Bistritzky-Agmon, Natan11, 312–317, 322, 323Blondheim, Menahem269, 270n21Boeck, August189Boehm, Samuel5Bohlen, Peter von223Bonim (Bonias),Naqdimon ben GurionBonn219Brainin, Reuven272Bran, Joseph90, 91Braniss, Christlieb Julius202Breithaupt, Johann Friedrich55n53, 131Breslau (Wrocław)202, 208, 213n94, 286, 287Jewish-Theological Seminary207, 221Bresslau, Marcus Hyman122, 127Bretagne57Brighton123, 130Britain, British8, 84, 99, 106–143, 315EnglandBrockhaus, Friedrich August204Broida, Ephraim294Bund, Bundists11, 330, 334, 344, 345Caesarea163calendar: Gregorian155, 158, 171, 176–179Caligula271Cardoso, Isaac21, 24–26, 31n61, 31n65, 38, 40Carmel (Mount)310, 312Cassel, Selig138, 204Cassius Dio254, 316n33Certeau, Michel de54Cesarani, David126Charles V341Chertok, Jacob Lebovitch10, 309n4China78Christianity, Christian1, 4, 5, 9, 10, 12, 44, 63, 64, 68, 69, 72, 73, 77–79, 87, 88, 90, 113, 119, 127, 128, 134, 140, 202, 204, 206, 207, 210, 218–220, 230, 231, 260, 276Calvinists28Catholicism, Catholics199, 214, 220Catholics and Protestants32, 47, 51early282, 287, 303, 326, 327Hebraists21, 23–27, 34, 36Protestantism, Protestants32, 46, 50, 206, 220, 238, 239Remonstrants24, 36supersessionism78, 231, 236Ashkenaz; conversion; cultural transfer; SepharadChurch Fathers20, 190, 303Cicero92Classics, classical culture4–7, 13, 28, 47, 50, 64, 65, 88–95, 118, 140, 143, 191, 257, 258classical education20, 24, 33, 113classical reception3n3, 6n9, 13–14, 85, 86, 88, 92, 101, 102, 105rabbinic sagesClementz, Heinrich291–294Cobbett, William117, 118Cohen, Shaye J.D.191, 198collective memory11, 13–14, 75, 76, 78, 85, 144, 154, 259Colombia63Conat, Abraham72Constant, Benjamin196conversion, conversionist47, 61, 64, 66, 115, 129n106, 130n111, 135, 137, 252n70anti-conversionist108, 122, 126, 130, 137conversos, ex-conversos17–22, 24, 26, 31, 34, 39, 45Copenhagen132cosmopolitanism11, 39, 132, 194, 311, 314, 318, 319–321, 327–329Costa, Uriel da33–35, 39Cromwell, Oliver17, 27cultural transferbetween Jews and Christians46between Sephardim and Ashkenazim48, 66Cunaeus, Petrus23, 26–27‘Damascus Affair’70, 83, 108, 121, 132Daniel68, 79, 341David (King)227, 232De Wette, Wilhelm M.L.226, 238De’ Rossi, Azaryah4, 47n20, 64, 92, 93, 127n97, 190Delitzsch, Franz231diaspora2, 8, 11, 13, 17, 24–27, 298, 319, 340Zionist critique of327exile; Jewish nationalismDiodotus Tryphon175Domitian179, 215, 326–328Dorion321Dresden207Dror (youth movement)340Drukker, Hayyim52Drusius, Johannes34Dubnow, Simon10, 144, 271, 272, 332, 336Dworzecki, Mark335, 336Ehrenberg, Philipp203, 211Ehrenberg, Samuel Meyer188–190Eichhorn, Karl Friedrich189, 190, 205Eichler, Ludwig201Eisenmenger, Johann Andreas134, 261Eleazar ben Simon76Eleazar ben Ya’ir259, 347n66Elijah ben Solomon Zalman (Vilna Gaon)150, 271Elisha’ ben Abuyah89, 90Elukin, Jonathan47Emden, Jacob65, 89n20Endelman, Todd115England, English17, 29, 32–33, 251, 266BritainEpstein, Mortimer121, 122Eretz Israel,Land of IsraelErlangen132Ersch, Johann Samuel192n30, 204Essenes190, 209, 210n65, 232, 244, 275, 276, 342Esther68, 79Ethiopia63European Enlightenment39–41, 50, 193Eusebius of Caesarea30, 49, 254, 322n48Ewald, Heinrich231, 235–238exile2, 9, 13, 52, 62, 64, 66, 73–78, 81–84, 251, 319diasporaEzra109, 111Fabricius, Johann Albert21n16, 57Farissol, Abraham4, 54, 77, 84Feiner, Shmuel157, 172Feuchtwanger, Lion11, 318–329Filipowski, Herschell99, 102n72–73Finestein, Israel112n26, 120n68, 133Fischel, Arnold130, 131Florus, Gessius323France, French84, 188, 189, 194, 198–200, 202, 207, 211, 216Bourbon Restoration194, 195, 197, 206French Revolution195, 196, 198July Monarchy200, 206revolution of 1848206Frankel, Zacharias7, 202n62, 207, 208, 254Frankfurter, Moses52, 66n10Franklin, Jacob106n3, 120Friedländer, David253Frise, Johann B.218Fuenn, Samuel Joseph146, 149, 272Fürst, Julius127, 229Gagnier, John55, 57Galchinsky, Michael136Galilee55, 56, 97, 185, 191–193, 199, 211, 245, 255–257, 277, 278, 289, 338Gamla210, 252n70Gans, Eduard201Geiger, Abraham208–211Gens, Jacob336, 337geography63, 97, 129, 135, 145, 150, 220, 223, 250, 309Germany, German9–11, 87, 134, 142, 152, 154, 201, 208n78, 215, 216, 218–239, 244, 266, 282, 287, 297–299, 333, 345army318, 334nationalism193, 211Nazism290, 297, 307, 318, 326, 328Weimar Republic282, 318PrussiaGesenius, Wilhelm205Gfrörer, August Friedrich219, 220n8Giessen132Gildemeister, Johann84Gilead161Glick, Hirsh338Goldsmid, Isaac Lyon117Gordon, Judah Leib103, 147, 153Göttingen189Govrin, Nurit305Graetz, Heinrich9, 10, 11n12, 138, 145, 152, 186, 202, 212–217, 221, 230–239, 253n75, 254, 271–273, 275, 276, 332, 335, 338Graevius, Buscar43Greece, Greek90, 91, 101Gregory of Tours73Grotius, Hugo23, 64Gruber, Johann Gottfried192n30, 204Guizot, François194, 196, 197, 200, 201, 216Gurfein, Rivka313n23, 314, 317Gurion55, 74Habima (theatre)312, 314Hagar321Ha-Karmel101, 146, 147, 153, 273Ha-Kohen, Joseph (early modern historian)4, 44, 45, 56, 65Ha-Kohen, Shalom97, 271n22Halevy, Isaac10, 241–251, 260–263Hall, Anna Maria (Mrs Samuel Carter Hall)136ḥalutzim340–343, 345Hamburg128, 244Ha-Me’assef90–94, 271n22Hanukkah58n65, 159, 160, 169Hardwick, Lorna85Hartmann, Anton Theodor219Hasidism, Hasidim145, 240, 275, 276Haskalah, maskilim6, 8, 12, 32, 85, 87–104, 108, 128, 145–184, 186, 187, 202, 216, 253, 264, 267, 268, 271, 272, 274–276, 279Maskilic Hebrew155, 157Hausrath, Adolf210, 211, 215, 216Haverkamp, Siwart73n31, 190, 198Hayim of Volozhin150Hebrew Bible56, 106, 109, 111, 114, 115, 123–125, 156, 219–239, 302, 334, 335, 339, 340Genesis109, 119Genesis 49:1025n35, 52, 77, 78Exodus125Leviticus 14:15228Deuteronomy751 Samuel 28:7–213412 Samuel 11:2227, 2281 Kings 16:24224–2262 Kings 17:662, 63Isaiah127, 137, 268, 320Jeremiah75Zechariah76Psalms75, 230, 320Psalm 125340Song of Songs230Kohelet230–238Esther180Daniel131, 254Chronicles53, 80, 81Bible; Moses; translationHebrew literature, modern93, 98, 102, 120, 147, 157, 177, 182, 183, 286, 341Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich202Heidelberg210, 234Heidenheim, Wolf221, 222n14Helena of Adiabene60, 66n12Heliodorus270Hellenism, Hellenistic culture191 192n31, 200n56, 242, 253n76, 257, 270, 282, 283Hellenistic Jews18, 20, 25–27, 30–34, 157, 270Hengstenberg, Ernst Wilhelm220n10, 230, 231, 235–238Hennings, August Adolf von40Hep-Hep riots192Herod Antipas301Herod, the Great57, 228n33, 232–234, 236, 237, 245, 246, 274, 301(mock) trial of335–337Herodium233, 234, 310Herodotus92‘Hertz ben Pinchas’107n8, 126n91–92, 129n107, 130n111, 138n150, 139, 140, 142Herxheimer, Salomon9, 220–230, 238, 239Herz, Henriette253Herz, Marcus253Hillel, Rabbi272Hirsch, Samson Raphael212, 213Hirschell, Solomon108, 111, 112, 123, 132, 142historiography: counter-history (against Christians)60, 133, 134, 210counter-history (against Wissenschaft des Judentums)151, 152, 154historicism213, 237, 244‘new Josephus’4, 44, 45, 131–135, 137, 143successor tradition48–50Orthodoxy; Wissenschaft des JudentumsHitzig, Ferdinand Hitzig234, 235, 237, 238Hoffmann, Andreas Gottlieb204, 205, 206n74, 210Holocaust312, 335, 340Homburg251Homer89, 91, 92, 101Horace102Horschetzky, Moritz129, 187n9humanism, humanists4, 23, 24, 28, 46n15Humboldt, Wilhelm von189Hungary129n104, 187Hurwitz, Hyman112–118, 120, 143Hyman, Leonard118Hyrcanus II232Iberia, Iberian4, 18–20, 22, 31, 45, 54, 137Ibn Daud, Abraham57Ibn Ezra, Abraham57Ibn Gabirol, Solomon52Ibn Verga, Solomon59n69, 65Ibn Yaḥya, Gedalyah65Ibn Yaḥya, Tam ben David72, 73n30, 74, 75, 81n55immortality of the soul34, 128, 209India, Indian54, 63, 78, 228, 229Ir David210Islam, Muslims1, 59, 86, 87n8, 209, 228Israel, Israelites (biblical)66n12, 111, 156n19, 227–229, 236Israel, Land of53, 82, 94, 97, 149, 250–252, 265, 279, 299, 334, 340, 341, 345Israel, State of279, 282, 308Italy, Italian1, 2, 4, 6, 67Jacobson, Israel189Jaddua110Japhet57Jena202Jeremiah: comparison with Josephus9, 11n12, 13, 98, 151, 152, 186, 215, 273, 274, 279, 308, 312Jérôme Bonaparte188, 189Jerome30, 322n48Jerusalem88, 96, 101, 108, 130, 131, 174, 270, 278, 279, 315final siege and destruction of38, 75, 98, 120, 121, 164, 170, 178, 181, 182, 198, 199, 203, 213, 289, 300, 314, 338, 342TempleJesus196, 197, 206, 218, 219, 239, 276, 282, 300–303, 320Jesus, son of Ananias283, 300, 302, 303Jewish emancipation8, 10, 40n104, 84, 108, 117, 121, 122, 125, 126, 127n94, 132, 134, 135n135, 140, 142, 143, 153, 188, 189, 203n64Jewish Enlightenment,HaskalahJewish nationalism11, 103, 149, 151, 152, 154, 203, 251, 252, 260–262, 278, 279diaspora nationalism10, 150, 151ZionismJoël, Manuel7John Hyrcanus275John of Gischala75, 76, 278, 289, 337, 338, 342John the Baptist276Jonathan (Hasmonean)175–177Josephism24, 26n44, 27, 33, 37JosephusAgainst Apion1, 4, 9, 23, 32, 100, 192, 215, 258, 278German7, 207Hebrew5, 10, 28–30, 99, 100, 147Spanish5, 18Jewish Antiquities1, 9, 10, 23, 62, 63, 67, 68, 87, 94, 95, 98, 110, 116, 119, 124, 190, 191, 215, 226, 228, 233–235, 257, 258, 275, 278, 281, 282, 289, 301Hebrew7, 10, 85, 99, 102, 296, 297Jewish War1, 9, 62, 63, 67, 68, 71, 74, 87, 96, 98, 129, 133, 191, 198, 199, 205, 233–235, 257, 258, 278, 281, 282, 287, 288, 289, 315, 344German7, 155, 157–183, 291–295Hebrew6, 7, 10, 85, 101, 144, 145, 148–151, 153, 155–184, 273, 299, 300, 309, 311, 331Russian10, 309Yiddish10Life1, 9, 97, 191, 198, 205, 258, 275, 278, 281, 288, 289, 306German7Hebrew7, 85Dutch editions59, 70, 73English editions,WhistonGreek editions,Haverkamp; NieseGreek-Latin edition (Geneva, 1611)17, 29(mock) trials of279, 311, 312, 335, 337, 338priest52, 74, 75, 81, 96, 97, 100, 146, 150, 192, 197, 199, 200, 272, 282, 303, 308, 318, 321, 342–344pro-Roman120, 134, 209, 212, 214, 231, 241, 256, 277, 282, 288, 311, 318rewritten Bible123, 279speeches at Jerusalem289, 293, 294, 297–299speech at Jotapata289–293, 297, 298traitor, treachery, treason2, 11, 15, 103, 134, 139, 151, 152, 154, 186, 200, 211, 215, 249, 256, 258, 259, 272, 277, 278, 290, 311, 312, 328, 342–345witness11, 21, 53, 63, 75, 81, 110–112, 116, 128–130, 134, 141, 142, 183, 187, 219, 239, 288, 289, 297, 307, 308, 340, 342–344Jost, Isaak Markus107, 114n38, 128, 134, 139, 142, 145, 152, 186–195, 198, 199, 201–203, 206–209, 210n85, 212, 213, 216Jotapata101, 139, 191, 206, 256, 278, 289, 290, 297, 298, 314, 343Judaea, Judaean2, 116, 192–194, 198, 199, 287, 289, 290, 293, 297, 298, 308, 317, 320, 322–324, 326–328, 337Judah Leon ben Moses Mosqoni71, 72, 73n30, 74Judas Maccabaeus131n118, 139, 171, 175, 177Julius Caesar56, 129n106, 185Justus of Tiberias191, 192, 205, 206n76Juvenal93n34, 102, 316Kagan, Israel Meir (Ḥafetz Ḥayyim)242Kalmanovitch, Zelig Hirsch10, 331, 332Kaplan, Ze’ev147Karaites47, 128, 253n76Karelitz, Avraham Yeshaya (Ḥazon Ish)242Karlsruhe211Katz, Jacob185Katzenelson, Tzvi339Katzenelson, Yitzḥak11, 330, 331, 333, 338–350Katzir, Aharon304Kharkov265Kibbutz Loḥame ha-getta’ot340Klausner, Joseph144Kolno251Kosman Joseph Baruch53Krakow311Krochmal, Nachman94n37, 97, 98Lamdan, Yitzḥak309, 310Landau, Ezechiel254Landau, Moses Israel187Laqueur, Richard295Lazar, David303Lebensohn, Abraham Dov (‘Adam ha-Kohen’)149Lebensohn, Micah Joseph (‘Mikhal’)149Lemberg (Lviv)83Leontopolis127Levin, Benjamin Menashe251Levinsohn, Isaac Baer95, 96, 100n64, 276Leyb ben Ozer65Lilienblum, Moses Leib103, 104, 265Lindenthal, Jacob128Lipsius, Justus32, 38n99Lithuania, Lithuanian144, 150, 243, 264,Liverpool130n110, 138, 140Livy64London10, 107, 113, 125, 133, 141Bevis Marks Synagogue107, 108, 266Great Synagogue, Duke’s Place108, 111, 112 114n38, 120, 124, 141Jewish Academy at Highgate113Jews’ Free School107, 111West London Synagogue of British Jews108, 111, 118, 123, 124, 138Louis Philippe196Löwisohn, Solomon11n12, 92, 94n37, 186, 187, 202, 216Lucretius102Maarsen, Joseph ben Jacob65Maccabees (biblical books)68, 2091 Maccabees2702 Maccabees2704 Maccabees29–31, 37–38, 205, 322n48Maimonides51, 89, 92, 96, 109, 110, 220, 221Manchester138, 139, 266Mantua121, 341Mapu, Abraham146, 268Marcus Aurelius105Margalit, Avishai312Marincola, John48, 49Marks, David Woolf108, 111, 114n38, 123, 124, 138Marshall, Louis267Martin, Konrad219martyrs, martyrdom30, 31, 37–38Masada13n18, 75, 252n70, 259, 289, 309, 310, 311Masliansky, Zvi Hirsch10, 264–280Massel, Joseph266Mastislav150Matenko, Percy333n13, 334, 336n24Mattathias (Hasmonean)160, 169, 171Meir, Rabbi89Meldola, David107, 108Menasseh ben Israel5, 17–23, 27–33, 35, 39–40, 45, 46, 54, 55n53, 62–64, 66–68, 73, 74, 77, 83, 84, 92, 93, 107, 127n97, 277Mendelssohn, Moses26n44, 39–41, 89, 90, 92, 94, 189, 221, 222, 229, 253, 268, 271Merlato, Caspar83Meskin, Aharon312n18, 314messiah, messianic age, messianism47, 52–55, 60–62, 64, 66, 74, 203, 211, 220n10, 313, 326–329Michaelis, Johann David221, 222, 225–230millenarianism47, 61Milman, Henry Hart119, 134, 138, 139Mir: Yeshiva264Mitchell, Joseph122, 123, 126, 127, 137, 138, 141mitnagdim276Modi’in160, 169Mohr, Abraham Menachem Mendel69, 83, 84Molcho, Shlomo341, 342Momigliano, Arnaldo36n86, 64n5, 76, 212n91, 344n50Montefiore, Charlotte135Montezinos, Antonio de63, 64, 83, 84Montpellier195Mordechai Gumpel Gabriel (Azijnman)53Moses: law-giver, law(s) of106, 115, 125, 129, 130, 140, 143, 195–199, 226, 227Muhammad59Naphtali Hertz Rofe53Napoleon Bonaparte186, 188, 189, 193, 194, 202, 208, 211, 217Napoleonic wars187, 191–193, 206Naqdimon ben Gurion55, 74nationalism186, 206, 208, 216, 217, 314Germany; Jewish nationalismNectanibus57Nero214, 277, 289Netherlands, the, Dutch23–25, 33, 36, 43, 45colonies54, 61, 62‘New Christians’18, 19, 22, 31n60New Testament219, 220, 236, 254, 302Gospels197, 276, 301–303New York10, 132, 266, 268, 269, 278Niebuhr, Carsten228Niese, Benedictus190, 213n94, 217, 281n2Ninth of Av58n65, 119–122, 141Nipperdey, Thomas186Oberthür, Franz218, 219, 220n10Omri224Orient, Orientalism13, 211Orientalist exegesis221, 223, 226–230Orobio de Castro, Isaac18n2, 19–21, 24–27, 37, 46, 78n45Orthodoxy, Orthodox10, 12, 13, 142, 210, 240–263, 264, 267, 269, 275, 278, 279Orthodox historiography and Wissenschaft des Judentums242, 244, 247, 255, 260, 261, 263Otto I57Otto II57Ottoman Empire4Ovid102Oxlee, John130, 131Palestine: Mandate Palestine286, 298, 310–313, 315, 319, 325, 327YishuvParet, Heinrich155, 157–183, 273, 281n2, 291–294Paris10, 83, 157, 199, 200Paul271, 282, 300Perea161Persia, Persians100n64, 228, 229, 236n50Pharisees34–36, 98, 124, 128, 156, 190, 198n49, 200n56, 206, 209–211, 244, 246, 275, 276, 298, 342Phasaelis233, 234Philippson, Ludwig221, 223, 224n23, 229, 238Philo of Alexandria21, 25, 59, 96, 215, 220n10, 270–272Phoenicia, Phoenicians228Pilate, Pontius302, 303Pines, Yechiel Michel251Pinsk265Plato21, 30, 92, 105, 130n113, 140, 143, 271Pliny225, 276Plutarch64Polybius13Ponar333Popkin, Richard19n5, 28n49, 47, 54n50Poppaea277Posen (Poznań)113, 139n159Prague66n10, 69n19, 187, 216, 254Prussia, Prussian202, 203, 214Restoration period189, 193, 202revolution of 1848203(pseudo-)Hegesippus67n15, 71, 73Ptolemy II Philadelphus116, 129, 130Ptolemy VI162, 163Ptolemy225Purim204Purim shpil339, 341rabbinic literature50, 51, 111, 210, 250, 252, 282, 343Megillat Ta‘anit249Midrashim150, 209, 221, 239, 302Mishnah47, 52, 57, 89, 110, 209, 228, 302Talmud47, 108–115, 117, 142, 144, 150, 188, 213, 221, 239, 249, 302rabbinic sages21, 103, 109, 110, 114–117, 197, 245, 248, 249, 253, 256–258, 262, 263, 303atttitude to classical culture88, 89Yoḥanan ben ZakkaiRabinowitz, Sha’ul Pinchas272Raisin, Max266n7, 267, 269n15, 274Rajak, Tessa20Raphael, Frederic185Raphall, Morris Jacob131–135, 139n159, 142, 143Rapoport, Solomon Judah Loeb71n24, 254Rapoport-Albert, Ada240Rashi57, 229Reform movement10, 12, 89, 108, 109, 111, 114n38, 116, 122–125, 138n151, 139, 142, 193, 208, 210, 253, 267n11, 275Regelson, Avraham304Reggio, Isaac Samuel94n37, 95, 128Reich (Ohad), Michael325Renaissance20, 21, 49, 50, 88, 96Republic of Letters23, 27, 61Reuss, Eduard192n30, 204n68, 205–208, 211revolt against the Romans: Bar Kokhba153, 262, 326–328first68, 86, 101, 103, 148, 153, 154, 245, 255, 277, 279, 289, 302, 311, 315, 320, 337, 338, 342–345Riesser, Gabriel201Rollin, Charles119Rome59, 66n12, 79, 88, 93, 100, 193, 208, 213–215, 262n128, 277, 278, 289, 298, 305n98, 315, 319, 326, 343Josephus; revolt against the RomansRoth, Cecil28, 123, 127, 137Rothschild, Lionel de125, 126, 133, 138n150Rotterdam43Rudashevski, Yitzḥak330, 333–338, 343n46, 345Russia10, 13, 149, 150, 152–154, 156, 178, 182, 264, 266, 268Sabbatical river129Sadducees34, 98, 124, 190, 198n49, 209, 210, 242n6, 244, 246, 248, 276Saint-Simon, Henri de195, 196Saint-Simonianism197–199Salvador, Joseph186, 194–202, 206–208, 211, 214, 216Samaria, Samaritans135, 136, 171, 172, 224, 225Samuel, Sampson120, 121, 137, 141Sardinia59Saul (King)341Scaliger, Joseph Justus34, 57Schalit, Abraham10, 69n17, 104n81, 296, 297Schmitt, Carl326Schoffman, Gershon304Schorr, Alexander10, 331n4Schorsch, Ismar190, 260Schulman, Kalman6–9, 11n12, 69n17, 85, 98, 100, 104, 144–184, 262, 264, 273, 274, 277, 331Schürer, Emil195n40, 332Schwartz, Daniel R.214, 215Schwartz, Yehosef97sects, sectarianism34, 38, 97, 98, 124, 128, 142, 198n49, 209, 210n85, 230, 232n45, 244, 275, 276, 315, 326Essenes; Pharisees; SadduceesSefer Yosippon1–2, 4–6, 8, 14, 20, 30, 31n63, 42–44, 46, 48, 49, 51–62, 66–84, 86, 87, 94, 97, 121, 141, 144, 157, 162, 167, 168, 172, 188, 203n65, 241, 242, 279, 284–286, 296, 310, 311Latin131Yosef ben Gurion ha-Kohen30, 51, 55, 56, 58, 60–61, 67, 70–72, 74–76, 79, 81, 86, 87, 94, 96, 242, 285Seianus, Lucius Aelius59Seneca92Sepharad, Sephardim6, 13, 31, 47, 187, 194Western Sephardim27, 33, 34, 37, 45, 46, 64–66, 136Western Sephardim and Christians5, 12, 18–24, 31–34, 46, 54, 60Ashkenaz; conversos; Iberia; ‘New Christians’Septuagint68, 116, 130, 221‘Greek translation’258Serrarius, Petrus34Shapira, Yitzḥak332Sheehan, Jonathan227Shemer224Shlomo Zalman53Shmuel ha-Katan56Shullam, Samuel4, 5, 19, 23n27, 30, 99Silberstein, Michael129Silver, Abba Hillel269Simchoni, Jacob Naftali Hertz1, 10, 11, 85, 104, 158, 182–184, 299, 300, 309, 311, 331Simeon the Just110, 111Simhah, Abraham150Simon (Hasmonean)176Simon bar Giora76, 342Simon ben Gamaliel277Slutsk264, 276Socrates90, 140Sofer, Moses (Ḥatam Sofer)89Solomon (King)232, 233Solomon, Henry Naphtali137Sophocles92, 105Sorkin, David87sovereignty, state (Jewish)25, 26, 36–38, 41, 74, 75, 77, 78, 84, 151, 252, 308Spinoza, Baruch de17, 18, 21n15, 33, 35–41, 46, 190n21St. Petersburg153Stein, Edmund Menachem10, 300n74Stein, Leopold187n10, 193Steinschneider, Moritz71n25, 205n69, 254Stern, Menachem144, 305n92Stockholm131Strabo25, 73, 190, 225Strasbourg206Sue, Eugène146, 157Suetonius59, 190Szeintuch, Yechiel333Tacitus21, 38, 59, 64, 93n34, 190, 316n33targumim209, 221, 302Tchernichovsky, Saul105n83, 341Tel Aviv311, 312Temple: aristocracy, priests75, 76, 78, 110, 130, 168, 197, 209, 262n128, 270, 277, 278, 290, 308cherubim95, 128First Temple181, 187, 273Second Temple2, 57, 60, 68, 74, 75, 81, 151, 158, 165–168, 170, 174, 175, 180, 187, 252, 256, 275, 316, 317destruction of the Second Temple43, 61, 68, 75, 81, 82, 93, 98, 103, 148, 150, 153, 173, 178, 191, 199, 300, 302, 314, 324, 328rebuilding of26, 53, 54, 76Temple Mount274Ten Tribes (of Israel)52, 54, 60–63, 74, 77, 78, 83, 84Testimonium Flavianum21, 205n72, 218, 219, 301Thackeray, H. St. John148n13, 278, 291–295, 311n15Themistocles92theocracy10, 37, 197Theodores, Tobias139Thucydides13, 64, 185Tiberias289Tiberius59Titus11, 56, 76, 98, 129, 148, 150, 179, 191, 198, 200, 203, 211, 245, 249, 256, 257, 272, 278, 289, 314, 316, 317, 322–326translation: biblicizing158, 177–182domesticating156–184literal and scholarly184JosephusTreblinka339Treitschke, Heinrich von214–216Troy101Trojan War91Trunk, Isaiah335, 336Trunk, Yehiel Yeshaya332, 343n47Tuch, Friedrich223Turbovitsh, Leib337Tzoref, Efrayim313, 314, 317United States of America, American11, 12, 264, 267, 270, 278, 279, 326USSR, Soviet Union: army334, 345Vallentine, Isaac106, 107, 122, 123Van Oven, Joshua111, 112, 120Vater, Johann Severin223Vatke, Wilhelm238Venice25Versailles195Vespasian57, 76, 163, 203, 206, 245, 246, 249, 255, 257, 272, 312n18, 314, 316, 323, 324Vienna83Vilna (Vilnius)11, 145, 146, 149, 153, 251, 273, 333, 334, 338Ghetto330, 331, 333–338, 344, 345uprising against the Germans337Virgil102Vittel339Voloshin, Sara333Volozhin: Yeshiva145, 243Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet)134, 195Vossius, Dionysius23Vossius, Gerardus23, 46n15Warsaw11, 107, 268Ghetto330, 331, 338–341, 343, 344, 345Ghetto Uprising338, 339, 344Weizmann, Chaim265Wessely, Naphtali Herz (Hartwig)90Westphalia, Westphalian188, 189, 194, 211Whiston, William7, 107n6, 116, 118, 122, 127, 129, 140–142Winer, Georg225Wissenschaft des Judentums6, 9, 10, 12, 13, 69, 145historiography; OrthodoxyWolf, Friedrich August189, 190Wolf, Johann Christoph261Wolfenbüttel188, 203Wolfson, Yeḥiel Michel276Würzburg218Xenophon64, 234, 235Yadin, Yigael185, 310n6Yana’it-Ben Zvi, Rachel309Yavetz, Golda251Yavetz, Ze’ev10, 241, 242, 249–263Yavin, Abraham333, 334, 336n34Yehoash (Solomon Blumgarten)335, 346n57Yerushalmi, Yosef Hayim11n12, 19n5, 20n10, 21n16, 31n65, 32, 44n8, 244n12Yishuv10–13, 264, 279, 309–312, 313n21, 315PalestineYitzḥak Meir Shapiro of Uman276Yoḥanan ben Zakkai, Rabbi89, 253n77, 277, 297, 311, 312, 315, 343Yavneh312, 315, 326, 343, 344Yoḥanan Gabriel Sofer53Yosef ben Gurion (Jerusalem leader)71, 74, 279, 285Yosippon,Sefer YosipponYossi ha-Kohen277Zacut(o), Abraham4, 5, 23n27, 30, 65, 99Zealots74, 120, 150, 153, 173, 203, 213, 214, 245, 310, 337, 343Zhitomir: Teachers’ Seminar267Zion75, 297, 308, 320, 321Zionism, Zionists10–12, 217, 264, 267, 279, 313, 315, 330, 331n5, 334, 338n27, 341, 344, 345Ḥoveve Zion265, 268, 272, 273n27Zunz, Leopold71n24, 92n31, 111n23, 186, 188, 190n17, 203, 211, 272Zurich234
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