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IndexAbbas, Shemeem Burney 261ʿAbbas the Great (Safavid ruler of Iran) 56Abrahamic religions 246 275abrogation 88Abu Dawud 121Adel, Shaykh 162 163aesthetic Sufism 199 237 255al-Afghani, Jamal al-Din 97Ahmad, Salman 23 263266 267269 270271 276Ahmad, Sayyid 83Ahmed, Shahab 68 275Aïssel, Selim 134 137138 144Ajmer (India) 269Ajvatovica (Bosnia) 254Akasoy, Anna 67akhlaq literature 9293Algar, Hamid 236237 241ʿAli ibn Abi Talib 78 85Ali, M. Athar 41ʿAli, Shah Ghulam 77 78 81 83 93 9798 280Ali-Shah, Omar 189Al-Amam li Iqaz al-Himam (al-Kurani) 111anthropological research of Sufi orders 212213 214 of Sufi practices 6061 277Anzali, Ata 277Aq Shams al-Din (Akshemseddin) 120Ardalan, Nader 142Ardistani/Azar Sasani, Mir Zulfiqar (Mowbad) 35Arica School 140 141Arnold, Mr. 98artistic Sufism 183Asad, Talal 69Asani, Ali xii 23 276ascension of Muhammad 45Ašceric-Todd, Ines 235ashrafi culture 7678 9899Atay, Tayfun 219Athar al-Sanadid (SAK) 79authenticity of Dabistan 40 48 Islamic 7 20 22 154 159 251 268 281 Western search for 1516 176authenticity Sufism 152 154 155autobiographical writings 150151 280 spiritual 173174 Western Sufi 21 149 151152 155156 279 Brodbeck 164168 Kabeer Faye 168173 Keller 160163 spatiality in 158 168 171172 174177 279 Sugich 156158al-ʿAydarus, ʿAbd al-Rahman 115al-ʿAyyashi, Abu Salim 117Azadi (Freedom, Rock album, Junoon) 267al-Azhar University 108Azmat, Ali 266Azra, Azyumardi 116Bakhtiar, Laleh 141142 143 144Baljon, Johannes Marinus Simon 100Balkans Islam in 255 Sufism in 2223 see also Bosniaal-Balkhi, Asʿad 110Barelwi-based Sufism 184Barrow, Isaac 48al-Barwaji, Sibghat Allah ibn Ruh Allah al-Husayni 110Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship 153 171 181Bektaši Sufi order 240Bennett, John G. 129 132134 144Bentinck, William 39Beurs/Beurettes 211212 224 226 in Budshishiyya Sufi order 212 213 217 221 222224 226230 religious identities 212 223 282Bhutto, Benazir 265Bible, commentaries on 8788bidʿa 81 83Bilgrami, ʿAbd al-Wahid 261Birgivi, Muhammad 107Blagaj (Bosnia) 254Blavatsky, Helena 131body, Sufi pedagogical uses of 60Bollywood songs, turned into Sufi devotional songs 259Book of Congregations and Cults (Shahrastani) 46Book of Strangers (Dallas) 151Bosnia Sufi-oriented Islam in 233239 252256 281282 Islamic scholarship 243247 Naqshibandi Sufism 239 240243 253 281 women’s devotional practices 233 237 238 247252 253 281Bosnian Muslim Women’s Rituals (film, Raudvere and Spahić-Šiljak) 248Bougarel, Xavier 235Bringa, Tone 235Brodbeck, Rabia Christine 155 164168Brzina, Halil 240241 242 253Buden, Boris 10Budshish, Hamza 22 212 215 221222Budshishiyya Sufi order anthropological research of 212213 214 in Europe/West 22 212 214 219 282283 Beurs adherents/reverts 22 212 213 217 221 222224 226230 converts 216217 221222 224 228 re-affiliated Muslims 217 221 transplants 216 urban adherents 220222 in Morocco 211 213214 216 218219 227228 transnational growth of 214215bulas (female ritual leaders, Bosnia) 250252Bulleya (Sufi Rock song, Junoon) 268Cehajić, Džemal 235Çelebi, Süleyman 249Central Asia, Sufism in 2021 129chains of transmission of al-Qushshashi 109112 113115 116 of Sufi orders 112113chakkinama (song) 260Challenger, Anna 136charisma, of Sufi masters 185 189 221 240 241 242 256Chih, Rachida xii 20 279 280281Chishti, Khwaja Muʿin al-Din, shrine of 259Chishtiyya Sufi order 112 185 260 261Chittick, William 5859 68Christianity influences of 84 and Islam 8788 philosophy 69Clayer, Nathalie 235Claymont Institute (Gurdjieff Movement) 133 134 145Clifford, James 4colonialism influences on Islamic scholars of 80 8789 97 99 Western views of Sufism in 910commemoration rituals 238constructivism, study of mysticism 14conversion 219220 to Islam, of Westerners 170 175 to Sufism of Muslims (re-conversion/reversion) 22 212 213 217 221 222225 of Westerners 11 15 151152 164Budshishiyya Sufi order 216217 221222 224 228Corbin, Henry 3637 5455 57 277corporatism, in religious groups 219counter-modern movements 151 188189 192 196counter-rationalist/counter-Enlightenment movements 187 197cultural Muslims 217cultural transference 8cultural translation 6 11al-Dabbagh, ʿAbd al-ʿAziz 118Dabbagh, Soroush 201Dabistan-i Mazahib (School of Teachings) 19 33 authorship of 3435 English translation of 3740 46 49 276 Indian dimension of 36 Orientalist views of 33 4243 4445 48 Persian dimension of 3536 on Sufism 40 4246 and Hinduism 42 4647 taxonomy of religions in 4042Dallas, Ian (Abdalqadir as-Sufi) 15 151 157Damascus, Sufism in 132133Dar, Bashir Ahmad 79 95Dard, Mir 77 94 99Dasatir 36 37 42daʿwa 16dead, commemoration rituals for 238definitions of Sufism 19 5354 6970 East-West encounters 58 outsider-insider conceptualizations 59 sainthood as part of 6364 6567 and Shiite mysticism 5455 Western 53 6768Dehlawi, ʿAbd al-Haqq 7879dervishes/dervish dances Bosnian 253 Dabestan on 47 in Gurdjieff movement 131 132 Iranian 56dhikr 162 in Bosnia 236 238 241242 255 281 by women 233 247 248 251 in Budshishiyya Sufi order 215216 228 criticism/rejection of 81 251252 in Gurdjieff Movement 135 Sanskrit mantras as formulas for 36Dickson, William Rory 182Dieye, Shaykh 171dil Pakistan (song) 265‘disenchantment of the world’ notion (Weber) 188Dominguez-Diaz, Marta xii 22 282283Dominican Republic, Gurdjieff Movement in 134135 144Duncan, Jonathan 38Durkee, Nooruddeen 152dynamic integrejectionism 21 180 199200 278 of Western Sufism 200201East mysticism in Western spirituality influenced by 1213 Western views of 11 4849 57 187188 Sufism in 5 67 8 23 162 and West Bosnia as contact zone of 254 dichotomy/resonance space 12 2 164 165167 Sufism in 23 56 8 58 163 174175 273 274 277 279Eaton, Richard 260Eberhardt, Isabelle 11Egypt Ottoman rule of 108 Sufism in 104105 280‘elephant in the dark room’ fable 273274Elliot, Pierre 133 134135 144Embracing Islam (Durkee) 152Encyclopaedia Iranica 3637Encyclopaedia of Islam 277Enlightenment Islamic 203 see also counter-rationalist/counter-Enlightenment movementsenneagram movement 129 134 138143 144 282Ernst, Carl W. xiixiii 19 276Esalen 140esotericism Islamic/Oriental, Western views of 11 57 rejection of 161Essays (on Behalf) of Bosnia, (Karić) 244245ethnographic research, on Sufism 104105 153 282Eurhythmics 132Euro-Sufism 201Europe Muslims in, reversion to Islam/Sufism of 22 212 213 217 221 Sufism in 214European Islam 255 282experience-oriented religiosity, in Sufism 189falsafa (Islamic philosophy) 68Fani Kashmiri, Mohsin 34Faroqhi, Suraiya 108Feild, Reshad 151Firdawsiyya Sufi order 112Foucault, Michel 21 149 172 175176 279France, Budshishiyya Sufi order in 212 214 219 282Free University of Samadeva 129 134 136137 144From the Stage to the Prayer Mat (Brodbeck) 155 164168Gaborieau, Marc 48gardens, as symbolic sites 176177 279Geaves, Ron 185186gender differences in autobiographical writings 174175 279 in East-West perspectives 21gender relations, in Sufism 190 213Genn, Gelia A. 201Geoffroy, Éric 119Georgius de Hungaria 8Germany, Sufism in 181 184 219al-Ghani, Shah ʿAbd 83Ghawth, Muhammad 110 112 113114 115al-Ghazali 87Gilliat-Ray, Sophie 220Gladwin, Francis 3738 47glocalization 197Godlas, Alan 186 217Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 10 198Goodenough, Sharifa 201Great Western Transmutation (GWT) 279Greek philosophy, influences on Muslim world of 6869Green, Nile 184185Griffith, Ennea Tess 138Gril, Denis 115Grillo, Ralph D. 212Guénon, René 11 186 196al-Gujarati, Wajih al-Din 110Gurdjieff, George 20 129 130131 136 144 151Gurdjieff International Review 136Gurdjieff Journal 136 145Gurdjieff movement 2021 131132 135136 and Sufism 129130 132135 136138 143145 enneagram movement 129 134 138143 144 282Hafiz, Shams al-Din Muhammad 10Hafizović, Rešid 243 244 245247 281hagiographies 156157 190Hali, Khwajah Altaf Husain 86 97 98 100al-Hallaj, Husayn b. Mansur 54Halveti Sufi order 165Halveti-Jerrahi Sufi order 153al-Hamawi, Mustafa 111Hamidah, Hajjah 134Hammer, Olav 185 202Hammer-Purgstall, Joseph von 10 198Hanson, Hamza Yusuf 154Haqaiq-e Hindi (Bilgrami) 261al-Haqqani, Nazim Adil 16 144Haqqaniyya Sufi order, in West 16 196 219Haroon, Shaykh 173Hartmann, Thomas de 132Henig, David 235Hermansen, Marcia xiii 21 186 273 279heterotopic spaces (Foucault) 175176al-Hifni, Muhammad 115Hinduism and Sufism 42 4647 246 261Hodgson, Marshall G.S. 69 279Howell, Julia 202Hujwiri, ʿAli 172Human Image in the Mirror of Sufism (Hafizović) 245246Hussain, Nusrat 266hybrid Sufism 153 166 186 194IAGF (International Association of Gurdjieff Foundations) 136Ibn ʿAdi, Yahya 92Ibn ʿArabi 8788 influence of 20 108 110111 114 116 120 161 280281 studies of 62 68 as Sufi thinker 55 5859 writings of 157 161Ibn al-Haytham 93Ibn Idris, Ahmad 105 119Ibn Miskawayh 9192Ibn Sina publishing house (Sarajevo) 243244 245Ibn Taymiyya 63Ichazo, Óscar 138 140 141 144 145IEA (International Enneagram Association) 139140 141 145 282ihsan (behavioural excellence) 222 282283ijaza (license) 115imitatio Muhammadi 78Inayat-Khan, Zia 189190 201India Muslims in 90 Sufi Rock in 267 269 Sufism in 45 Western quest for spirituality in 170individuality, in Sufi religiosity 189 221 243244 282Indonesia, Sufism in 116 225226Infiniti (Sufi Rock album, Salman Ahmad) 269integrationist Sufism 195integrejectionism 196197 278 dynamic 199200 278 of Western Sufism 200201internalization of Sufism 6667International Sufi Movement 12Intesab (Accountability, Rock song, Junoon) 267Iqbal, Javed 267Iqbal, Muhammad 193 266 267Iran, Sufism in 56 120ʿirfan (mystical insight/practices) 274 277 Iranian Shiite views of 56 and Sufi practices 57 59Isfahani, Mir Muhammad Husayn 34Isfandiyar, Kaykhusraw 35Islam authentic 7 20 22 154 159 251 268 281 Bosnian 233235 236 238 252254 255256 282 scholarship of 243247 women’s devotional practices 233 237 238 247252 and Christianity 8788 conversion of Westerners to 170 175 European 255 282 in Indonesia 226 and modernity 193194 mysticism in (tasawwuf) 1 5 8 56 58 277 philosophy in 6869 pluralism in 15 puritanism in 8182 radical Muslim youth attracted to 270271 in Pakistan 264265 266 267270 and Sufism 78 276 reformist 78 105 203 reversion by young Muslims to 22 212 213 217 221 223 and Sufism 180 217 274275 276 Islamic criticism 19 76 by SAK 76 8081 on sainthood 6263 6465 typologies of Sufism based on 185186 Western Sufism 153154 in United States 154 Western views of 276 see also Shiite Islam; Sunni IslamIslamic Community (Bosnia) 239 241 245 249 254Islamic law schools 119Islamic literature hagiographies 156157 imitations of 161Islamicate world 149 modern movements in 193 reception of Schimmel’s work in 6 and West 145Islamism see radical IslamIsmaʿil, Muhammad 78 82isolationist Sufism 195 196 197al-Jabri, Muhammad ʿAbid 9293Jackson, A.V. Williams 40Jalalis 47Jameela, Maryam 175James, William 132Jami, ʿAbd al-Rahman 44Al-Jawahir al-Khamsa (The Five Jewels, Gwath) 110Jesus, Prophethood of 87al-Jifri, Habib 154Jones, William 10 3334 41 42 4849 276Jordan, Sufism in 162Journey through Ten Thousand Veils (Kabeer Faye) 155 168173Junoon (Obsession, Rock band) 23 263 265 266269 276Kabbalistic Tree of Life 139Kabbani, Hisham 142143 153Kabeer, Ahamad 171Kabeer Faye, Maryam 155 168173 176177Kalimat al-Haqq (Word of the Truth, SAK) 80Karić, Enes 243 244245 247 281Kashf al-Mahjub (Hujwiri) 172kashf-i ʿaqli (intellectual revelation) 9394Kayvan, Azar 34 3637Keller, Nuh Ha Mim 15 155 158163 175Khalwatiyya Sufi order 104105 280Khan, Inayat 12 153 185Khan, Nusrat Fateh Ali 262 263 265266Khan, Sayyid Ahmad (SAK) 19 7778 98 100 279280 ashrafi culture/position of 7677 78 9899 Christian/colonial influences on 8789 dreams of 78 83 8586 9798 on rationality 84 97 99 100 and mysticism 8485 9596 on religion-state/society distinction 8182 88 91 Sufi criticism of 76 7985 8687 Sufi roots of/concepts used by 7677 88 9495 97 100 writings of 7883 8688 see also Tahdhib al-Akhlaq (journal, SAK)Khan, Vilayat 189khanaqah (monastery) 70khirqa (initiatory investiture) 114115Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah 54khudi (the self, poem, Iqbal) 267King, Richard 48Kinney, Jay 181Klinkhammer, Gritt 14 181Knysh, Alexander xiii 19 275 277 278Kondylis, Panajotis 85Krishna, Lajwanti 260Kubrawiyya Sufi order 112al-Kurani, Ibrahim 109 111al-Kurdi, Muhammad Saʿid 159 162Lama Foundation 170Lassen, Søren Christian 185The Last Barrier (Feild) 151Latin America, Gurdjieff Movement in 136Latter-day Saint Movement 131Lawrence, Bruce B. xiiixiv 2324 82Le Gall, Dina 116leadership ritual, of women 248 250252 Sufi 189 214215 see also shaykhsLeigh, David 173174Lennon, John 263Leyden, John 38life narratives 151 see also autobiographical writingsliterary Sufism 18 182183 279280 and modernity 191 and Sufi praxis 5962 277278 see also philosophical Sufismliterature see Islamic literature; Sufi literatureliving Sufism 182 183 and modernity 191London, Sufism in 12Loras, Jelaluddin 135 141Loras, Süleyman 133 144 145Löwy, Michael 187Luqat al-La⁠ʾali min al-Jawhar al-Ghali (al-Zabidi) 115Madagh (Morocco) 211 215 227Madar, Shah 47Madaris 47madhhab (Islamic law schools) 119mahabba (love) 215Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir 56Malamatiyya movement 1Malik, Jamal xiv 19 279280Malik, Rahim Riza-zada 35Manuel, Peter 262maʿrifa (pursuit of knowledge) 215Maryamiyya Sufi order 141 157 185master-disciple relationship 214 242Mathnawi (Rumi) 273274mawlud/mawlid acceptability of 96 celebrations 227 233 238 247252 281 see also mevludmedieval Sufism, continuity of 105106Medina scholarly community of 109110 status of 108 Sufism in 120Meetings with Remarkable Men (Gurdjieff) 151Mehta, Brinda J. 227Memon, Muhammad 63Mevlevi Sufi order 133 in America 134 135 141mevlud see mawlud/mawlidmigrant-based Western Sufism 12 13 16 22 192193 216modern Sufism 180 201 202 203 278modernity 200 alternative 1314 and Islam/Muslims 193194 and secularity 104105 Sufi engagements with 202203 273 278279 280 adaptability 189190 225 and history of Western Sufism 191 197199 integrationism - rejectionism (escapism) – isolationism triad 194196 and integrejectionism concept 21 180 196197 199201 278 resistance 151 180 187189 192 196 and typologies of Sufism 190194 278Moore, Daniel 170Moore, James 136Morocco atheism in 217 migration to Europe from 224225 Sufism in 211 213214 216 218219 225 227228Muhaiyaddeen, Bawa 16 153 171 181Muhammad (Prophet) 45 96 Sufi masters as direct heirs of 117 Sufi views of 121Muhammadan path see Tariqa Muhammadiyyaal-Muhasibi 99100al-Muhibbi, Muhammad 111 116Mujahidin movement 79Mujtabai, Fathullah 37Murabitun Sufi order/World Movement 15 157Musaylima 41museum as heterotopic space (Foucault) 175176 279Musharraf, General Pervez 268269 270music, Sufi devotional 259 qawwali 261262 265 266 Sufi Rock 276 global impact of 270271 in South Asia 23 263270Muslim empires, history of 107108Muslim world see Islamicate worldMuslim World Outreach program (United States) 270Mutaqqi, Mir 77Nabulusi 118119Al-Nafha al-Qudsiyya bi-Wasitat al-Bidʿa al-ʿAydarusiyya (al-Zabidi) 115Namiqa dar Bayan-i Masʾala-yi Tasawwur-i Shaykh (SAK) 8283Naqshbandi Sufism 84 93 106 113 116 120 203 in Bosnia 239 240243 253 281 in West 134 142143 153 219Naqshbandi-Haqqani Sufi order 153Naqshbandiyya-Khalidiyya Sufi order, in West 16Naqshbandiyya-Mujaddidiyya Sufi order 77 93 95 203 contemplative practices of 8283Naranjo, Claudio 138139 140 141 144Nasir, Khawaja Muhammad 7778 94Nasr, Seyyed Hossein 55 58 141142 166Nazim, Shaykh 153Necker, Jacques 48Neoplatonism, and Sufism 43 4849neo-Sufism 84 94 105 201202 281New Age spirituality 13 140 in Western Sufism 17 153 169 185 202 221Nimatullahi communities 195nostalgia, for loss of spirituality 169 175 176 279Nowotny, Stefan 10NRMs (New Religious Movements) 222Nurbakhsh, Muhammad 45Nurbakhshi Nimatullahiyya Sufi order, in West 16Nurbaksh, Javad 142Nursi, Said 166oases, as symbolic sites 176177O’Connell, Brian 266O’Fahey, Sean 105106Öktem, Kerem 235236‘On the Mystical Poetry of the Persians and the Hindus’ (essay, Jones) 48‘On the Philosophy of the Asiaticks’ (essay, Jones) 49Oriental Translation Fund 38 39Orientalism 2 on Dabistan 33 4243 4445 48 on Eastern mysticism 4849 on Islamic esotericism 11 57 on Sufism 19 33 4243 4445 47 49 181 188 276 see also self-orientalizationorigins, of Western Sufism 182 187 197198orthodoxy/orthopraxy, in Sufism 1516Ottoman Empire 108 heritage of, in Bosnia 237 254 Sufism in 120 121Ouspensky, Peter 131132 138outsider-insider conceptualizations of Sufism 59Ozak, Muzaffer 135 144 165Pagani, Samuela 116Pakistan qawwali music in 262 265 266 Sufi Rock in 263270 276 Sufism in 268Palmer, Aiyub 64Parvaz (Flight, Sufi Rock album, Junoon) 268Parveen, Abida 262Patterson, William Patrick 136 145Perennialist Sufism 58 186 188 criticism on 161 and modernity 194Persian identity 35Pétri, Patrick Jean see Aïssel, SelimPetsche, Johanna 135136philosophical Sufism 67 distinct from practical Sufism 58 5960 6769 Western emphasis on 6768 see also literary SufismPittman, Michael S. 134poetry, Sufi in South Asia 260261 266 Western views of 10‘Polishing of the Hearts by Remembering the Beloved’ (Jala⁠ʾ al-Qulub bi Dhikr al-Mahbub, Sayyid Ahmad Khan) 7879polytheism, Sufi sainthood practices seen as 65Popovic, Alexandre 235post-modernity 188 199Pourjavady, Nasrollah 55practical Sufism, and literary/philosophical Sufism 5862 6769 277278Pratt, John H. 97privatization of Sufism 6667Prophethood of Jesus, SAK on 87 SAK on 79Protestantism, Prophethood in 79Punjab Sufi poetry in 266 Sufi songs in 260puritanism Islamic 8182 Sufi 105Purusha myth 246Qawl al-Jamil (Shah Wali Allah) 80qawwali Sufi music 261262 265 266Qunawi, Sadr al-Din 43Qureshi, Regula 262al-Qushshashi, Ahmad 20 108109 121 280 chains of transmission/spiritual affiliations of 109112 113115 116 ‘seal of the saints’ title of 116117 on spiritual lineages of Sufi orders 112113 Tariqa Muhammadiyya of 118Radha-Krishna motif in Sufi poetry 261radical Islam Muslim youth attracted to 270271 in Pakistan 264265 266 267270 and Sufism 78 276Radtke, Bernd 105106Rah-yi Sunnat dar Radd-i Bidʿat (SAK) 81Rahman, Fazlur 20 105 107 201rationalism/rationality counter-movements 187 197 and mysticism 85 of SAK 84 9596 97 99 100 and Sufism 9394 SAK on 83 8485 87Raudvere, Catharina xiv 2223 248 281282Rawlinson, Andrew 181Razi, Fakhr al-Din 88re-affiliation 220 221re-conversion see reversionreformism Islamic 78 105 203 Sufi 87 106 121 202Reliance of the Traveller (Keller) 162religion psychologization of 189 and state/society dichotomy 8182 88 91 suppression of, in Yugoslavia 238239 248 254 taxonomies of, in Dabistan 4042The Religion of the Sufis (Shah) 40religious identities, European Beurs/Beurettes 22 212 223 282resonance space, East and West as 2 Sufism in 23 56 8reversion 219220 of Indonesian Muslims 226 of Western Muslims 22 212 213 217 221 222225 227230Reyes, José 134135 144Rifai, Kenan 202203Rifaʿi Sufi order 240Risalat al-Radd ʿala Ahl al-Ra⁠ʾy (Ibn Idris) 119‘Road to the Beloved’ (poem, Kabeer Faye) 168169Rock music see Sufi Rockromantic epics, mystical ideas in 261Romanticism, origins of Western Sufism in 187 197198Romanticists translation viewed by 10 translations of Sufi works by 1011Rosa, Hartmut 2Rozehnal, Robert 60Rückert, Friedrich 10 198Ruh al-Quds (Ibn ʿArabi) 157Rumi, Jalal al-Din 44 55 273274 translations of works of 10 42 Western readership of 183 283Saaeein (Lord, Master, Rock composition) 266Safawiyya Sufi order 120Safi, Omid 202Sahib, Bulaqi 86Saʿid, Shah Ahmad 98saint narratives 156 157 158 160sainthood Islamic criticism of 6263 6465 in Sufism 6364 6567 83 120 121 al-Qushshashi on 116 seal of the prophets 116117 120SAK see Khan, Sayyid AhmadSakhawi 114samaʿ concerts 261Samadeva centers 137Samadeva Free University 129 134 136137 144Sanskrit additions to Dabestan in 44 mantras, as dhikr formulas 36Sarajevo, Sufism in 233 236 237 238239 241 248 281Sarmoung order 131 137 143Saudi Arabia 157Sayonee (Friend, Sufi Rock song, Junoon) 267Sayre, Robert 187Schafer, R. Murray 3Schimmel, Annemarie ix 56 15 93 283Schleβmann, Ludwig 221Schulze, Reinhard 105 203Schuon, Frithjof 141 157 185Schwalm, Helga 150Sea without Shore(Keller) 155 160163‘seal of the saints’ title 116117 120secularization, and modernity 104105Sedgwick, Mark xiv 9 2021 153 182 202 281 282šehid (martyrs) 248self-discovery/self-purification, Sufi emphasis on 99 189self-orientalization 20 99 280Selimović, Meša 237al-Shadhili, Abu al-Hasan 161Shadhiliyya Sufi order 159 160 161 185al-Shaghuri, ʿAbd al-Rahman 159 160161Shah, Bulleh 263 266 268Shah, Idries 12 15 40 133 136 144 183 189Shahrastani 46Shakoor, Muhyiddin 151152Shaʿrani 111112 118Shariati, Ali 142 193Sharif, Nawaz 265al-Shattar, ʿAbd Allah 112Shattariyya Sufi order 112 116shaykhs (Sufi masters) 65 83 104 adherence to 221222 in Bosnia 241 charisma of 185 189 221 240 241 242 256 ijaza issued by 115 master-disciple relationships of 214 242 as Muhammad’s heirs 117 practices of visualization of 93Shea, David 19 3839Sherborne Institute (Gurdjieff Movement) 133 145Shiite Islam Sufi orders belonging to 183184 views on Sufism of 5457 59al-Shinnawi, Ahmad 111112 113 115al-Shinnawi, ʿAli 111al-Shinnawi, Muhammad 111Shirazi, Mulla Sadra 56shirk (polytheism), Sufi sainthood practices seen as 65shrine worship/pilgrimage 86 9798 100 172 184 259260 Islamic rejection of 65Siddiqi, Wahab 219‘The Significance of Sufism in the History of Islamic Civilization’ (essay, Karić) 244Signs on the Horizons (Sugich) 155 156158Al-Simt al-Majid fi Sha⁠ʾn al-Bayʿa, wa al-Dhikr wa Talqinihi, wa Salasil Ahl al-Tawhid (al-Qushshashi) 108109 116simultaneity notion (Foucault) 21 149Sinanova (Sarajevo) 237Sind, Sufi songs in 260Sirhindi, Ahmad 100Smirnov, Andrei 59Smith, Joseph 131Smith, Wilfred Cantwell 15songs, Sufi 259260 in South Asia 261Soroush, Abdolkarim 193soundscape 3 of Sufism 3South Asia, Sufism in 23 279280 devotional music 259 261262 poetry 260261 266 Rock music 263270Spahić-Šiljak, Zilka 248spatiality notion (Foucault) 149 150 in Western Sufi autobiographical writings 158 168 171172 174177 279spinning, in Sufi poetry 260spiritual autobiography 173174spiritual masters hidden 131 Sufi see shaykhsspirituality Sufi chains of 112 in West Eastern influences on 1213 New Age 13 17 140 153 169 185 202 221 quest/nostalgia for loss of 1516 169 170 175 176 279subalternity 89Subhani (Sabjani) 43 4546Sudradjat, Iwan 175as-Sufi, ʿAbd al-Qadir see Dallas, Ian‘Sufi Hermeneutics of the Heart as the Recipient of Initiatory Wisdom’ (essay, Hafizović) 245246Sufi literature akhlaqi 9293 hagiographies 156157 190 imitations of 158 163 khirqa treatises 115 poetry 10 260261 266 publication of in Bosnia 243244 in Egypt 280 study of 107 in West 59 182183 190 and Sufi praxis 277278 translations of in Bosnia 243244 281 in West 1011Sufi masters see ShaykhsSufi orders 18 adherents 114 youngsters 212213 219 253 282 anthropological research of 212213 214 in Bosnia 233 236237 239 240 247248 254 255 282 chains of transmission of 112113 in Egypt 104105 280 evolution of 107 Islamic 217 221 master-disciple relationships in 214 242 see also shaykhs in West 16 22 153154 183184 185 186 192 see also individual Sufi ordersSufi Rock 276 global impact of 270271 in South Asia 23 263270Sugich, Michael 155 156158 160 169Suhrawardi (d. 1191) 36al-Suhrawardi, Shihab al-Din ʿUmar (d.1234) 112Suhrawardiyya Sufi order 112113Sulaymançi lay communities 184Sunni Islam Sufi orders belonging to 183184 views of Sufism of 55Şuşud, Hasan Lütfi 133 145Tabyin al-Kalam fi Tafsir al-Tawrat wa al-Injil ʿala Millat al-Islam (SAK) 8788Tadhkira-yi Ahl-i Dehli (SAK) 79Tahdhib al-Akhlaq (journal, SAK) 19 76 79 8994 9697Tahdhib al-Akhlaq (Ibn Miskawayh) 9192Tahdhib al-Akhlaq (al-Jahiz/Ibn ʿArabi/Ibn ʿAdi?) 9293tajdid 121Tarikat Centre (Sarajevo) 239 254Tariqa Muhammadiyya (Muhammadan path) 20 105 107 109 117119 120121 280281tariqa see Sufi orderstasawwur-i shaykh (visualization of the shaykh) 8283 93Tassy, Garcin de 48Tawfiq, Ahmad 214Tertium Organum (Ouspensky) 131132tevhid (commemoration rituals for dead) 238 248 251Tholuck, Friedrich 197198al-Tirmidhi, al-Hakim 6364Tozy, Mohamed 215Tractatus de moribus, condicionibus et nequicia Turcorum (Georgius de Hungaria) 8Traditional Psychoethics and Personality Paradigm (Bakhtiar) 142Traditionalist Sufism Bosnian 243 244 continuity of 105106 Western 11 152153 157training, of bulas (female ritual leaders) 250251transcendence experiences of 175 of God, beliefs in 93translation cultural 6 11 of Dabistan, into English 3742 44 46 49 276 Romantic views of 10 of Sufi literature in Bosnia 243244 281 in West 1011 191 276transplant Sufism 186 194 216Troeltsch, Ernst 189Troll, Christian 8485Troyer, Anthony 19 38 39 42 4445 48Turkey 165166Turkish Sufism 129 132133 144 145al-Tusi, Nasir al-Din 92 98typologies of Sufism 181187 201202 217 278 and engagements with modernity 190201al-ʿUjaymi 117118United Kingdom reverted Muslims in 223 Sufi Rock in 271 Sufism in 184 Budshishiyya Sufi order 217218 Naqshibandi Sufism 219United States (cont.) criticism of foreign policy of 167 Sufi Rock in 270271 Sufism in 134 135 141142 153154 181 186 282universalism appeals to 166 175 186 Sufi 49 202 245 246 255unveiling 172Urreligion notion 153utopianism, of NRMs 222Valsan, Michel 186via purgativa 93virahini (bride-soul) 261 267virtual Sufism 183 191Vital Signs (Rock band) 265Vos, Philippe de 134 143al-Wakil, ʿAbd 162walaya/wilaya (sainthood), theories of 64Wali Allah, Shah (d. 1762) 8081 88Wali, Shah Niʿmat Allah (d. 1431) 44Watt, W. Montgomery 69wazifa 215216weaving, in Sufi poetry 260Webb, Gisela 16 181Weber, Max 188West and East Bosnia as contact zone of 254 dichotomy/resonance space 12 2 164 165167 Sufism in 23 56 8 58 163 174175 273 274 277 279 modernization in 279 Muslims in reverted 22 212 213 217 221 222225 227230 Sufi 1 12 185 spirituality in Eastern influences on 1213 quest/nostalgia for loss of 1516 169 170 175 176 279 Sufism in 45 134 135 141143 144 145 180 history of 817 20 5962 152154 181182 191 197199 276 migrant-based 12 13 16 22 192193 216 and modernity 21 151 180 187203 225 New Age spirituality in 17 153 169 185 202 221 Sufi orders 16 22 153154 183184 185 186 192 translations of Sufi literature 1011 191 276 typologies of 181187 201202 and Sufi engagements with modernity 190201Westerlund, David 201Western views on autobiographical writing 150151 on Islam 276 on mysticism 11 4849 57 187188 on Sufism 59 61 colonial 910 definitions 53 6768 Orientalist 19 33 4243 4445 47 49 181 188 276Westerners conversion to Islam by 170 175 Sufis 56 13 15 152155 162 autobiographical writings by 21 149 151152 155156 279 Brodbeck 164168 Kabeer Faye 168173 Keller 160163 spatiality in 158 168 171172 174177 279 Sugich 156158 conversions 11 15 151152 164 216217 221222Wilkins, Charles 39women in Bosnia, Sufi practices by 233 237 238 247252 253 281 in Budshishiyya Sufi order 225 227228 228229 East-West perspectives of 21 in Morocco, codes of conduct/dress for 227228 in South Asia, Sufi singing by 260 261The Writing on the Water (Shakoor) 151152Yogis, in Dabestan English translation 44youngsters adherents of Sufi orders 212213 219 253 282 Muslim radicalization of 270271 reversion to Islam of 22 212 213 217 221 223 Pakistani, identities of 269 276Yugoslav war (1990s), Islam in 248Yugoslavia, suppression of religion in 238239 248 254Yunus, Shaykh 162al-Zabidi, Murtada 115Zafar, Sabir 266Zarcone, Thierry V. 15Zarrabi-Zadeh, Saeed xivxv 21 277278Zebiri, Kate 152Zia ul-Haq, Mohammed 264 265 269 276zikr see dhikrZimmermann, Hans Dieter 85ziyarat practice (visiting shrines) 97Zoroastrianism, Dabistan on 41