Open Access

Figures and Tables

Figures

2.1 The Bible on Twitter in 2015, ©OpenBible Info 39

3.1 P.Oxy. 210. Possible omicron in line 3, recto; ©brentlandau 54

3.2 P.Oxy. 210. Part of tau in line 7, recto, papyrus partially twisted; ©brentlandau 55

3.3 P.Oxy. 210. Remainder of tau in line 7, recto, twisted onto verso side; ©brentlandau 56

3.4 P.Oxy. 210. Beta in line 7, recto; ©brentlandau56

3.5 P.Oxy. 210. Possible remainder of epsilon in line 8, verso; ©brentlandau 57

3.6 P.Oxy. 210. Possible remainder of pi in line 9, verso; ©brentlandau57

3.7 P.Oxy. 210. Remainder of phi in line 9, verso; ©brentlandau58

3.8 P.Oxy. 210. Dots of diairesis marker and possible remainder of nomen sacrum, line 25, verso; ©brentlandau58

3.9 P.Oxy. 4009. Remainder of tailed letter preceding a nu in line 16, recto; ­©adelineharrington61

3.10 P.Oxy. 4009. Omicron in line 4, verso; ©adelineharrington61

3.11 P.Oxy. 4009. Similar omicron in line 16, recto; ©adelineharrington62

3.12 P.Oxy. 4009. Possible remainder of phi in line 3, recto; ©adelineharrington62

3.13 P.Oxy. 4009. Phi and rho written next to each other in line 6, recto; ©adelineharrington63

3.14 P.Oxy. 4009. Previously untranscribed upsilon and rho in line 19, verso ©adelineharrington63

3.15 P.Oxy. 4009. Looped alpha visible in line 20, verso; ©adelineharrington 64

3.16 P.Oxy. 4469. First form of eta, resembling a backwards Roman capital “N” ; ©jameschenriques 66

3.17 P.Oxy. 4469. Second form of eta, resembling a lower-case Roman “h” ; ©jameschenriques 66

3.18 P.Oxy. 4469. Upsilon or omicron incorrectly transcribed as theta in line 17; ©jameschenriques 67

4.1 Map of Egypt, showing the location of the Monastery of the Syrians (Wādī al-Naṭrūn) and the White Monastery (Sohag). <http://egyptology.yale.edu/expeditions/current-expeditions> Created by Alberto Urcia for the Yale in Egypt website and adapted by Stephen J. Davis for this publiciation. Accessed on 10.04.19; ©stephenjdavis 71

4.2 Screenshot of the former interface for the Candle Room Manuscript fragments in SimpleViewer-Pro. <https://egyptology.yale.edu/current-expeditions/yale-monastic-archaeology-project-south-sohag/white-monastery/candle-room-manuscript-fragments>. Accessed on 10.04.19; ©stephenjdavis 74

4.3 Screenshot of the current interface for the Candle Room Manuscript fragments in Drupal™. <https://egyptology.yale.edu/archaeological-expeditions/white-monastery-project/candle-room-project/parchment_coptic_1129-3124_set_1>. Accessed on 10.04.19; ©stephenjdavis 75

8.1 Paul’s Letters Average Percentages: Bar Graph Low to High; ©paulroberston 162

8.2 Paul’s Letters Average Percentages: Line Graph High to Low; ­©paulroberston 167

8.3 Paul’s Letters Average Percentages Bar Graph Less 2 Thessalonians and Philemon; ©paulroberston 167

8.4 Paul’s Letters Average Percentages Line Graph Less 2 Thessalonians and Philemon; ©paulroberston 168

8.5 Average Percentages: Paul’s Letters, Philodemus, Epictetus; ­©paulroberston 169

8.6 Average Percentages Bar Graph: Paul, Philodemus, Epictetus; ­©paulroberston 170

8.7 Average Percentages Line Graph: Paul, Philodemus, Epictetus; ­©paulroberston 172

8.8 Average Percentages: Paul’s Letters, Panathenaicus, Damascus Document; ©paulroberston 172

9.1 Samaria ostracon 16A (collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museums). Photograph of glass negative by West Semitic Research Project, courtesy of the Harvard Semitic Museum; © West Semitic Research Project 192

9.2 Samaria ostracon 16A (collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museums). Drawing by George A. Reisner with incorrect reading of the beginning of line two; © George A. Reisner; Reisner 1924, 239 193

9.3 Samaria ostracon 16A (collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museums). Photograph of glass negative by West Semitic Research Project, courtesy of the Harvard Semitic Museum; © West Semitic Research Project. Drawing by Heather D.D. Parker based on the corrected reading of the beginning of line two by Frank M. Cross, Jr.; © Heather D.D. Parker 194

9.4 Adobe Photoshop’s Invert tool being used on image of Samaria ostracon 28 (collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museums; © Heather D.D. Parker). Photograph of glass negative by West Semitic Research Project, courtesy of the Harvard Semitic Museum; © West Semitic Research Project 196

9.5 Adobe Photoshop’s Invert tool being used on an image of Samaria ostracon 28 (collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museums; © Heather D.D. Parker). Photograph of glass negative by West Semitic Research Project, courtesy of the Harvard Semitic Museum; © West Semitic Research Project 196

9.6 Adobe Photoshop’s Curves tool being used on an image of Samaria ostracon 28 (collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museums; © Heather D.D. Parker). Photograph of glass negative by West Semitic Research Project, courtesy of the Harvard Semitic Museum; © West Semitic Research Project 197

9.7 Adobe Photoshop’s Curves tool being used on an image of Samaria ostracon 28 (collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museums; © Heather D.D. Parker). Photograph of glass negative by West Semitic Research Project, courtesy of the Harvard Semitic Museum; © West Semitic Research Project 198

9.8 Adobe Photoshop’s measurement tools being used on an image of the Kerak fragment (Kerak Museum, No. 6807; © Heather D.D. Parker) 198

9.9 Adobe Illustrator’s Pen tool being used on an image of the Amman Citadel inscription (Jordan Archaeological Museum, No. J 9000; © Heather D.D. Parker). Photograph of inscription; © West Semitic Research Project 199

9.10 Producing a digital drawing of KTU 1.46 with a tablet and stylus connected to a desktop computer; © Adam L. Bean. Photograph of inscription; © West Semitic Research Project 200

9.11 Producing a digital drawing of the Kerak fragment (Kerak Museum, No. 6807) on a handheld tablet with stylus; © Heather D.D. Parker. Photograph of fragment; © West Semitic Research Project 201

9.12 Producing a digital drawing of the Kerak fragment (Kerak Museum, No. 6807) on a handheld tablet with stylus; © Heather D.D. Parker. Photograph of fragment; © West Semitic Research Project 201

9.13 Principles of letter morphology related to the study of Northwest Semitic epigraphy and palaeography (linear alphabetic scripts; © Heather D.D. Parker) 204

9.14 Producing digital drawings and script charts that indicate the ductus of a letter form. Drawing; © Bruce Zuckerman; Zuckerman and Swartz Dodd 2003: 128, figs. 14a-14d 206

9.15 Using Adobe Illustrator to facilitate detailed comparison of the letter forms of the Kerak fragment (Kerak Museum, No. 6807; © Heather D.D. Parker). Photograph of fragment; © West Semitic Research Project 207

9.16 Digitally produced script chart of eighth-century bce Hebrew cursive inscriptions; © Heather D.D. Parker 208

9.17 Digitally produced script chart of eighth-century bce Aramaic cursive inscriptions; © Heather D.D. Parker 208

9.18 Adobe Illustrator’s measurement tools being used on an image of the Honeyman inscription (Cyprus Archaeological Museum, No. 397; © Heather D.D. Parker). Photograph of inscription; © West Semitic Research Project 209

9.19 Illustrated palaeographic discussion of the letter ’alep in the Iron II Phoenician script; © Heather D.D. Parker 209

9.20 Example of a final project assigned during an epigraphic digital lab. Study of Phoenician dedicatory inscription to Astarte of Paphos (Cyprus Archaeological Museum, No. 399; © Marilyn J. Lundberg) 210

10.1 Registration of Early Christianity: The Letters of Paul as of March 2014 ­compared with registration of CS50X as of September 2014; ©Jennifer Quigley and Laura Nasrallah, screen capture of HarvardX website, September 2014 227

10.2 Early Christianity: The Letters of Paul, Age composition as of March 2014; ©Jennifer Quigley and Laura Nasrallah, screen capture of HarvardX website, March 2014 228

10.3 Early Christianity: The Letters of Paul, completed education composition as of March 2014; ©Jennifer Quigley and Laura Nasrallah, screen capture of HarvardX website, March 2014 229

10.4 Sample student discussion 1; ©Jennifer Quigley and Laura Nasrallah, screen capture of HarvardX website, September 2014 235

10.5 Sample student discussion 2; ©Jennifer Quigley and Laura Nasrallah, screen capture of HarvardX website, September 2014 236

12.1 Orthophoto of the Beth Alpha Synagogue; ©braderickson 265

12.2 Orthophoto of the Hammath Tiberias Synagogue; ©braderickson 266

12.3 Orthophoto of the Sepphoris Synagogue; ©braderickson 267

12.4 An in-progress shot of generating the photogrammetric model of Beth Alpha with Agisof Photoscan; ©braderickson 267

12.5 An in-progress screenshot of applying textures to the model of Beth Alpha in Blender; ©braderickson 268

12.6 An in-progress screenshot of constructing the architectural model of Beth Alpha i AutoCAD; ©braderickson 269

12.7 Early render of Sepphoris synagogue visualization, outside; ©braderickson 270

12.8 Early render of Sepphoris synagogue visualization, inside without Torah shrine ©braderickson 270

12.9 A render of the Beth Alpha synagogue visualization, Pre-Texture; ­©braderickson 271

12.10 An in-progress screenshot of adding interactive elements to the model in Unity3D. Please note that the actual synagogue would have been surrounded by buildings and not an open field; ©braderickson 271

12.11 A user exploring the ancient synagogue of Sepphoris in VR with the HTC Vive. The user wears a headset through which he receives a first-person view of the synagogue. The hand-held controllers allow the user to interact with objects in the building. The television screen in the background projects what the user sees through the headset; ©braderickson 272

Tables

5.1 Top 10 Best Performing Language Models, NT and LXX: Mean Gap Score; ©clericemunson 97

5.2 Top 10 Best Performing Language Models, NT and LXX: Gensim; ­©clericemunson 98

5.3 Top 10 Best Performing Language Models, NT only: Mean Gap Score; ­©clericemunson 99

5.4 Top 10 Best Performing Language Models, NT only: Gensim; ©clericemunson 100

5.5 Top 20 Most Similar Words to δαιμόνιον: Log-Likelihood Model; ©clericemunson 103

5.6 Top 20 Most Similar Words to δαιμόνιον: Gap Score Model; ©clericemunson 104

5.7 Top 20 Most Similar Words to δαιμόνιον: Gensim Model; ©clericemunson 106

6.1 The Different Reference Forms; ©brettgraham 121

6.2 Comparison of Potential References from Titus to the Septuagint; ©brettgraham 129

6.3 Potential References from Titus to Septuagint – Categorized by Type; ©brettgraham 129

8.1 1 Corinthians Hand-Coded Textual Locations; ©paulroberston 162

8.2 1 Corinthians Numerical & Percentage Aggregates; ©paulroberston 164

8.3 Paul’s Letters Average Percentages; ©paulroberston 165

8.4 Averages Bar Graph: Paul’s Letters, Panathenaicus, Damascus Document; ©paulroberston 168

8.5 Averages Line Graph: Paul’s Letters, Panathenaicus, Damascus Document; ©paulroberston 171

10.1 Course components of early christianity: The letters of Paul; ©Jennifer Quigley and Laura Nasrallah 221

10.2 End of course survey: Student learning and course components; ©Jennifer Quigley and Laura Nasrallah, screen capture of HarvardX website, September 2014 230

Ancient Manuscripts in Digital Culture

Visualisation, Data Mining, Communication

Series: