Open Access
IndexesIndex of AuthorsAlsdorf, L.68nArbman, E.75, 94–96, 98–104, 105n, 108, 110, 124, 136, 137, 139, 140, 163n, 164n, 169n, 225, 229n, 231Baaren, Th.P. van98, 135, 137n, 148nBanerjea, J.N.174n, 188nBelvalkar, S.K.25n (= 407n)Bertholet, A.135n, 177n, 223nBhattacharya, S.25 (= 407)Bloomfield, M.46n, 48n, 51n, 53n, 55, 56n, 62n, 145, 152, 195n, 196n, 225n, 255, 268–270, 272, 274, 296n, 319–321, 324–327, 330, 333, 342, 353–354, 375, 389Böhtlingk, O.23 (= 405), 25 (= 407), 26 (= 408), 79n, 212n, 214n, 217, 263, 282, 291, 348, 349n, 380Bollée, W.B.91n, 201n, 202n, 247, 337, 370nBoyer, A.M.102, 123, 124, 255Bronkhorst, J.404nBühler, G.281, 283, 346n, 350, 355Buitenen, J.A.B. van32n (= 413n), 67, 72n, 77, 130n, 149nBurrow, T.35n (= 415n), 263Butzenberger, K.xix, 136–140, 148n, 154n, 157, 171n, 227nCaland, W.xvii, xxii, 29 (= 410), 30n (= 411n), 34 (= 414), 39n, 42n, 46n, 48n, 59n, 62n, 63, 81, 90n, 92n, 126, 131n, 133, 137n, 149n, 150–151, 152n, 155n, 157n, 158–159, 163n, 175n, 177n, 269–270, 274n, 277–278, 280, 284, 328n, 332, 334, 336, 343–344, 345n, 353n, 358n, 363n, 372, 382, 385, 388–389Caland, W. and V. Henry88n, 91nConverse, H.S.xix, 5, 10n, 99–108, 126–127, 135, 157, 223n, 224Das, V.181n, 205, 206n, 209, 241, 294nDelbrück, B.212, 219n, 222, 277–278, 296nDeussen, P.23 (= 405), 25 (= 407), 32n (= 413n), 73n, 77, 131, 169, 187n, 214n, 270, 383, 386nDumont, P.-E.131Edgerton, F.71n, 73n, 214n, 219n, 221n, 222Eggeling, J.10, 30n (= 411n), 71n, 72n, 73n, 81n, 82n, 112, 151n, 153n, 154, 175n, 204, 208, 252, 277–280, 293–295, 317, 331, 332–334, 336, 338–340, 356n, 359n, 374, 376n, 382n, 385, 388, 390Eggeling’s10, 252, 277, 281, 295Ehni, J.164n, 239Faddegon, B.66nFalk, H.158n, 344Frauwallner, E.24n (= 406n)Frenz, A.117, 210, 212Fürst, A.25 (= 407)Garbe, R.16Geldner, K.F.xxi, 25 (= 407), 33 (= 414), 34n (= 415n), 35n (= 416n), 47n, 48n, 49, 50n, 52n, 74n, 75, 81n, 83, 85n, 100–107, 109, 146n, 150, 152, 155, 163n, 170n, 172n, 200, 215n, 224–225, 227–228, 229n, 251, 265–267, 272n, 282n, 297–302, 304–318, 332, 336, 351, 365, 370, 372, 374, 376, 377, 393n, 395Ghatage, A.M.262n, 263Glasenapp, H. von136Gombrich, R.181n, 229Gonda, J.xi, xii, xv–xviii, xx–xxii, 4–5, 8, 27n, 28n, 37n, 38n, 40n–44n, 46n, 47, 48n–52n, 53, 54n–56n, 58n, 59n, 61n, 66n, 71n, 75n, 76n, 81n, 82n, 86n, 87n, 91n, 94, 98n, 121–123, 136, 143n–146n, 153n, 155n, 166n, 169n, 176, 177n, 185–187, 190n, 194n, 195n, 197n, 198n, 204n, 205n, 206, 207n, 209, 240, 246–252, 265n, 267n, 269n, 272n, 274n, 290n, 294n, 303–307, 311, 316, 321, 326–327, 328n, 342, 358n, 361, 367n, 368–377, 384, 385n, 386n, 387, 388n, 393, 398Gotō, T.151, 154nGoudriaan, T.78n, 185Grassmann, H.35n (= 415n), 245, 263, 292, 304, 308, 311Griffith, R.T.H.141n, 172, 229n, 268–271, 273–275, 296n, 312, 319–326, 330, 331, 333, 345, 385, 387, 389Griffiths, A.166n, 308nGrohma, O.78nHamm, F.-R.215n, 217Hanefeld, E.214, 215, 218–221Hartog, H.264, 265, 271, 276, 286–290Hauschild, R.84Heesterman, J.C.28n (= 409n), 48n, 49, 63, 146nHeiler, F.J.140nHeimann, B.75nHelfer, J.S.73n, 74nHenry, V.46n, 48n, 49, 52n, 59n, 88n, 91n, 357n, 358nHenseler, E. de153nHertel, J.25n (= 407n), 74n, 212, 213, 215nHertz, R.181nHillebrandt, A.74n, 83, 177n, 178nHoffmann, K.26–31 (= 407–412), 32n (= 413n), 149, 151, 163, 264, 269, 270, 278, 311, 313, 338nHopkins, E.W.146, 179n, 181n, 199, 289, 358nHorsch, P.4n, 5–6, 9n, 10, 16, 124–126, 129, 161n, 233n, 239n, 255, 257, 338, 350n, 363n, 365, 370n, 380–381, 383, 390Houben, J.E.M.396nHume, R.E.25n (= 407n), 67, 74n, 77, 80, 83n, 84, 168, 187n, 211, 215n, 386nIckler, I.222Jamison, S.W.xxi, 324, 358n, 360n, 365n, 376nJolly, J.352, 393nKane, P.V.152, 156n, 237n, 239, 342n, 349, 350n, 351, 354, 360n, 362–363Kangle, R.P.348Kashikar, C.G.88nKeith, A.B.25 (= 407), 35n, 42n, 47n, 48n, 79n, 82n, 96, 121, 135n, 136n, 143n, 149n, 151, 159–160, 163n, 167n, 172, 175n, 186, 190n, 205n, 259, 312, 316–317, 331–332, 335–339, 344, 380, 389, 392n, 393Kelsey, M.99, 236Kirfel, W.37, 42nKlaus, K.136, 189n, 190n, 195–196, 199, 226nKrick, H.46n, 48n, 49, 51n, 60n, 61n, 62n, 63n, 73n, 81n, 82n, 85n, 90n, 91n, 153n, 158nKuiper, F.B.J.6n, 37, 38n, 39n, 40, 41n, 42n, 43n, 57n, 60n, 71n, 75n, 97, 100n, 108, 109, 137n, 139n, 146, 147n, 151, 152, 154n, 156, 160n, 163, 164, 165n, 177n, 180n, 182n, 185n, 186–188, 199, 200, 203, 204n, 207n, 208n, 224n, 236, 237n, 240, 394Lefever, H.264, 287, 289, 290Lévi, S.xvii, 174n, 194n, 209Limaye, V.P. and R.D. Vadekar67n, 83, 86Lincoln, B.3, 100n, 181Lokesh Chandra30n (= 411n), 151Lommel H.40n, 267, 297–299, 302n, 308, 311, 314Long, J.B.135nLubotsky, A.268n, 328, 330, 331Lüders, H.24n (= 406n), 28n (= 409n), 39–41, 163–164, 199–200Macdonell, A.A.97, 297–298, 302n, 311nMacdonell, A.A. and A.B. Keith47n, 48n, 79n, 172Malamoud, D.130Mallmann, M.-Th. de177n, 188nManessy, J.287nMayrhofer, M.56n, 141, 145n, 264, 269, 286, 292, 294McKenzie, M.289Minard, A.xxii, 30n (= 411n), 33n (= 413n), 41n, 175n, 278n, 280, 294n, 357n, 385nMylius, K.86n, 263, 283–284, 292, 368nO’Flaherty, W.D.xvi, 3–5, 282n, 297, 299, 301n, 302, 303n, 304, 307n, 311, 314, 335, 336Oberlies, Th.130n, 177n, 178n, 199, 233n, 316n, 359n, 365n, 394Oertel, H.23 (= 405), 26n (= 408n), 86, 89–93, 98, 294n, 373, 398Oldenberg, H.xvii–xviii, 47n, 48n, 49n, 51n, 52n, 94–97, 99–101, 108, 121, 135–136, 140, 177n, 199n, 229n, 277–279, 299n, 307, 312, 357n, 379, 388n, 393Olivelle, P.6n, 17–19, 210–212, 215n, 222, 281, 283, 346n, 350n, 354, 359, 381, 386, 388n, 391n, 392n, 398Oltramare, P.121Organ, T.38n, 54n, 55n, 61nPande, G.C.12nParpola, A.xvi, xviii, 86nRadhakrishnan, S.215n, 382–383, 385n, 386n, 391nRau, W.72n, 73n, 74n, 75n, 76, 79n, 80n, 83, 344Renou, L.25n (= 407n), 26n (= 408n), 35 (= 415), 47n, 48n, 49n, 50n, 56n, 57n, 58n, 86, 92n, 97n, 163n, 165n, 212, 213, 266, 267, 272n, 297–300, 302, 306–309, 311–318, 336, 375Rodhe, S.O.11, 124, 225n, 238n, 251n, 255–256, 265, 271, 287, 294, 297n, 299n, 302n, 311, 314, 316, 319, 320, 322–323, 332, 333n, 335, 358n, 382–383Salomon, R.3Schlerath, B.359nSchmidt, H.-P.49n, 140nSchmithausen, L.15nSenart, É.77, 187n, 215n, 386nSharma, B.R.86Slaje, W.216–218, 221nSmith, B.K.176, 177n, 178n, 179n, 180n, 181n, 182n, 183, 184, 185n, 188n, 205, 206n, 207nSmith, J.I.99Söhnen, R.114, 210–211Sparreboom, M.149Speijer, J.S.273, 294n, 296nSprockhoff, J.F.16, 87n, 307nStaal, T.F.71n, 88nStrunk, K.211, 212nThieme, P.27 (= 409), 47n, 49n, 50, 51n, 52n, 56n, 58n, 63, 98n, 116–117, 221n, 297n, 299, 311, 314Tull, H.W.4–5, 7–8, 238n, 249–250, 253–254, 369Varenne, J.77–78, 283, 332, 397Wackernagel, J.35 (= 415), 190n, 214n, 246Wackernagel, J. und A. Debrunner35n (= 415n), 164n, 167, 214nWeber, A.46n, 52n, 151n, 212nWeller, F.67, 68n, 69–71, 74nWezler, A.310n, 355, 360nWhitney, W.D.3, 4, 41n, 66n, 169n, 171–172, 224, 225n, 229–230, 268–270, 272–275, 296, 312, 319–326, 329–330, 333, 345, 357n, 376n, 377n, 385, 387, 389Windisch, E.23–25 (= 405–407), 255Witzel, M.125–126, 129, 131, 133, 207n, 326Wüst, W.73n, 74n, 85nZaehner, R.C.281nZehnder, Th.324, 327–329Index of Textplaces2, 1, 62592, 1, 7197, 3912, 3, 1; 4; 627, 4092, 4, 1198n822, 4, 23732, 5, 1392AB1, 3, 3206n1021, 7, 4180n281, 8, 5180n281, 8, 7208n1091, 13, 52311, 2887n62, 7, 12374n82, 131282, 1587n72, 1639n122, 41, 6573, 51673, 13, 63993, 1543, 87n6, 1673, 15, 1167n153, 33, 12573, 33, 1–2358n34, 363n453, 38378n153, 42, 11794, 52354, 5, 12264, 639n13, 43, 554, 6, 1 f.198n834, 6, 2195n734, 10, 9199n894, 2187n74, 24, 6194n704, 25, 3182n335, 1, 161685, 2, 111685, 16, 23–241565, 21, 203375, 24, 122315, 2890n225, 303385, 30, 113385, 33, 153n235, 34, 353n216, 387n76, 9, 1054n256, 30, 4206n1016, 32, 172606, 32, 20175, 1856, 3687n67, 12, 22357, 13, 62357, 13, 12–13363n457, 17, 49n9, 257, 3567, 18, 133387, 18, 153387, 27, 19n9, 2577, 282578, 6, 1013n158, 111548, 11, 83618, 14, 3184n41, 186, 1888, 19, 1184n418, 25131n3, 1348, 25, 21258, 28357ĀgGS2, 6, 8178, 204n97ĀpDhS1, (1)1, 32355n221, (7)21, 83461, (8)23, 53461, (8)23, 63461, (9)24, 6356n241, (9)24, 6–93461, (9)25, 1–43461, (9)25, 10346ĀpŚS2, 20, 6152n13, 155n236, 8, 1194n697, 9, 81587, 9, 101598, 6, 2433411, 16, 1633614, 6, 715914, 6, 10160n3014, 8, 5–65922, 4, 27170Arthaśāstra1, 6, 1343, 3481, 7, 1343ĀśvGS1, 2, 3179n221, 2, 3 f.185n451, 3, 665n541, 3, 8185n451, 22, 191784, 1, 8177n104, 2, 14177n104, 41574, 5, 6157n26AVsee alsoAVŚ1, 20, 1155n231, 21141n151, 21, 2141, 229, 2301, 28, 3 (= 4, 17, 3)2682, 72742, 12141n152, 12, 71412, 14140n132, 14, 3141, 225, 2352, 18, 1–2357n272, 193572, 30, 476n403, 3165n113, 3, 31833, 3, 4165n113, 4, 5165n11, 1673, 11142n173, 11, 2142, 2343, 12188n563, 18141n153, 18, 3141, 169n213, 18, 3 (= ṚV 10, 145, 4)1663, 19, 32303, 26, 3180n283, 273573, 27, 3180n283, 27, 5187, 208n1093, 281453, 28–29144n213, 28, 5–6144n243, 29144n223, 29, 1–31444, 1, 182n544, 11144n21, 144n22, 1454, 11, 61444, 12, 61524, 12, 71514, 14144n21, 144n224, 14, 2–6144n254, 14; 9, 51454, 17, 32684, 34144n22, 1454, 34–35144n21, 144n234, 35144n22, 1454, 40, 51874, 40, 5–7175n75, 3, 43125, 17367n515, 18367n515, 18–19139n85, 18, 3140, 268n145, 18, 13139n9, 3965, 19, 3139, 139n9, 237, 3965, 22140n135, 22, 2–4141, 146n32, 2255, 30142n175, 30, 1166, 1715, 30, 71425, 30, 11142, 2345, 30, 14142, 2356, 29140n136, 29, 3141, 2266, 32140n136, 32, 2141, 2266, 34, 31656, 35, 11656, 35, 335n20, 416n196, 46, 1146, 2366, 46, 22366, 662756, 66, 12746, 75141n156, 75, 2141, 166, 169, 170, 2316, 75, 3166n12, 2296, 93, 12746, 93, 2–3268n14, 2756, 1133536, 113, 33566, 114–124144n226, 117144n21, 144n226, 119–120144n21, 144n226, 120, 1/4144n266, 122–123144n21, 144n22, 144n266, 127, 32257, 5144n217, 5, 3144n267, 8, 1266n107, 27, 21657, 31141n15, 2307, 31, 11417, 53142n177, 53, 11427, 53, 3142, 2347, 53, 7142, 2347, 55, 31427, 80144n217, 80, 1/4144n267, 103144, 144n217, 115, 4379n178, 1–2142n178, 1, 21428, 1, 3142, 2348, 1, 4142, 2348, 1, 62348, 1, 7142, 2348, 1, 8142, 166, 171, 2348, 1, 10142, 2348, 1, 16142, 2348, 1, 18–191428, 1, 19234, 270, 274n258, 1, 21142, 2348, 2, 1142, 2348, 2, 21428, 2, 8142, 2348, 2, 9142, 2348, 2, 10142, 2348, 2, 15142, 2348, 2, 23142, 2348, 2, 24142, 2308, 2, 24–252348, 4139n8, 224, 2298, 4 (= ṚV 7, 104)1398, 4, 3139, 227n88, 4, 51398, 4, 91408, 4, 171408, 5140n138, 5, 9141, 166, 2268, 6, 26268–2708, 8, 153899, 2141n15, 2309, 2, 1141, 2309, 2, 4141, 2309, 2, 9141, 2309, 2, 102309, 2, 12141, 2309, 2, 15141, 2309, 2, 17162n2, 2309, 2, 17–181419, 3144n21, 144n229, 3, 10144n279, 5144n229, 5–6;144n219, 5, 1144n25, 3879, 5, 83769, 5, 123769, 5, 163879, 6144, 14510, 1, 526810, 3141n1510, 3, 3141, 23010, 3, 9141, 23010, 523010, 5, 3623010, 6, 1357n2710, 9144n2210, 9–10144n2110, 9, 5–6144n2410, 9; 1014510, 10144n2210, 10, 2164n710, 10, 32–33144n2411, 1144n21, 144n22, 144n2311, 1, 623011, 1, 1737611, 2, 11274n2511, 3144n22, 144n23, 14511, 3–4144n2111, 3, 2041n24, 195n7411, 4, 11143n1911, 4, 18143n1911, 8, 19345, 36611, 8, 2025111, 9, 2438912, 1140n1312, 2, 1141, 164n8, 225, 22612, 2, 814112, 2, 914112, 2, 1014112, 2, 2114112, 3144n22, 144n2312, 3–4144n2112, 3, 14268, 269, 31212, 3, 4437512, 3, 49141, 23012, 3, 59187, 208n10912, 4144n2212, 4–5139n812, 4, 3139, 139n9, 154n19, 227, 39612, 4, 36139, 139n9, 144n24, 154n19, 228, 237n19, 39612, 4, 50296, 296n612, 5, 3226812, 5, 5926812, 5, 64139n9, 140, 166, 169, 228, 384, 39613, 1141n1513, 1, 3023013, 1, 31141, 23013, 1, 32141, 23013, 2, 3435n20, 416n1913, 3, 1296n613, 3, 1 ff.29614, 1, 46272n2414, 1, 5937514, 1, 6176n4014, 2, 1376n4014, 2, 3276n4014, 2, 59–61271, 27314, 2, 59–62268, 27114, 2, 59 ff.272n2214, 2, 6227315, 4, 518615, 6, 118615, 6, 355n3115, 13, 1 ff.387, 39115, 14, 518716, 514716, 5, 1–623616, 8, 123018, 2, 59–6023, 40518, 3, 3229n11, 23518, 3, 2037618, 3, 28184n4118, 3, 2918718, 3, 3418718, 3, 54377n1418, 437718, 4, 137718, 4, 237718, 4, 737718, 4, 1437718, 4, 41165, 166, 17219, 17,203n9419, 27, 320719, 50, 5361n4219, 54, 438719, 56, 1/323719, 56, 323719, 57, 314720, 128139n820, 128, 2139, 228AVP1, 27, 33291, 653291, 84, 101711, 98, 4166, 1712, 3, 43242, 24, 3328, 3292, 26, 1–23302, 30, 5328, 330, 3372, 49, 1–53272, 82, 5171n255, 11, 33315, 173305, 17, 13335, 18, 63285, 22, 1 ff.268n145, 23, 3268n135, 26, 52965, 37, 43336, 3, 13328, 336n446, 75, 32317, 3, 6308n219, 22, 13309, 22, 33309, 22, 3 ff.3319, 22, 5328, 33110, 4, 4–533310, 10, 223010, 12, 1223015, 19, 223016, 36, 233316, 152, 1023018, 18, 223018, 39, 1166n1218, 52, 123019, 15, 8164n720, 65, 11166, 171AVŚ3202, 10, 8323, 3302, 35, 3319–3214, 26, 73374, 27, 1–73365, 30, 23205, 30, 33195, 30, 4319, 3205, 30, 53205, 31, 13206, 19, 3328n38, 329n406, 40, 23296, 84, 2320, 3226, 111, 3330, 3336, 113, 1325, 3396, 113, 1–23406, 113, 3333n416, 114, 1333n42, 3346, 115, 1–2318, 3216, 115, 1–33206, 116, 2320, 328n376, 116, 2–33206, 119, 33256, 120, 13347, 64, 23207, 77, 3320, 32210, 1, 1233310, 3, 8318, 32510, 5, 24 (= 16, 1, 10–11)32512, 2, 12320, 32212, 432514, 232314, 2, 4432014, 2, 59–6232014, 2, 59 ff.32315, 13, 1–5166n12BĀU1, 2, 1190n621, 2, 433, 4141, 2, 7122, 131n31, 3, 12 ff.421, 3, 15194n701, 3, 16198n821, 3, 282361, 4, 15257, 3911, 5, 2131n31, 5, 31221, 5, 11–1341n24, 195n74, 1971, 5, 14198n84, 198n851, 5, 172321, 5, 203822, 3, 1 ff.582, 42162, 5, 6–7194n703, 1, 654n24, 57, 198n823, 2, 10131n3, 3833, 2, 1312, 198n82, 249, 383, 390, 390n37, 3913, 3, 2122, 131n33, 5, 13473, 7, 10194n703, 7, 11194n693, 9, 3194n69, 195n733, 9, 142363, 9, 16199n883, 9, 20179n213, 9, 22180n27, 180n283, 9, 23208n1093, 9, 241873, 9, 26359n364, 3, 153834, 3, 20150n74, 3, 223834, 3, 33232, 2354, 3, 343834, 4, 5259, 383, 390, 391, 391n414, 4, 6391n414, 4, 10 (= ĪśU 9)2324, 4, 11146, 2324, 4, 221284, 4, 232574, 52166, 215, 24, 119, 210, 4066, 2, 1–81146, 2, 2212n36, 2, 780n48, 365n506, 2, 9–11196n786, 2, 10–141156, 2, 15117, 118, 127, 168, 4036, 2, 161276, 43666, 4, 3251, 3716, 4, 43716, 4, 6–73656, 4, 12365, 372, 372n5BaudhDhS2, 6, 8–91322, 10, 18, 2–3351, 401BGS3, 8, 5–61323, 8, 6131n3BhāgP5, 6, 11148n2, 229n11BhārGS1, 12177n11BhG3, 13281, 3143, 34349n113, 37349n118, 9215n216, 16148n216, 21349BPiS1, 12157n263, 10157n26BŚS2, 11131n328, 4131n3ChU1, 9, 71502, 2, 142n272, 9, 82092, 17, 142, 194n70, 1952, 20, 142, 194n692, 21, 12092, 23, 1386, 386n29, 391, 395n512, 23, 1–2385, 4023, 5, 3783, 10, 11883, 14, 3215n3, 216n33, 15, 22703, 17, 4128, 352, 399, 400, 4033, 18, 238n8, 194n703, 1933n14, 413n124, 1, 1372, 392n444, 6, 339n14, 1954, 12, 142n27, 43, 195, 195n73, 205n994, 14, 3356n255, 3114, 2105, 3–91155, 3–1015, 1195, 3, 2212n35, 3, 3212n35, 4–6196n785, 4 ff.24, 4065, 9, 103635, 101175, 10, 1127, 4035, 10, 21185, 10, 3127, 387n295, 10, 71205, 10, 9228, 350, 350n12, 351n16, 352, 352n17, 354, 356, 360, 361, 366, 367, 386, 400–4025, 10, 10386, 386n29, 387n29, 391n395, 11–181325, 11, 4–684n615, 11, 5351n165, 13, 1765, 13, 1–2775, 13, 276, 79n485, 18, 277, 195n735, 18, 2–51325, 20, 2194n706, 1–72146, 1, 32176, 5–7222n146, 8222n146, 8–16214, 215, 217–219, 221, 2226, 9219, 2216, 9–10220n106, 102216, 112156, 122156, 13215, 2166, 13, 22176, 142196, 152196, 16, 13616, 16, 32147, 15, 1–23597, 15, 3359n387, 24, 279n488, 1, 53458, 1, 63848, 1, 163888, 5, 1–31288, 1513, 400GautDhS8, 22346n810, 17356n2615, 1635415, 16–1935415, 18354GB1, 1, 2235, 237n191, 1, 15127, 131n31, 1, 343991, 2, 2342, 3661, 2, 1054n241, 2, 1951n15, 181n331, 3, 22127, 131n31, 4, 254n241, 5, 1539n12, 39n14, 2052, 1, 24194n712, 2, 2185n44, 207n1072, 3, 11150n72, 3, 18582, 5, 1226, 2352, 5, 454n242, 5, 8582, 5, 1541n252, 6, 12194n712, 6, 15194n71GobhGS1, 6, 2165n541, 9, 865n544, 7, 41174n2, 185n45, 188n52HirGS1, 19, 72702, 6, 16, 6194n70HirŚS18, 4, 61131n3ĪśU3232923212232JB1, 1–651131, 255n31, 1321, 635, 35n18, 131n31, 1135n17, 132, 415n161, 13131n31, 1590n19, 381, 3831, 15–162581, 17–181131, 1824, 27, 115, 116, 118, 119, 133, 258, 260, 373, 373n7, 378, 381, 384, 405, 407, 4091, 18; 1, 5023, 25, 271, 23131n31, 23–251291, 25131n31, 28198, 356n251, 32196n771, 412051, 42162n11, 441391, 4524, 27, 114, 406, 4091, 45–46113, 1191, 46115, 133, 3781, 47175n41, 4924, 115, 4061, 49–50113, 116, 119, 1331, 50118, 373n7, 378, 384, 391, 405, 407, 4091, 68197n801, 72180n261, 79358n321, 833601, 8790n23, 91n271, 89921, 932311, 97372, 390, 395n511, 98343, 348, 366, 3731, 992021, 99–1042011, 1002021, 10245, 2021, 1032021, 1042031, 1232271, 137167, 167n151, 1391511, 152358n331, 1672351, 1713581, 1792261, 184154n201, 225356n251, 238 ff.39n10, 41n25, 44n381, 239196n771, 245–2461331, 25213, 1331, 259–2732011, 26379n481, 269–2702021, 27045, 2031, 2732031, 285196n771, 291182n33, 228, 3811, 2921971, 3152021, 315–317201, 2031, 3162021, 316–3172021, 317194n70, 202, 2031, 325141n16, 148n2, 152n11, 175n4, 182n33, 232, 237n191, 33360n451, 333 ff.431, 334190, 191, 1991, 35853n212, 3198n842, 9197n802, 111512, 45197n802, 47197n802, 77197n802, 103752, 113363n452, 135352n17, 353n19, 356n252, 136762, 142187, 1882, 152167n152, 174197n802, 195197n802, 262205n1002, 2673782, 3501332, 350–351131n32, 363343, 344, 3662, 42231n10, 412n83, 72344, 345n63, 11379n483, 190355n223, 247150, 155n233, 262363n453, 270353n19, 363n46, 3673, 296167, 167n153, 31833, 4143, 341–347190–1923, 341 ff.43, 60n453, 345191n653, 3471923, 3481913, 36032n12, 412n103, 36129, 4103, 361–362333, 3841923, 38534n16, 415n15JUBMost of the text places quoted from the JUB refer to Oertel’s edition (1896, anuvāka division is disregarded) and have three digits. Eight text places, however, have a four-digit notation and refer to Sharma’s edition (1967, numbering also the anuvākas). For convenience, this four-digit notation has been converted to the three-digit number both in the text itself and in the index. It concerns the following text places: JUB 1, 9, 3, 4 (Sharma) = 1, 30, 4 (Oertel) (this vol. p. 373); JUB 3, 3, 4, 1–6 = 3, 14, 1–6 (p. 115, 119); JUB 3, 3, 4, 6 = 3, 14, 6 (p. 373); JUB 3, 5, 9, 4 = 3, 28, 4 (p. 120); JUB 3, 5, 9, 5 = 3, 28, 5 (p. 120); JUB 3, 6, 7, 7–8 = 3, 35, 7–8 (p. 131); JUB 3, 7, 1, 10 = 3, 38, 10 (p. 133); and JUB 4, 12, 2, 6 = 4, 28, 6 (p. 131n3).1, 187, 891, 1–7861, 1, 8931, 288, 891, 3891, 3, 3, 241n251, 3, 5891, 3, 5/6911, 3, 7891, 4901, 5, 190, 258, 381, 3841, 5, 2901, 5, 390, 92n301, 5, 5901, 5, 691n261, 5, 7911, 6931, 6, 1 ff.911, 6, 2921, 6, 3931, 6, 4931, 6, 5931, 7931, 13, 589n171, 18, 541n251, 25, 941n25, 206n1011, 25, 1088n101, 28, 5198n821, 29, 5206n1011, 30, 43731, 33, 2197n801, 33, 589n171, 40, 2–347n31, 60, 13822, 2, 2198n822, 2, 4194n702, 7, 2180n24, 180n28, 182n352, 82322, 8, 32322, 8, 3/92352, 8, 4163n22, 8, 9163n2, 2322, 9, 687n72, 11, 5194n702, 13, 287n72, 13, 52583, 2, 641n25, 198n823, 9, 12363, 13, 1287n93, 14, 1–6115, 1193, 14, 6251, 3733, 17, 553n213, 17, 6613, 17, 6–1053n223, 21, 2180n28, 208n1093, 28, 410, 1203, 28, 51203, 35, 7–8131n33, 35–39143, 36, 541n25, 61n473, 38, 101334, 5, 1–22374, 25, 33984, 25, 42584, 25, 6237n194, 26, 1237n194, 26, 151284, 28, 6131n3Kāṭhakasaṁkalana50, 4–5237KathāSS9, 61152n11KaṭhU1, 3146n33, 2321, 13–1966, 701, 14131, 1321, 1666n1, 74n31, 79, 82, 85n621, 16–1777, 821, 16–18731, 1766n1, 73n29, 82n55, 841, 17–181311, 2385n621, 23–2574, 79, 365n502, 366n1, 74, 79, 80, 85n622, 8215n22, 1072n24, 82n532, 20215n22, 24373n76, 5237KauṣB27, 1365KauśS49, 3–1423049, 6164n883, 26179n18KauṣU11191, 1114, 116, 2101, 223, 25, 27, 116, 120, 259, 405, 405n1, 407, 4091, 31171, 427, 116, 251, 372n5, 373n7, 3841, 51171, 5–6116, 1181, 61161, 71172, 82762, 11–123573, 1360, 3673, 8228, 2574, 2147n344, 15147n34, 2374, 17–1872n27KB5, 5, 3 ff.199n885, 8, 1–31785, 8, 31194n716, 11, 121987, 7, 15–23182, 205n987, 7, 24–30181n2910, 2, 10197n8012, 4, 10206n10112, 10, 26206n10118, 2, 819518, 6, 1020018, 7, 13180n2418, 9, 23179n1820, 1, 5 ff.192, 199, 20720, 1, 7190n6022–23188n5323, 11, 43–4518824, 4, 23195n74, 198n8325, 12, 2198KeU4, 8128, 398KS5, 235n186, 131n11, 412n96, 51587, 2: 64.13180n287, 15: 79.5 f.31n9, 411n79, 4334n4312, 12362, 362n4417, 8: 251.11207n10720, 582n5421, 10: 50.13178n1422, 5: 60.19–20181n2922, 6: 61.17199n8922, 11: 67.13199n8823, 8: 84.11–12180n2824, 9: 100.4207n10725, 10: 2.118.515926, 3: 125.10178n1726, 6: 2.128.1415929, 3: 170.18199n8831, 7354, 36631, 15: 18.1197n8032, 7: 25.18195n7335, 17: 63.1197n8039, 7: 124.15–16184n41MaiU1, 172n251, 33482, 72573, 5346, 348, 3664, 32286, 173n276, 21326, 3586, 8776, 1432n13, 177n11, 205n98, 413n116, 1532n13, 33, 58, 413n11, 4146, 1758, 73n276, 18826, 20215n26, 283486, 3372n266, 3472n25, 776, 3572n276, 38215n27, 4184n41, 207n1077, 61887, 7777, 11215n2MānGS2, 15, 1187n50, 188n52Manu1, 1 f.33n14, 413n121, 67177n113, 118281, 283n32, 3145, 96179n206, 3191n256, 45 ff.3667, 45 ff.342, 3497, 493498, 913818, 94228n9, 229n1111, 36148n211, 5136311, 5335011, 55350, 350n12, 352, 36011, 56–5935211, 5836311, 60–6735211, 9136211, 9936011, 11385n6211, 116248n311, 11936411, 261283Mbh1, 3, 1371561, 3, 1501862, 28, 18149n612, 183, 3228n912, 329, 433, 34n17, 414, 415n16MNU196–197398200150n82877729077415–416332505–516397, 402MS1, 5, 12: 81.5269, 278, 2841, 6, 4: 93.9–1285n621, 8, 131n11, 412n91, 10, 2334, 334n432, 2, 6: 19.14207n1072, 2, 11165n11, 1672, 8, 9: 114.2207n1072, 8, 9: 114.7185n442, 8, 14: 117.7 ff.1932, 13, 21: 167.2–3180n282, 13, 21: 167.5–6207n1072, 13, 21: 167.81873, 1, 3: 4.16203n943, 6, 1: 60.14178n143, 6, 33443, 7, 10: 90.2207n1073, 8, 41583, 8, 4: 97.142313, 8, 9: 109.4198n83, 198n853, 9, 13363, 9, 41583, 9, 4: 3.118.71583, 9, 5: 122.18–19178n143, 11, 10334, 3353, 16, 5 (= 4, 14, 7)3364, 1, 541n224, 1, 9335, 353, 354, 3664, 1, 10: 13.8236n174, 1, 10: 14.5–61794, 3, 93354, 5, 4: 68.4178n144, 7, 9160n304, 8, 5199n884, 9, 3: 124.2181n294, 14, 11674, 14, 17328, 333, 334, 337, 339MuU1, 2, 6387, 387n32, 388, 388n331, 2, 9–102321, 2, 10–11117, 1191, 2, 111183, 1, 33843, 1, 5399n573, 1, 7215n2Nirukta1, 3, 362n511, 11148n26, 27351, 367PārGS1, 11, 165n542, 10, 7194n70PB1, 5, 18163n21, 6, 10332, 333, 3374, 5, 739n104, 5, 131514, 8, 939n105, 7, 187n65, 8, 81686, 4, 741n256, 6, 5358n328, 1, 10345n68, 2, 10363n458, 7, 9206n1029, 8, 589n179, 8, 1458n3710, 1, 1189n5711, 5, 11382, 38911, 5, 1739n1012, 8, 839n14, 5512, 11, 12385, 387, 40214, 11, 19363n4615, 3, 7150, 155n2315, 7, 2168, 17115, 11, 9167n1516, 1, 2149n516, 1, 915118, 1, 2353n2318, 3, 438718, 8, 6638918, 9, 2138919, 10, 438819, 11, 838820, 15, 1537822, 14, 2358n3425, 10, 10199n89PrāṇU2377PrU1, 7771, 9–10117, 1191, 101183, 7383, 384, 3885, 5387n32Rām2, 27, 4282ṚV1, 11, 5148n11, 24, 8 (= i.a. VS 8, 23)3381, 24, 9308, 310, 315, 3351, 24, 14308, 3151, 24, 15303, 3051, 31, 153951, 31, 15cd1041, 32, 10224, 2331, 32, 10d1031, 32, 11148n11, 34, 7164n71, 35, 2751, 35, 31641, 35, 4751, 35, 6b1031, 36, 18165, 1721, 38, 5c1031, 42, 2265, 266n81, 47, 71641, 48, 71641, 50, 23621, 53, 7165, 172n261, 62, 103641, 65, 13621, 66, 6751, 71, 5363n451, 73, 7b1041, 92, 31641, 97, 1266, 2671, 101, 1360n401, 105154n201, 105, 1196n761, 105, 17154n201, 106, 61541, 116, 62671, 117, 5233, 2361, 117, 5a1031, 119, 8165, 1721, 121, 13141n14, 155, 2271, 121, 13d1031, 123, 5266, 2671, 1253771, 125, 53951, 125, 5ab1041, 125, 61071, 125, 6cd1071, 125, 7313, 3171, 126, 6–7365n501, 128, 21651, 128, 52651, 134, 41641, 151, 752n181, 154, 53951, 154, 5 f.1041, 161, 141991, 162, 223031, 164105, 3951, 164, 23d1051, 164, 30d1051, 164, 33a1051, 164, 4547n3, 931, 166, 82651, 179, 5297, 297n8, 298, 3011, 185, 8297, 3021, 189, 1317, 3401, 189, 52651, 191, 53622, 1, 2 (= 10, 91, 10)51n17, 52n17, 62n52, 65n542, 12, 103112, 14, 42252, 27, 32602, 27, 5150, 1532, 27, 14224, 225, 233, 297, 3012, 27, 14d100, 1032, 28, 5300, 301, 307n202, 28, 7307, 307n20, 3162, 28, 9308n20, 3092, 28, 10308n202, 29, 13022, 29, 5266, 266n10, 298, 310n232, 29, 6155, 233, 238n202, 29, 6d1002, 33, 9752, 33, 10752, 33, 11752, 38, 82002, 41, 11266, 2672, 42, 2c1012, 43, 2379n173, 7, 10308, 310, 314n283, 9, 51653, 24, 335n19, 415n183, 29, 83703, 31, 1–3363n453, 31, 23753, 43, 51023, 43, 5d1023, 53, 21 (= AV 7, 31, 1)2283, 55, 21014, 1, 13101, 154n214, 3, 52994, 3, 13313, 3144, 51004, 5, 53644, 5, 5d1004, 5, 14100, 2294, 5, 14d1064, 9, 452n174, 11, 13139n114, 12, 4297, 305, 3164, 12, 5309, 3164, 24, 9393n474, 25, 62274, 26, 61654, 38, 53624, 1041015, 3, 7266, 267, 300, 3115, 3, 123005, 15, 53625, 31, 3154n215, 32, 42245, 32, 52245, 32, 5d1005, 32, 62245, 42, 3363n455, 55, 4c1025, 63, 2c1025, 70, 43135, 79, 93625, 83, 13145, 83, 23045, 85, 340n205, 85, 7297, 297n8, 3015, 85, 8301n126, 1, 12266n106, 4, 51526, 8, 41656, 15, 1356n336, 16, 2135n19, 415n186, 19, 935n206, 28, 72676, 45, 1165, 1726, 48, 162656, 51, 7309, 311, 313, 3176, 51, 8308, 310, 3146, 52, 4d1016, 55363n456, 56, 6266n106, 59, 82656, 61, 14163n26, 62, 82656, 74, 3308, 3156, 75, 10a1017, 4, 73117, 18, 183067, 19, 72667, 20, 1309, 3167, 35, 43757, 35, 121017, 52, 2311, 3137, 57, 42987, 58, 53157, 63, 482n537, 76, 41017, 82, 1035n207, 83, 5266, 2677, 86, 4299, 302, 302n14, 3157, 86, 5310n23, 319n32, 336n44, 361n43, 3627, 86, 63447, 87, 7298, 301, 3037, 88, 6298, 313, 3147, 89, 12357, 89, 1a1007, 93, 7297, 297n7, 3017, 104 (= AV 8, 4)101, 135n1, 140, 227, 2297, 104, 12247, 104, 3154, 2277, 104, 3a–c1017, 104, 5154n227, 104, 112297, 104, 16229, 229n107, 104, 17154n22, 227, 2297, 104, 212658, 5, 8164n78, 5, 301648, 6, 17224n48, 18, 123098, 18, 14266, 2678, 30, 3165, 170, 2338, 30, 3cd1048, 32, 22164n78, 41, 2–32008, 45, 342998, 47, 1266, 2678, 47, 22678, 47, 5150n9, 2668, 47, 7–83078, 47, 8312, 3188, 47, 13251n4, 2568, 47, 153048, 47, 183048, 48, 3ab1048, 67, 143628, 67, 173098, 79, 33368, 79, 42668, 83, 52668, 96, 123149, 68, 61659, 72, 33659, 73, 6155n249, 73, 81559, 73, 8–92279, 73, 8/9d1059, 73, 9155, 155n24, 2279, 94, 4bc1059, 96, 1939n15, 44n369, 97, 756n339, 113105–1079, 113, 71029, 113, 7–11109, 3949, 114, 3175n710, 5, 6351, 36710, 8, 7154, 154n2010, 10363n4510, 10, 1023310, 10, 12363n4510, 13, 4363n4510, 14, 8b10610, 15, 629810, 15, 14b10610, 16, 4d106, 10710, 16, 9 (= AV 12, 2, 8)225, 22610, 17, 4c106, 10710, 18, 10146n3210, 18, 10d10610, 27, 2315610, 35, 3266, 26710, 36, 9310n23, 31710, 36, 1230610, 37, 12310n23, 311n25, 31710, 40, 10 (= AV 14, 1, 46)272n2410, 52, 251n1710, 56, 1d10610, 57–60146n3210, 58163n210, 58, 1117110, 60, 10146n3210, 60, 1122510, 61, 637010, 63, 531410, 63, 8308, 31610, 63, 1030510, 71, 1151n17, 5610, 79, 630610, 85, 207510, 85, 2437410, 86, 2015610, 87, 2026710, 88, 1752n18, 62n52, 65n5410, 89, 1426610, 89, 15 (= 103, 12)146n32, 22910, 89, 15c = 103, 12d10610, 90, 13198n8210, 95, 14146n32, 151n11, 165, 169, 170, 233, 238n2010, 95, 14–1515510, 95, 14ab10610, 95, 14c10610, 95, 1523310, 95, 1737210, 95, 18d106, 10710, 97, 1036210, 97, 16332, 33410, 98, 5221n1310, 99, 5266n1010, 100, 7251n4, 25610, 102, 1026610, 103, 12146n3210, 10710710, 107, 237710, 107, 2a10610, 107, 2d10710, 107, 651n17, 62n5210, 114, 10c10710, 114, 10d10610, 117, 6282n3210, 122, 337610, 12831210, 128, 4312, 31310, 129, 1–233, 41410, 129, 234n17, 415n1610, 129, 334n17, 415n1610, 132, 431210, 132, 531210, 13510610, 135, 1ab10610, 135, 7ab10610, 137, 129810, 144, 416510, 145, 4 (= AV 3, 18, 3)146n32, 165, 169, 22910, 145, 4d10610, 152, 4146n32, 229, 23010, 152, 4d10610, 154107, 255, 395, 396, 402, 404n6610, 154, 2–525510, 154, 3143n1910, 154, 4109, 39510, 154, 4–5143n1910, 161, 2146n32, 23410, 161, 2c10610, 16425110, 164, 1–330510, 164, 530410, 16530510, 185, 183ṢaḍvB1, 5541, 6, 1247, 371n42, 1, 291n262, 1, 3/52022, 1, 62032, 1, 6–2, 2, 132012, 1, 9–30442, 1, 10 ff.422, 1, 262032, 1, 292022, 2, 42032, 2, 82022, 2, 8–13442, 2, 132022, 4, 3205n983, 1, 173373, 1, 26180n243, 1, 281803, 1, 292083, 8, 14168, 170, 171ŚāṅkhĀ11, 621313, 1133ŚāṅkhB2, 7112, 1192, 84033, 144, 61n474, 489n185, 687n65, 7168, 1725, 828n12, 409n126, 1153n217, 987n67, 1089n1810, 141n2510, 216011, 439n12, 150n7, 150n8, 151n1015, 239n10, 5516, 339n1016, 9149n517, 531n10, 411n817, 754n2418, 239n1419, 228n12, 409n1220, 142, 60n4521, 113, 13222, 516823, 716824, 439n14, 43, 5525, 1131n325, 1128n12, 409n1225, 1531n9, 411n726, 187n6, 15326, 341n2527, 787n6ŚāṅkhGS1, 10, 9209n1111, 16, 3194n701, 26, 7–8209n1112, 12, 2193n67SB(M)1, 7, 4, 2295ŚB (Kāṇva)5, 4, 1, 2360n42ŚB1, 2, 1, 12208n1101, 2, 3, 2356n231, 2, 3, 3–43401, 2, 3, 4352n18, 356n231, 2, 4, 8–1138n71, 2, 4, 10–122081, 2, 4, 11207n1071, 2, 4, 16168, 229, 2311, 2, 5, 790n221, 2, 5, 17178n14, 180n241, 3, 1, 213641, 3, 1, 2524n3, 112, 406n31, 3, 2, 41871, 3, 2, 1687n61, 3, 3, 16 (= ŚBK 2, 3, 2, 15)2931, 3, 5, 101981, 4, 1, l ff.81n511, 4, 4, 541n251, 4, 4, 741n251, 5, 3, 14101, 5, 3, 18357n291, 6, 1, 4293, 295, 3061, 6, 1, 19252n61, 6, 1, 21382n191, 6, 3, 2787n81, 6, 4, 1167n151, 6, 4, 13/18236n141, 6, 4, 16252, 252n61, 7, 1, 3208n1091, 7, 1, 52591, 7, 1, 12178n141, 7, 4, 1–4363n451, 7, 4, 2293, 294, 3061, 7, 4, 1859n411, 8, 1, 6212n41, 8, 1, 40174n31, 8, 2, 17357n291, 8, 3, 6363n451, 9, 2, 352261, 9, 3, 13180n242, 1, 1, 3206n1012, 1, 3, 12352, 1, 3, 3177n112, 1, 4, 9182n332, 1, 4, 1087n72, 2, 2, 330n7, 31n8, 411n5, 411n62, 2, 2, 172952, 2, 2, 19403n642, 2, 3, 63852, 2, 4, 1 ff.31n11, 412n92, 3, 1, 1024n3, 406n32, 3, 1, 10–111122, 3, 3, 9131n32, 4, 2, 171582, 4, 2, 24194n712, 5, 2, 83812, 5, 2, 10207n1072, 5, 2, 203642, 5, 2, 473312, 6, 1, 4194n712, 6, 1, 10–11174n32, 6, 3, 1252n62, 6, 3, 724n3, 406n33, 1, 1, 7178n14, 180n24, 180n27, 180n283, 1, 2, 21360n39, 360n403, 2, 1, 40356n243, 2, 2, 431n10, 412n83, 2, 3, 17182, 205n983, 2, 3, 18181n293, 3, 3, 13378n153, 4, 2, 1185n443, 6, 1, 131573, 6, 1, 141573, 6, 1, 181593, 6, 1, 26184n413, 6, 2, 15385, 4023, 6, 3, 73363, 6, 3, 11317, 3403, 7, 1, 71583, 7, 1, 102263, 7, 1, 25158, 160n30, 2353, 7, 2, 190n223, 7, 4, 424, 4063, 8, 2, 152263, 8, 4, 11206n1023, 8, 5, 1206n1023, 8, 5, 103323, 9, 4, 17359n374, 1, 1, 2241n25, 197n804, 1, 2, 43404, 1, 4, 5374, 374n84, 1, 4, 1061n474, 3, 4, 123404, 3, 4, 27205n1004, 4, 5, 53384, 4, 5, 20–21196n764, 4, 5, 2139n144, 4, 5, 223314, 5, 1, 7376n12, 378n154, 5, 1, 924n3, 406n34, 5, 4, 13884, 5, 7, 21984, 5, 8, 103784, 6, 1, 454n25, 194n72, 1984, 6, 7, 9–102944, 6, 7, 1289n185, 1, 2, 103625, 1, 2, 183405, 1, 5, 687n85, 2, 1, 71585, 2, 3, 2–3153, 1585, 2, 4, 5182n365, 2, 5, 163325, 4, 3, 2659n415, 4, 4, 53625, 5, 1, 4205n986, 1, 2, 4206n1036, 1, 2, 9194n706, 1, 2, 1038n8, 195n736, 1, 3, 112066, 1, 3, 16195n73, 198n846, 2, 2, 16195n73, 198n846, 3, 3, 5203n946, 4, 4, 22178n176, 5, 2, 638n86, 5, 2, 7194n706, 5, 2, 22194n706, 6, 2, 3178n176, 6, 2, 491n25, 1786, 7, 1, 182n536, 7, 1, 282n536, 7, 3, 83057, 1, 1, 4182n367, 1, 1, 43194n717, 2, 1, 8153, 175n47, 2, 1, 11181n337, 2, 2, 21190n627, 3, 1, 1590n227, 3, 1, 421987, 4, 1, 1717, 4, 1, 6437, 4, 1, 881n527, 4, 1, 1082n537, 4, 1, 1482n54, 84n597, 4, 1, 2372n257, 4, 2, 221127, 4, 2, 37206n1017, 4, 2, 401807, 5, 2, 61987, 5, 2, 20194n707, 5, 2, 3190n227, 5, 2, 5241n25, 1957. 1. 2; 181128, 1, 2, 787n98, 2, 3, 6206n1018, 2, 3, 1341n24, 198n868, 3, 3, 1189n18, 198n848, 5, 2, 3197n808, 5, 2, 441n258, 5, 2, 121968, 5, 2, 13186n478, 5, 3, 5194n708, 6, 1, 8208n1098, 6, 3, 3185n448, 7, 2, 687n69, 1, 2, 3288n109, 3, 4, 112099, 3, 4, 13178n179, 5, 1, 62360n4010, 1, 4, 1413110, 2, 4, 4194n7010, 2, 4, 654n2710, 2, 6, 1913110, 3, 1, 187n610, 3, 3, 741n2510, 3, 3, 7–8198n8210, 4, 1, 2289n1810, 4, 2, 27198n8410, 4, 3, 3206n10510, 4, 3, 9–1013110, 4, 3, 101310, 5, 1, 413210, 5, 1, 513210, 5, 213210, 5, 2, 682n53, 13210, 5, 3, 1225910, 5, 4, 2180n2710, 5, 4, 1439n1210, 5, 4, 1539n1210, 6, 1, 4–9/1113210, 6, 213210, 6, 5, 1190n6210, 6, 5, 8131n311, 1, 2, 854n25, 198, 203n9411, 1, 5, 79n9, 25911, 1, 6, 133, 33n14, 413, 413n1211, 1, 6, 233, 41411, 1, 6, 822611, 1, 6, 21–2420711, 2, 3, 815311, 2, 7, 33257, 260, 381n1811, 3, 1, 1 ff.403n6411, 4, 3, 20131n311, 5, 1, 8151n1111, 5, 3, 8–12294, 29511, 5, 6, 913, 13211, 5, 713211, 5, 7, 313211, 5, 8, 753n21, 53n2311, 6, 2113, 114, 118, 11911, 6, 3, 642n28, 19411, 6, 3, 11359n3612, 1, 3, 2339912, 2, 3, 12154, 15612, 3, 4, 1113312, 4, 1–4358n3112, 5, 2, 14–16358n3112, 6, 1, 3859n4112, 7, 2, 1125912, 7, 2, 1733212, 7, 3, 7178n1512, 8, 1, 18204, 23512, 8, 2, 235712, 8, 2, 3128n12, 409n1212, 8, 3, 6179n1912, 9, 2, 2147, 237, 333n42, 33412, 9, 2, 2–733912, 9, 2, 433212, 9, 2, 733912, 9, 3, 11–12131n313, 2, 7, 760n4213, 3, 3, 5167n1813, 3, 5, 3356n2413, 3, 5, 4355n2213, 4, 1, 1587n813, 4, 2, 15178n1713, 4, 3, 1025713, 5, 3, 319813, 5, 4, 125813, 5, 4, 39n9, 257, 381, 390, 391n4013, 5, 4, 24205n10013, 8, 1, 2277–27913, 8, 1, 427813, 8, 1, 5175n5, 17813, 8, 1, 6178n1413, 8, 1, 8278, 27913, 8, 1, 1027913, 8, 1, 1127913, 8, 1, 15158, 28013, 8, 1, 1828013, 8, 1, 2015813, 8, 1–427713, 8, 3, 3190n6013, 8, 3, 1028013, 8, 3, 1128013, 8, 3, 1328013, 8, 4, 128013, 8, 4, 228013, 8, 4, 428113, 8, 4, 723514, 1, 1, 31364n4714, 1, 2, 2178n1414, 3, 2, 26414, 3, 2, 319814, 3, 2, 4–1519614, 4, 1, 2387n714, 4, 3, 1288n1014, 4, 3, 13 = BAU 1, 3, 1641n2514, 6, 1, 11 = BĀU 3, 1, 941n2514, 8, 14, 388n1014, 9, 1, 7222ŚBK1, 2, 2, 11–122952, 5, 3, 22942, 7, 2, 32945, 4, 1, 2360n42ŚvetU1, 811n111, 9772, 1842, 1511n113, 9216n33, 20215n2, 216n34, 1174n32, 844, 1482–84, 216n35, 7775, 1311n116, 577, 826, 1311n111, 8, 42051, 8, 4–6259, 2601, 8, 5–72091, 9, 1237n191, 19, 1–4174n31, 22, 11971, 22, 41971, 22, 51972, 3, 13312, 6, 22932, 14, 11322, 19, 11327 (= TU 1)39710 (= MNU)133, 39710 (= MNU 143–145)28310 (= MNU 505–516)12810, 64, 1 (= MNU 548)177n11TB1, 1, 6, 730n7, 31n9, 411n5, 411n71, 1, 9, 1031n9, 411n71, 2, 1, 2546n21, 3, 4, 587n81, 3, 10, 5194n711, 5, 9, 5–63391, 6, 1, 33221, 6, 5, 33341, 6, 5, 6199n881, 6, 7, 4167n151, 6, 9, 7178n141, 7, 6, 339n141, 7, 10, 1199n891, 7, 10, 443, 61n471, 8, 8, 287n62, 1, 2, 1 ff.31n11, 412n92, 1, 3, 5178n152, 1, 8, 1178n14, 1802, 2, 1, 241n25, 197n802, 2, 10, 5184n412, 2, 10, 5–61872, 3, 8, 22092, 4, 4, 9335, 3392, 5, 6, 33232, 6, 6, 13392, 6, 6, 1–43392, 7, 15, 5185n452, 8, 8, 882n543, 1, 1, 176n403, 1, 5, 6387n323, 1, 5, 14182n363, 2, 1, 3178n143, 2, 1, 42593, 2, 4, 339n123, 2, 4, 641n25, 58n373, 2, 8, 9353, 3663, 2, 8, 11–12353n213, 2, 8, 123543, 2, 9, 1290n223, 2, 91236n173, 3, 4, 539n123, 3, 6, 290n223, 3, 6, 890n223, 3, 79n93, 3, 7, 31983, 3, 7, 92593, 3, 7, 10251n5, 260, 3973, 3, 8, 3583, 3, 10, 23843, 3, 10, 3206n1023, 4, 1237n193, 7, 1, 241n25, 197n803, 7, 2, 1203n943, 7, 3, 439n123, 7, 12, 1–53393, 7, 12, 2319n32, 3283, 7, 12, 2–33393, 7, 12, 5168, 3253, 8, 2, 1206n1013, 8, 7, 12184n413, 8, 9, 3167n183, 8, 12, 2167n183, 8, 17, 5206n1013, 8, 20, 4207n1073, 9, 4, 2190n623, 9, 5, 590n213, 9, 7, 539n123, 9, 13, 2167n183, 9, 15, 1–2190n623, 9, 15, 3355n223, 9, 22, 4131n33, 10, 1, 1–276n403, 10, 8, 541n25, 198n823, 10, 8, 6206n1023, 10, 10, 4131n33, 10, 11, 21223, 10, 11, 462n513, 10, 11, 6 f.194n723, 11, 5, 2180n28, 207n1073, 11, 5, 3186n473, 11, 8663, 11, 8, 5833, 11, 8, 5–61313, 12, 8, 5128, 397, 402, 4033, 12, 9, 7–89n9, 12, 257, 397TS1, 1, 9, 1168, 1701, 1, 14, 33171, 2, 11, 23391, 3, 61571, 3, 9, 2226, 2311, 4, 45, 1335, 3381, 4, 45, 23311, 6, 7, 1195n731, 6, 11, 43891, 8, 1, 13221, 8, 3, 13341, 8, 5, 33342, 1, 9, 2199n882, 2, 5, 5353n19, 3542, 4, 13356n262, 5, 1, 2356n232, 5, 1, 31582, 5, 3, 6167, 167n15, 167n16, 358n352, 5, 5, 6353n192, 5, 8, 72352, 5, 11, 5197n802, 6, 2, 1205n982, 6, 4, 21582, 6, 10, 23352, 6, 11, 22283, 1, 4, 33353, 2, 5, 73323, 3, 8, 53764, 1, 1844, 1, 9, 31674, 2, 1, 1194n704, 2, 1, 238n84, 2, 5, 42284, 2, 8, 282n544, 3, 11, 576n404, 3, 13, 43224, 4, 2, 2180n28, 184n41, 207n1074, 4, 3, 2180n284, 4, 5, 1 f.1934, 4, 5, 2190n614, 7, 12, 1164n7, 1674, 7, 14, 23124, 7, 15, 4–53364, 7, 15, 53364, 7, 15, 73165, 1, 2, 5203n945, 1, 3, 5196n775, 2, 4, 2–3175n45, 2, 4, 31585, 2, 5, 3178n15, 180n28, 1825, 2, 6, 581n525, 3, 4, 734n17, 415n165, 4, 12, 3167n185, 5, 8, 2207n1075, 5, 9, 4182n34, 182n365, 5, 9, 51875, 5, 10, 2180n28, 186, 187, 207n107, 2315, 5, 10, 4180n28, 1865, 6, 8, 33655, 7, 5, 12355, 7, 133456, 2, 2, 1185n44, 207n1076, 3, 2, 23366, 3, 4, 21576, 3, 9, 2–3226, 2316, 3, 10, 13356, 4, 2, 41976, 4, 8, 334n17, 415n166, 5, 5, 2167n156, 6, 33356, 6, 3, 13356, 6, 4, 1160n306, 6, 4, 21597, 1, 6, 83787, 2, 7, 33897, 2, 7, 5163n27, 3, 1, 11497, 3, 1, 4587, 3, 11, 23707, 4, 3, 4344TU1, 4, 1771, 5, 1611, 742, 194n69, 194n701, 9128, 133, 397, 4021, 113972, 272n262, 9257VādhS3, 9131n33, 1931n11, 412n94, par. 63158VaiGS1, 965n546, 165n54VaitS23, 12328VārGS17, 6185n45VāsDhS30, 8400Vedāntasūtra1, 3, 30152VS1, 251686, 162268, 1333216, 37153n1416, 44153n1420, 25387n3020, 26387n3030, 5228, 237n1935, 1423539, 1–219640, 3146YājSm3, 231363General Index

(No accents were used in Sanskrit terms)

ā-ar (with enas)312–313, 329abhaya (freedom of fear)329, 400abhiṣvaṅga (overfondness)347acitti (carelessness)344acculturation, see Aryan versus non-Aryanadhama (lowest, referring to underworld)101, 141, 226, 229, 230, 234adhara (downward, “underworld”)106, 141–142, 146n, 164n, 225, 228–230, 235adharāñc (idem)141, 225, 226, 228, 230adhidaiva (macrocosmic)57, see also ritual (threefold approach)Adhidiva/Adhidyu (name of a world)42n, 190–193adhiyajña (ritualistic), see ritual (threefold approach)Adhvaryu46, 47, 48n, 53, 55, 64, 74n, 81n, 340adhyātma (microcosmic)54, 57, 60, 62, see also interiorization of ritual and ritual (threefold approach)Aditi35n (= 416n), 186n removing āgas301, 303, 305–306, 309Āditya in cosmic classifications38–39, 42–43, 87–88, 189–192, 194, 196–197, 203 Lokapāla179nĀdityas38, 260 in the West183 located in third/fourth world190–192 removing āgas and enas302–303, 318 and Varuṇa183, 191–192, 207n, 303adultery236, 342, 350, 352, 363–366afterlife, see life after deathāgas263–264, 287–306, passim meaning287–292, 341 committed sin266, 288, 291, 293–300, 306 self-committed sin297–300 committed by someone else300 and kar291, 294, 297–298, 310, 316, 341kṛtāgas (sinner)308, 341 results of sin: pollution or disease288, 290–291, 302–306 removal by Varuṇa, Soma, Aditi or Mitra301–302 Gonda on303–306 compared to enas264, 287–292, 299–300, 303, 306–310, 316–318, 327, 336, 341āgas in ṚV297–305 in AV296 in ŚB293–296see also sin (concept of)āgaskṛt308nagha adj.262–265, passimagham n. (evil)262–286 meaning, etymology263–264, 284–286 evil from outside264, 267, 280, 284–285 and sin262–265, 276–277, 281–286, passim mourning264, 269–271, 273, 277–279, 285, passim lamenting267, 270–273, 285 and kar265, 271–277 compounds with263, 267, 274–275, 283–284 compared to enas271–273, 282agham in ṚV265–267 in AV268–276 in ŚB277–281 post-Vedic281–284aghadviṣṭa274aghahāra274–275aghakṛt263, 268–269, 273–274, 285aghamāra263, 274aghamarṣaṇa262–263, 278, 283–284 Aghamarṣaṇa ceremony283–284, 286agharud263, 270, 273–274aghaśaṁsa263, 266–267, 274–275, 284–285, 300, 311, 317aghaviṣa263, 268–269, 274–275aghāyu263, 267Agni66, 69, 70–73, 324, 338, 354–355, 370, 373, 376–377, passim presence in stone house109 Agni Vaiśvānara131–132, 325 related to earth in cosmic classifications39, 42–44, 87, 190–194, 196–197, 201–203 and the East179, 183, 192 brought from the parāvat164–165, 172 in relation to enas306–307, 322 liberates from enas309, 314n, 316–317, 322–323, 325, 330–331, 335, 337, 340Agnicayana (piling of the fire-altar)122, 124–126, 129–134, 196, 238, passim Nāciketa Agnicayana66–85, 131 use of gold object72–73, 75–85 threefold approach: ritualistic, cosmic and microcosmic72, 82n, 130, 133 interiorization69–73, 130n, 131–132 esoteric meaning and Prajāpati71 defeats punarmṛtyu66, 122, 124–126, 129–130, 238agnicit72n, 131agniciti70, 82n, 85, 133, 193Agnihotra90n, 128–130, 131n, 145, 258, 338, 397, 402, passim and cosmogony30–31 (= 410, 412), 35 (= 415) and water doctrine, exchange heaven-earth111–115, 118–119 produces a heavenly Ātman113, 118 five symbolic sacrifices, see pañcāgnividyā defeats punarmṛtyu121, 130, 133–134 interiorization72n, 130, 132, 134Agniloka42nAgniṣṭoma226, 389Agnyādhāna48n, 72n, 81n, 85n, 131n, 376Āhavanīya59, 60n, 61n, 91, 177n, 180n, 205, 207–208ahiṁsāxx, 128, 287, 351–352, 353n, 360n, 363n, 367, 399–401, 403Āhitāgni61n, 73, 375Ajātaśatru72nAjīgarta257Ājīvaka4ajñāna (ignorance)346, 347akṣakāmyā (passion for dice)344ālasya348alcohol, see liquoraṁhas263, 267, 285, 301, 307n, 316, 318, 322–323, 328–331, 334–336amhomuc335amṛta27 (= 409), 33, 44n, 61n, 98n, 102, 103, 123, 193amṛtatva67, 105, see further immortalityanāgas292, 303–306, 309, 310n, 317, 324anagha262, 284anaghakṛt284anātmya (lack of self-control)346anekarūpa66n, 68, 74–79, 82Aṅgirasas38n, 101, 106, 108, 187–188, 377, 387aṇiman215–216anirukta (unexpressed, indistinct)41n, 46–47, 53n, 54, 57–58, 60n, 197, 198n particular way of chanting88, 90annihilation (of beings after death)94, 100, 103, 106–107, 122–123, 134–135, 139–140, 142, 166n, 170n, 225anthill (entrance to underworld)154n, 156, 203nAnuṣṭubh (fourth metre, identified with fourth items)38, 39n, 41n, 42–45, 54–55, 59, 61n, 87, 167–168, 171, 194n, 195n, 196, 198n, 201, 203, 365Anvāhāryapacana fire42n, 43, 195nanyakṛta (enas), see enas; (ṛṇa)308napāmārga281Aparājita (name of a world)190–193aparigraha351, 352, 367, 400, 401āpas41n, 44, 195Āptyas340, 356nĀra (lake)116–117araṇya16, 17, 127, 128, 130, 153n, 334, 403Āraṇyakaxvi, 9n, 50n, 86, 87, 128, 258, 259, 277, 293, 337, 398arātayas (niggardliness)346Arāyīs (female demons)225, 235āreagha266nārjava128, 346n, 352, 399, 403arthopārjana (seeking of wealth)347Aryan105, 109, 129, 227, 395, passim Aryan versus non-Aryan5–7, 16, 18, 37, 99, 101–102, 108, 110, 126, 128, 180, see also ritualism versus non-ritualismasamatva (instability)347aśanāya (hunger)344, 347Aśanāyā (Hunger) (name of sixth or seventh world)43, 60n, 190–191, see also hungerasat209, 236 undifferentiated chaos before creation32n (= 412n), 41–42, 53, 60n, 209, 236āsat (hell/total annihilation)100asau loka (heaven)41n, 54n, 58n, 162, 225asceticism19, 255–256, 352, 362, 390, 395, 402–404, passim versus ritualism, see ritualismaśraddhā346astainya351, 401asteya (non-stealing)351, 400–402asthiratva (unsteadfastness)347Asuras57n, 107n, 163n, 208, 209n, 293 versus Devas35n (= 415n), 37, 60, 226, 235, 237, 358 related to underworld/darkness37, 146, 156, 158, 165n, 226–227, 230, 232, 235 related to West178–180, 182n, 183–184asurya226, 232asūya (envy)346, 347Aśvamedha129, 131n, 257, 355n, 390, see also horse-sacrificeAśvapati Kaikeya84n, 132, 351nAśvins164, 172, 236atathā294Atharvavedaxvii, xix, xxii, 46, 48n, 51n, 55, 56, 63, 119, 135, 138, 145, 146, 161, 195Atharvaveda Saṁhitā (Śaunaka)161–162, 233, 345–346, 396, passim afterlife137–147 distance/death165–166, 169–173agha268–276āgas296–297enas318–327Atharvaveda Saṁhitā (Paippalāda)138, 166, 327–331Atharvavedic46n, 49n, 56, 162, 267 Brahmins46n, 48n, 145, 285, 320 ritual144, 145, 240, 322, 375, 396 texts46n, 55, 117, 118, 204, 285Atharvavedin46n, 48n, 53n, 55, 145atipātaka352ātmakṛta (enas) see enasātman19, 76–77, 79, 113, 202, 228, 232, 257, passim doctrine/knowledge of (ātman = Brahman)13, 122–123, 133, 214–216, 218, 222, 232, 257, 397, 400 in heart57, 71, 77ātman and sun/fire76–77, 82, 118–119Ātman Vaiśvānara77, 132Ātmayajña (interiorized sacrifice)70, 130, 132–134Atrins154n, 224atyāśa (gluttony)346Avabhṛtha (expiatory bath)335, 337, 339ava-yā (with āgas)302 (with enas) 315ava-yaj (with āgas)302; (with enas) 334, 336(ā)-vivās (with enas),314, 315axis mundi186–188āyatana197, 398ayoga (lack of concentration)346Bahiṣpavamāna (“Out-of-doors laud”)44, 87–88, 91–92, 360bhaya (fear)346–348bhoj (with agham)281–282; (with enas) 282, 311, 313–314bhrātṛvya (rival, cousin)148n, 155n, 158, 231, 357–359, 361Bhṛgu139, 162nbhrūṇa355bhrūṇahan/hatyā351, 354–355, 360n, 361see also killing an embryoBhujyu165, 172bila (hole/pit)148n, 156Brahmā185n examination by and identification with13, 15, 116–120Brahmacārin343, 350–351, 353, 363–364, 367, 386nbrahmacarya (chastity)343, 351, 353n, 364, 399n, 400–401, 403brahmadviṣa310n, 317brahmahan/hatyā352, 354, 355n, 356n, 359see also killing a Brahminbrahmajajñam (the verse brahma jajñānam)66n, 68, 74n, 82–84Brahmaloka13, 117–119, 168, 388 sixth or seventh world42–43, 60, 175, 190–192bráhman n. passim meaning of47–53 poem, charm50–53 cosmic principle, totality50–53, 55–56, 64–65, 87 object of knowledge50, 53, 62, 398 identification with13, 15, 83, 117–120, 123, 132–134, 190, 192, 386 related to Brahmán, manas, silence57–59brahmán m. (poet, priest in general or Brahmán priest)46–53, 56n, 58n, 60nBrahmán priest, passim function of46–53, 64–65 fourth position associated with fourth items/totality49, 53–58 silence46–47, 50, 57–59 and the South59–61, 205 his knowledge of bráhman62–63 expiations63–64Brāhmaṇācchaṁsin49, 52nBrāhmaṇasi–xii, xvi–xviii, 9–15, 18–19, 28 (= 409), 39–40, 50, 53, 55, 60, 63, 66–67, 69, 72, 110–111, 114, 117, 119–120, 122, 124, 128, 131, 144, 156, 161, 168, 192, 231, 239, 248–249, 254–257, 277, 379, 380–381, 384, 396–397, 402Brahmaudana61n, 376brahmavarcasa342–343brahmavidyā56Brahmayajña (study/recitation of Veda)130–134Brahmin16–18, 48–50, 56, 111, 113–114, 120–121, 125, 129, 134, 144–145, 183–184, 189, 254, 257, 342, 352–353, 362–363, 376–377, 393, 396–397, 401–402, passim crime against139–140, 169, 228, 238, 269, 296, 321, 335, 350–352, 360–367, 396 killing a Brahmin228, 258, 346, 350–356, 358–362, 366, 400–402 not giving/taking away a cow145n, 154n, 227–228, 268–269, 285, 325–327, 362brahmodya (verbal contest)17, 47n, 52n, 53, 56n, 61n, 62–63, 81n, 129Bṛhad Āraṇyaka Upaniṣad249, 250Bṛhaspati38n, 185, 187n, 191, 194n, 340, 356nBuddhism/Buddhist8, 212, 253, 349n, 351, 352, 362, 400–402cakṣus (one of vital powers, counterpart of cosmic entities)44, 192, 197, 201cañcalatva (fickleness)347Candramas (moon) (world of, in different positions)42–43, 55, 190–192, 196n, 202–203car (verb)248, 357n, 388cardinal sins, see vicescattle79, 97, 144, 154n, 210, 273, 287, 327, 339n, 357, 361, 363n, 370, 389Cātvāla (ditch)90–92celestial waters, see waterschaos dualism with cosmos32n (= 413n), 37–38, 53, 60, 108 primeval waters40–41, 45, 53Chāndogya Upaniṣad214–222, 351Chandomas ritual337chariot75, 76, 79, 81, 85n, 149–153, 155, 156, 295, 305Christianxx, 289, 290, 342, 348, 350, 366, 368citra78–79, 185Citra Gāṅgyāyani114, 210, 213nclassification of space two approaches: cosmic layers and quarters of space37, 174–176, 204–209see next two itemsclassification1 (cosmic layers, vertical)37–45, 60–61, 174–176, 184, 189–204, 204–208 two-threefold37–38, 189, see cosmic triad fourfold37–45, 53, 55, 87–93, 193–197, 199–200, see also fourth item as totality fivefold42, 185, 193–197 sixfold—Dhur verses44, 191, 200–204 sevenfold42–44, 60–61, 189–193 microcosmic counterpart44–45, 54, 197–198see also watersclassification2 (quarters of space, horizontal)37, 174–188, 204–208 three regions176, 179, 183, 208 four174–184 eight174–175, 178–179 opposition East-West176–177, 179–181 South-North177–179, 181–183 extended with centrum, nadir and zenith175, 184–188see also separate regions East, South-East, etc.cosmic egg (Weltei, golden egg)30–35 (= 410–415)cosmic reversal (at night-time)40, 45, 205cosmic tree (inverted)40cosmic triad (earth, intermediate space, heaven/sky)37–38, 42–44, 54, 60, 87–88, 90, 166n, 175n, 176, 181, 185, 189, 190n, 193–196 day-time cosmos/sky38, 40, 41n, 43n, 53, 59, 87, 189, 192–193, 203 dualism with fourth cosmic item/underworld37, 53, 59–60, 109–110, 185n microcosmic counterparts197 related to three quarters208 to Agni, Vāyu, Āditya/Sūrya39, 87, 189–190, 193, 203 Vasus, Rudras, Ādityas38, 183, 190 extended to a fourfold/fivefold division, see classification1cosmogony (Weltentstehung/Kosmogonie)29–36 (= 410–416), 37–38, 40–41, 108, 198cremation15, 115, 141, 157, 177n, 225–226, 358n instead of burial136–138, 156, 159 burial of bones after cremation156, 161, 190n, 233crime251, 256, 258–259, 264–265, 288–289, 292, 299, 314, 346, 348–350, 352, 356n, see also Brahmin, crime againstcriminal94, 106, 136n, 176, 217, 266cycle of fluid, see exchange between heaven and earth and water doctrinedakṣa313–314Dakṣiṇā30n (= 411n), 97–98, 107, 143n, 144, 145n, 146n, 255, 321, 340, 346, 352n, 365n, 375–378, 393n, 395, 399, 403Dakṣiṇāgni (southern fire, symbol of death and underworld)43, 46n, 49, 59–61, 177n, 195, 205, 207dakṣiṇāyana177, 182ndama128, 260, 346n, 397, 398, 402, 403dambha (deceit)346dāna128, 352, 372, 377n, 378, 386, 391, 397–399, 402, 403, see also liberalityDānastuti365ndaṇḍapāruṣya (assault)349dāra150, 153n, 155ndarkness (tamas)108, 110, 175, 240, 324, 339, passim associated with death142, 225–226, 233–236 with the diseased234 underworld100, 108, 110, 139–141, 146, 162, 168, 204, 209, 223–241 lower/lowest (adhara/adhama) darkness141–142, 163n, 226, 229–231, 234 blind (andha) darkness146, 168, 226, 229–232, 235–236 long darkness of Vṛtra103, 224, 233 Pitṛs living in darkness142, 166, 209, 233, 235 associated with the South177–178, 181, 183, 204–205, 239 and moon118, 178n, 205, 236 of stone house108–109, 139nDāsas99, 101–102day/day-time (tripartite cosmos, worlds of life)38, 40, 41n, 43, 53, 59, 190–194, 203, see also cosmic triad represented by sun40, 189 sin of sleeping during day345, 349, 354 day-time sky, see heaven3day and night (Tag und Nacht) (cosmogony, differentiation)29–36 (= 410–416), 37 opposition/alternation37–43, 45, 53, 60, 175, 189, 203, 415n association with worlds: day1–3, night 4–6, immortality above 43, 60, 190Decalogue342, 350, 366demerits (non-ritualistic, disqualifying for heaven)7–9, 249–251, 253, 255–256, 260–261, 287, 317, 341, 369, 373n, 378, 380, 391 = pāpa380, 382–384 transfer of demerit310, 339–340see also duṣkṛtadepth underworld162, 223–241 and darkness223, 229, 241devaheḷana310n, 311n, 317, 333ndevaloka39n, 124, 180, 204ndevayāna111, 117–120, 127–128, 136n, 168, 403dhā (with agham)268; (with enas) 311dharma (virtue, duty)368–369, passim threefold385–386, 402Dharma texts17, 237n, 350, 352, 360, 366, 367, 369, 399, 401Dharmaśāstra350ndhāv150–151dhruvā diś175n, 186–188, 203nDhur verses44–45, 194n, 200–202dice344, 345ndīrghasūtratva348diśas, see quarters of spacedisease10, 11, 146n, 223rapas225, 281 fever141, 146n, 225yakṣma225–226, 328–329 pollution, result from āgas or enas288–291, 299, 303–306, 308, 316, 319, 322–325, 328–329diseased (unconscious)138, 233–235, 319, 322distance, see parāvatdoorkeeper (Torwächter) (moon, season(s), sun)23–28 (= 405–409), 115–116, 378, 381doṣas (fifteen faults/passions)346, 366 six vices348Dravidian4, 5, 101, 126drinking liquor (one of the major sins) see liqour and surādroha (injury)346dualism (of different kinds)37, 60, 109–110, 153, 239, 415n, see also chaos, cosmic triad and worldsdurita150, 313, 317, 325, 329, 340duṣkṛt (evil-doer)251, 304, 369, 374n, 401duṣkṛta (demerit, sin, evil)8–9, 249–253, 256, 374, 378, passim = pāpa380–383 badly performed ritual8–9, 155n, 238n, 249–251, 253, 256dveṣa336, 347n, 349ndviṣṭi (hatred)347dyumna (heavenly light, Himmelslicht)29–36 (= 410–416)East (positive quarter)176–180, 183, passim associated with heaven and gods177, 184, 204–205, 207–208 exit from nether world177 ritual importance64, 180n, 181 associated with Rudra182 with Indra174n, 179n, 183, 185n with Agni183, 185n, 192 with Vasus183, 192 with Āditya179n with Brahmins183eating meat349, 353n, 360n, 362, 363n, 367embryo331, 340, 355 killing325, 340, 353, 355–356, 360, 366–367enas (evil, result of committed sin), passim meaning (evil or sin)287–292 with kar/kṛta291, 301, 306–311, 318–320, 327–329, 331–337, 341svakṛta = kṛta309, 318, 336–337ātmakṛta328–329, 332, 336anyakṛta282n, 309–311, 317, 328–329, 332, 336–337devakṛta328, 331–334, 337 removal of314–318, 320–325, 329–331 compared to āgas264, 287–292, 299–300, 303, 306–310, 316–318, 327, 336, 341 to agham264, 271–273, 282enas in ṚV306–318 in AV Śaunaka318–327 in AV Paippalāda327–331 in YV331–337 in Brāhmaṇas337–341enasvin/vat308n, 339, 341, 345nepics146, 163, 179n, 182n, 200, 204n, 208, 212, 240, 348–349, 358n, 368evil132–133, 257–260, 381–385, passim, see also agham, āgas, enas and pāpa evil beings/powers140, 224, 272n, 344 bad karman256–259, 381, 390, see also karman transference of evil268, 300, 310, 311n, 314, 317, 325, 328–329, 340, 356nevil traits, see vicesevil-doer, see duṣkṛt and pāpakṛtexamination (of the deceased) (Aufnameprüfung)23–28 (= 405–409), 90, 111, 115–120exchange between heaven and earth15, 112–114, 118–120, see also water doctrine and Agnihotraexpiations272, 302n, 321, 332, 358n function of Brahmán priest56, 62–64 too late extinction of fire235, 294–295 Aghamarṣaṇa283–284 expiation of sin332external influences on orthodox Vedismxx, 5–6, 14–19, 110, 238, 404n from indigenous people6, 101, 105, 108, 126, 128 from Kṣatriyas15–17, 125, 129 from renouncers16–18, 128five-fire-doctrine, see pañcāgnividyāfood132, 193, 222n, 259 stage in water/fluid cycle15, 112 and moon89, 196, 206 and the waters196, 201, 203, 205–206 life rules281–282, 338, 352, 353n, 357n, 372, 392n fluid form of merits373, 377nfourth items (totality)xviii, 38–39, 41–42, 45, 54–55, 62, 64, 88n, 193, passim fourth worlds outside cosmic triad, see night, moon, nocturnal sky, waters, underworld, chaos, and asat deities of, see Viśve Devas, Varuṇa, Soma, Prajāpati microcosmic fourth items, see manas, vāc other fourth items, see Anuṣṭubh, brahman, diśas, Brahmán priestfuneral107–108, 115, 135–137, 143, 161, 165–166, 175n, 229n, 235, 240, 269, 272–274, 277, 281, 285, 322–323, 377Fünffeuertheorie, see pañcāgnividyāgambling297, 330, 349Gandharvas209, 232, 389Gārhapatya-fire (West, representing earth)59, 205, 207–208, 320–322, 334, 337garta (fissure/pit, grave, underworld)xix, 137n, 148n, 149n, 150n, 152–153, 156–161, see also pitgartapatyam (falling into a pit)151, 157gatekeeper, see doorkeeperGaupāyana hymns146n, 171nGāyatrī38, 44, 183, 194n, 201gold, passim connected with sun/fire/immortality76–79, 81–83 ornament of75–83, see also sṛṅkā and niṣka buried under altar72, 80–81, 132 Dakṣiṇās of107, 377 stealing of346, 350–351, 354, 360–362, 367, 400–402golden egg, see cosmic egggrāhi (demon, disease)324–325gravexix, 100, 103, 137–141, 154n, 156–161, 224, 227n, 235= harmya100, 224grave-mound277–281, 285Gṛhapati52n, 62n, 65Gṛhya Sūtras206n, 209, 239, 396guhā (heart) (interiorized ritual in)67, 69–71, 131guilt (related to agham, enas, pāpa, etc.)268, 270, 273, 283, 288–289, 303, 312, 320, 323–324, 332, 338, 353, 358guṇa (virtue)368Hades95n, 96, 110, 135, 136n, 140, 143, 162, 237, 239, see also underworldharmya (stone house, underworld)106, 108–109, 139n, 224 grave100, 224harṣa (exultation)346, 348heaven17–15, 66–68, 71, 84, 94–110, 209–213, 223, 225–226, 228–229, 231–235, 238–240, passimheaven2 (ideal of ritualists)11, 13–14, 120, 123, 232, 370heaven,3 localization of the third world of sun/day-time sky37–44, 53, 87, 89, 91, 175, 179, 186, 189–194, 197, 201–205, 208, see also cosmic triad a fourth world “above” day-time sky, world of immortality40–41, 53, 86–93, 190, 195, 199, passim related to East or NE91, 177–180, 184, 195n, 204–205, 207–208heaven,4 reaching98 journey to heaven, devayāna111, 115–120 entrance to heaven through sun89–92, 210–213 qualifications in general392–399, see also sukṛta qualification by ritual merits238, 245–252, 260, 392–396, 401 Agnicayana66, 71, 84–85, 130–132 Bahiṣpavamāna86–93 by non-ritual/moral merits, asceticism128, 393, 395–399 by knowledge/vidyā127–128, 131, 397 recitation of a verse23–28 (= 405–409), 113, 115–116heaven-hell/underworld opposition37, 98, 108, 135, 161, 162, 168, 181, 223, 239heavenly ocean, see watershell (abode of sinners/criminals)9, 94–101, 103–104, 135–142, 148, 152–158, 160–163, 169, 173–176, 184, 224–232, 237–239, 269, passimhiṁsā (violence)347, 351, 360nhiraṇya75–80, see also goldHiraṇyagarbha82nhorse-sacrifice257, 283, 355n, 390hospitalityxxi, 128, 144–145, 338, 380, 387, 390–393, 395, 397, 401Hotṛ46, 48n, 49, 52, 53, 55, 64, 65hunger (aśanāyā) (stage before immortality)43, 60n, 89, 190–191 evil154, 222n–223n, 283n, 339, 344–346, 348see also kṣudhhunting349idaṁ sarvam (universe/totality)44–45, 201–203, 214–215ījāna376, 377, 385immortality (amṛtatva)11, 16, 67, 76, 79, 82n, 124, 223n, passim concept of immortality99, 102, 123 non-dying, continuation of life on earth7, 97–99, 102–104, 107, 122–123 personal immortality in heaven15, 67, 71, 99, 102–105, 107, 123, 127, 133–137, 175n, 234, 238, 369–370, 390, 394, 398, 399n with body13–14, 131, 133, 138, 238 qualifications for127, 386, 392–398, 400 in fourth world beyond the sun86–93 impersonal, identification with Brahman/highest god16, 119, 122, 123, 133, 134, 190–192, 386, 400, see also mokṣa opposition immortality in heaven and mokṣa11, 13, 123, 386, 400 reaching immortality in Brahmaloka by defeat of punarmṛtyu127, 130, 134incest296, 352, 358n, 363–364, 370 of Prajāpati293–294, 324, 363n of Yama and Yamī363nIndra35n (= 416n), 77, 172, 187, 191–192, 257, 266n, 355n, 361, 364 killing enemies/sinners155, 299, 306, 311, 361 sending them down/to hell69, 103, 224–225, 227, 229 killing Asuras163n, 358n killing Vṛtra148n, 167, 170, 224, 233, 259, 358n killing Viśvarūpa340, 352n, 356n killing Śuṣṇa100, 109, 224 killing Namuci165, 172n rescues from agham275 from enas309, 311, 316, 330–331, 335 related to second/third world42, 44, 192, 193n–194n, 201 to East/South51n, 174n, 179n, 181–183, 185nindriyāṇi (six/seven vices)342–344injunctive25–27 (= 407–409)interiorization of ritual (adhyātma)254, 295, 400 of Agnicayana69–73, 130n, 131–132 of Agnihotra72n, 130, 132, 134īrṣyā (envy)347, 349iṣṭāpūrta66, 255, 368n, 372iṣṭāsukṛta372Jaiminīya13, 29, 42n, 86, 88, 113, 115, 116, 119, 129, 202, 398Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇaxii, xvi, xvii, 29–36 (= 410–416), 86, 116, 190Jaiminīya SāmavedaxviJaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa86–93Jain(ism)4, 5, 8, 126, 188n, 254, 351, 352, 362, 400–402Janaka113, 114, 129Jānaśruti372, 392njarā (old age)345–347Jātavedas328, 330jātavidyā56jihīrṣā (desire of robbing something)347jīva/jīvātman179n, 215, 222, 272njīvaloka179njñāna130, 260, see further knowledgeJyotiṣṭoma133kalyāṇa (with karman)9n, 76n, 259, 260kāma (desire)346–349, 366Kāma (name of eighth world)43, 191, 193Kāravyā260kar/kṛ247–249, 256, 273, 333n with agham265, 271–277, 323 with āgas291, 294, 297–298, 302, 310, 316, 341 with enas291, 301, 306–311, 318–320, 323, 325, 327–329, 331–337, 341 with puṇya/puṇyam381–383, 390–391 with pāpa381–383 with sādhu373 with ṛṇā301 with sukṛta247–249, 369karman deed, action (in transmigration)3–19, 119, 341, 370, 379–384, 390–391, 396, 403, passim ritual karman7–12, 16, 130–131, 245–247, 249–250, 253–254, 382, 398 non-ritual/ethical karman7–12, 253–261, 382puṇya karman249, 257, 381, 383, 390–392pāpa karman249–250, 257, 381, 383karman opposed to vidyā/jñāna130–131 obstruction to mokṣa12–13, 254kārpaṇya (wretchedness)346, 347karta (fissure/pit, grave, underworld/hell)xix, 100, 103, 105, 137n, 139, 148n, 150n, 151, 153–158, 227, see also pitkartapatya (falling into a pit)151, 153, 155n, 156–157kāṭa (pit, underworld)xix, 137n, 139, 148n, 153n, 154n, see also pitKaṭha Upaniṣad66–85 stratification67–70Kauthumas88, 119khālatya (baldness)345kilbiṣa264, 281, 308n, 329–330, 334–335killing296, 342, 351n, 355–360, 374n, passim a Brahmin228, 346, 350–356, 358–362, 366, 400–402, see also brahmahan/hatyā a rival/enemy/hero228, 340, 354–358, 360, 366 cattle/animals287, 339n, 355, 360n, 367 sacrificer and relatives295, 355, 358n, 359, 361, 367 an embryo355–356, 360n, 366–367see also bhrūṇahan/hatyāsee also Indra, killingknowledge (vidyā, jñāna)10, 50, 73n, 146, 213, passim of Brahman priest47, 62–65 liberating knowledge (source of immortality/mokṣa, admission to highest)27 (= 408), 83–85, 103, 115–119, 124, 127–128, 130–131, 146, 378, 383, 399n knowledge of ritual, defeat of punarmṛtyu113, 123–124, 127, 129–130, 132–133 knowledge of ātman/Brahman50, 53, 56, 62, 132, 232, 373n, 397–398, 404vidyā opposed to karman130–131kṛntatra (ravine, underworld)148n, 156, see also pitkrodha (anger)343, 346–349, 366Krodha (= Yama)139kṛtāgas308, 341Kṣatriyas52, 65, 129, 182–183, 351n, 356n, passim influence on doctrines15–17, 125, 129 as teacher111–114, 119, 129kṣudh (hunger)346, 347kūpa (pit, hole)153n, 154n, 157, see also pitKutsa154liberality (combined with/alternative to sacrifice, virtue)xxi, 66, 107, 143n, 144–145, 256, 377–378, 386, 389, 392–393, 395–396, 398, 401–403, see also dānalife after death, passim in ṚV (different views)94–110, 135–138 in AV (heaven and nether world)138–147 in relation to the two paths and pañcāgnividyā111–120see further heaven, underworld, hell, Hades, and annihilationlobha (greed)346–349Lokapāla177n, 179n, 182, 199, 207 eight174n, 179nliquor/alcohol (drinking of, a major sin)344, 346, 349–354, 362, 367, 401–402mada348mahāpātaka228, 339n, 352, 366maharloka42, 61Maitrāyaṇīya Upaniṣad67, 72māna348manas (mind, the fifth prāṇa)41n, 44, 54, 192, 197, 382 and vāc57, 59, 62 microcosmic counterpart of fourth/fifth items54, 57, 197–198, 203 of moon44, 54, 60, 89n, 195n, 197–198, 202–203 of Prajāpati44, 57, 197–198 of bráhman and Brahmán priest54, 57–64 in first position201, 203 and seed/Retasyā44, 201–203 related to paramā parāvat171nmānasa (mental recitation)57, 87–88, 91–92Manu104, 170n, 262, 281–282, 352, 368manyu (anger)344, 346, 348mārdava346nmarj (with agham)281; (with enas) 325, 340Maruts75, 102, 193, 207n, 315, 322mātsarya (selfishness)347merits253, 255, 368–404, passim ritual127, 245–252, 253, 393 non-ritual253–261, 371–375 transitoriness of14, 127 transfer of310, 311, 373nsee further sukṛta and puṇyamilk112, 113, 225, 258, 389Mitraxvii, 34n (= 415n), 35n (= 416n), 207n related to āgas301, 306 related to enas313–314Mitravindā131nmitrānugrahaṇa (favoritism towards friends)347moc/vi-moc (with enas)315–316, 320–324, 328n, 330moha (perplexity)346–347mokṣa4, 7, 15–16, 119, 120, 123, 126, 221–222, passim ritualistic mokṣa, release from punarmṛtyu11–14, 123, 127–130, 132, 134, 192, 254, 260 identification with highest deity (end of devayāna)13, 118, 120, 123, 128, 134, 221 non-ritualistic mokṣa, release from rebirth, identification with Brahman11–15, 18, 118, 123, 127–128, 190, 192, 238, 247, 254, 260, 370, 386, 403mokṣa based on knowledge about ātman83, 218–219, 222, 232, 378see also immortalitymoon4, 24n, 57, 60, 144, 179n, 202, 205, 382, passim doorkeeper23–25 (= 405–407), 116–117, 120 source of seed/rain/food24 (= 406), 26 (= 408), 40n, 115, 116, 196–197, 202, 206 alternating with sun39–41, 179n, 189 fourth deity/item in cosmic classicifications39, 42–43, 53, 55, 60, 61n, 64, 87, 189, 191, 193–197, 205, 207 associated with other fourth items (e.g. night, waters, netherworld)39, 41, 44, 55, 189, 195–198, 201 203, 205, 207, 240 with Soma39–40, 42, 55, 89, 178, 180, 182–183, 193–194, 205–206 with microcosmic manas44, 54, 60, 171n, 195, 197, 198, 202, 203 with Pitṛs, Yama and death43, 171, 177n, 178, 179n, 182, 198, 236 with Prajāpati198, 206 the first/third/fifth/seventh item42, 44, 60, 191, 194n, 201, 202mṛṣodya (lying)346mṛtyu97, 236–237, 345, 347Mṛtyu (Death)61n, 67–68, 71, 73, 79, 84–85, 106, 141, 192, 259, 280 deity of the fifth/sixth world42–43, 60n, 190–192, 203 and sleep103, 236–237mūḍhatva (confusion)347murder(er)228, 268, 288, 339, 348, 351–353, 356, 366, see also killingmūrta-amūrta (Brahman)58, 59Nāciketa fire-altar66, 69, 71–73, 79–81, 84–85, 131Naciketas66–71, 73n, 74, 79–80, 84–85, 131, 232, 365nnadir37n, 174n, 175, 185n, 186–188, 203n, 208 subterranean231nāgaloka156nairṛta (destructive power)344Nairṛta (lokapāla SW)174n, 177n, 179nnaiṣkāruṇya (cruelty)347Nāka “vault of heaven” (seventh or tenth world)42–43, 60, 191–192Nakṣatras42, 190n, 208naraka/nāraka139, 141n, 148n, 154n, 228, 237, see also hellnāstikya (atheism)346Neṣṭṛ priest340nether world, see underworldni-dhā (with enas)317nidrā (sleep)346–348, see also sleepni-gam/ni-gā (with enas)312–313night/night-time34n, 39–45, 53, 55, 65n, 109, 115, 147, 178, 191, 237, 239, 278 cosmic reversal during40, 45 fourth world associated with moon and other fourth items39, 43–44, 55, 60–61, 110, 166, 189, 191, 193, 195–200, 205–207, 223n, 236, 240 associated with underworld39, 110, 176, 236, 240 with worlds in fourth-sixth position43, 60, 190 with chaos, precosmic situation41–42 night-day opposition/alternation37–43, 45, 53, 60, 175, 189, 192see also day, day and night, and nocturnal skynikṛtatva (low conduct)347niragha284nírṛti101, 109, 142, 146n, 345Nirṛti (goddess of death/underworld)103, 106, 140, 153, 158, 165, 170, 175, 179n, 181n, 228, 233–234, 236, 322, 345nirvrīḍatva (shamelessness)347niṣka (ornament, coin)75–81, 85nnivṛtti (inactivity)12nocturnal sky (fourth cosmic world, classified “above heaven”)59, 189, 194, 205, 240 celestial waters/ocean40n, 41, 43n, 53, 195, 198 subterranean waters/underworld in reversed position43n, 45, 198, 200, 202, 203, 205–206North65, 81n, 92, 177, 187, passim auspicious quarter59, 178n, 182 associated with human beings and life178–179, 180n, 182–184, 239, 281 and fourth world/waters/Varuṇa38n, 183, 206–208 with Viśva Devas184 with Soma-(plant)174n, 182 with Rudra and mountains182–183 with Śudras183–184 with Asuras207n, 208North-East (NE)91–92, 174n, 177n, 179 (entrance to) heaven91n, 178, 179n associated with Īśāna174n, 179nNorth-West (NW)174n, 179nNṛmedha359odana,146n, 330, 331om (and vāc)87–89, 93origin of human life, see exchange between heaven and earthorthodox Vedism versus non-orthodox movements, see ritualism versus non-ritualism and external influencesPākayajña65npālitya (hoariness)345pañcāgnividyā (five-fire-doctrine, Fünffeuertheorie)15, 24 (= 406), 101, 111, 113–115, 117, 119–120, 127–128, 196n and water doctrine15, 118–119see also AgnihotraPaṅkti (fifth metre)42, 44–45, 201–203pāpa11, 258, 264, 281, 314 with kar/karman249–250, 259, 381–382 opposed to puṇya259–260, 382–383, 391, 402pāpakṛt (evil-doer)250–251, 257, 381, 402pāpakṛtyā (demerit)250–251, 258, 373n, 378, 384, 391pāpaloka (world of sinners, hell)140, 166n, 169, 228, 384–385pāpman11, 13–14, 264, 279–280, 323, 332, 338–339, 341, 344–345pāpmānas (six)343–346, 366parā- prefix164paraloka (heaven)162paraloka (hell)139, 162nparāvat (distance)xix, 162–173 distant region of gods163–165, 167, 168 destination of sinners/rivals/unfavourable items etc.140–141, 165–166, 169, 226, 228–229, 231, 233 destination of deceased166, 168–172 underworld43, 104, 106, 109, 146n, 162–165, 169–170, 188, 228, 229, 233–234 associated with Pitṛs166–173 Indra’s hiding place167 Pitṛloka in heaven172parigraha (having property)347, 351Pārikṣita9n, 257, 390parimara357parīvāda (calumny)346parśāna (abyss, underworld/hell)100–101, 137n, 139, 148n, 154n, 224, see also pitpat (to fly)151 to fall down, going to hell148, 150n, 151–152, 155n social fall in relation to sin148, 352pātaka352pipāsā (thirst)346, 347Piśācas141, 226pit148–161 fissure/hole obstructing a chariot149–153 grave100, 103, 137n, 139–140, 156–161 underworld or hell100, 103, 109–110, 139–141, 153–161 openings to Pitṛloka153–161, 188n, 204, 235see further karta, garta, kṛntatra, kāṭa, parśāna, vavra, bila, and śvabhraPitṛloka (world of meritorious deceased)59, 115, 120, 161, 183, passim location161, 172, 182 in heaven172, 240 between heaven and earth194n, 232, 235, 241 in underworld166, 170–172, 228 holes/plant roots/buried part of yūpa153, 154n, 156–161, 188n, 204, 235–236, 280 associated with SE/South174–175, 177n, 178–182, 184, 204–205, 209, 239Pitṛs101, 106, 108, 141, 232, 234, 241, 334, 389, passim living in darkness/underworld/parāvat142, 163n, 166–173, 179, 208–209, 233–237 associated with night/sleep147, 209, 236–237 with the moon178, 182, 189n, 198 associated with non-Aryans101 and Yama182, 239, 322 merits given to373n, 384, 391pitṛyāna24 (= 406), 101, 111, 115, 117, 119, 127, 136n, 170n, 403Pluti91, 211, 212Prācīnayogya76Pradiva/Pradyu (name of fifth/sixth world)190–192prajā128, 397, 399, 402Prajāpati44, 73, 122, 131, 167, 201–202, 205, passim deity of undifferentiated totality/asat39n, 42n, 53–54, 58, 60n, 194, 198, 205–206 deity of primeval waters188n, 190n, 198, 203, 206 and creation71, 87, 198 and the year28 (= 409), 30n (= 411n), 198n in fourth/fifth position42, 195–198, 201–203, 205–206 associated with fourth items Viśve Devas39n, 41n, 196n, 198 microcosmic manas41n, 44, 57, 195, 197–198 bráhman/Brahmán priest57, 58 moon/night89n, 198, 201, 203 Anuṣṭubh39n, 41n, 42, 44–45 and Agnicayana71 creates Pitṛs209 creates Asuras226, 358n Prajāpati’s incest293–294, 324pramāda (heedlessness)346–348, 354prāṇa (breath)143n, 258, 359 and vāc87–88, 202 identified with sun and fire72n, 73n, 77 microcosmic counterpart of Vāyu191, 197 symbol of Sāmaveda88 five/six prāṇas42, 44, 54, 191, 197–198, 201–202, 294–295Prāṇāgnihotra72n, 130, 132Prāṇāgnihotra Upaniṣad71npratimā (measure, Maß)29–34 (= 410–414)Pravāhaṇa Jaivali114, 222, 365nPravargya145pravṛtta (ornament)76, 80pravṛtti (ritual activity)12Prāyaścitti131nprimeval chaos, see chaosprimeval waters, see watersprimeval world, see worldpunarājāti127punarjanman (rebirth on earth)9–11, 15, 113, 117, 119, 120, 380, passim and karman3–4, 10, 15, 259–260, 370, 383–384, 390, 406, passim and punarmṛtyuxviii–xix, 14, 67, 121–134see also pitṛyānapunarmṛtyu (redeath/second death in heaven)11–14, 66–67, 115, 120, 192, 238, 259 and punarjanmanxviii–xix, 14, 67, 121–134 lateness of the term121, 124–126 different views on (Oltramare etc.)121–126 origin of the concept121–129, 131, 134 victory over11, 13–14, 122, 128–134, 192, 238punishment96, 106, 154, 237–238, 289, 306, 332, 346, 349, 351, 396 as evil or disease285, 290, 303 in hell9, 139–140, 141, 154, 237puṇya (merit)255, 282, 343, 368, 373, 379–384, 388n, 390–392, 401–404 etymology379puṇya persons388–390 and/or sukṛta249, 368, 369, 373, 379–384, 392, 395, 399, 401–402puṇya karman249, 257, 259–260, 381, 383, 390–392 opposed to pāpa249–250, 259–260, 380–384, 402 with kar382–383, 390–391puṇyagandha (fragrance)343puṇyajana389puṇyakṛt251, 258–259, 373n, 381, 384, 390, 402puṇyakṛtyā251, 373puṇyaloka/puṇya loka384–388, 390, 395n, 402Purastāddhoma321pūrtam (good work)255, 368n, 372Purūravas107, 151n, 155, 165, 171n, 233, 237puruṣa71, 72n, 82, 118–119, 198n, 234, 236quarters of space/regions (diśas) totality of space39, 42, 54, 61n, 71, 174–176, 194, 201, 203 in classicifations38–39, 42–44, 54, 61n, 191n, 194n, 196, 201–203, 206–208, see also classifications2 (quarters of space) and East etc. counterpart śrotram38n, 197, 201, 202rāga (passion)347, 349nrain15, 28 (= 409), 39n, 40n, 55, 102, 112–113, 116, 196–197, 208, 221rajas dark underworld141–142, 234 Sāṁkhyā concept346–349, 366Rājasūya129, 338Rakṣas/Rākṣasa180, 182, 209n, 224, 226, 231, 330rapas281Rathantara170rati (fondness for somebody)347rebirth (on earth), see punarjanman rebirth of father in son10, 113, 392redeath, see punarmṛtyuRetasyā44–45, 194n, 201–203Ṛgveda Saṁhitā75, 119, 123, 126, 138, 144–146, 156, 160, 199, 223, 239–241, 251, 255–256, 289, 291, 341, passim different text layers99–107 and brahman, Brahman priest46–47, 49–52 afterlife94–110, 135–137, 162 distance/death164–165, 169–173agha265–267āgas297–306enas306–318 obtaining heaven393–396ritual (threefold approach: adhiyajña, adhidaiva and adhyātma)xviii, 53–54, 72, 82n, 130, 176, see also the separate termsritualism versus non-ritualism/asceticism/esoteric knowledge6, 15–19, 110, 117, 124, 126–130, 134, 238, 245, 399–401, 403–404ṛṇa/ṛṇā (sin)264, 301, 308n, 309Rocana (name of sixth/seventh world)190–192roṣa (wrath)346Ṛṣi,48n, 97, 98, 104, 165, 221n, 298, 321, 353n, 363nṛta (truth)44, 61, 128, 191Ṛta (cosmic order)289–290, 294, 296, 324, 375, 394–395, 402 mystici dedicated to107, 109, 143n, 255, 395Ṛtadhāman (name of second world)190–192Ṛtu (season, Jahreszeit) heavenly doorkeeper/vicakṣaṇāt ṛtavo23–28 (= 405–409), 115 six, totality of time, year27–28 (= 409), 30n (= 411n), 194, 201–202 seasons in fourth/fifth/sixth position44, 196, 201–202 seasons committing āgas293–294ṛtvij47n, 53n, 54, 59, 154rud/rod270, 271, 273Rudra75, 182–183, 315Rudras38, 183, 190–192rukma (ornament)75–76, 78n, 80–83, 85nrūpa-compounds75–82sādhu (with karman)9n, 249, 251, 257–258, 260, 363, 373, 381, 383sādhukṛtyā (= sukṛta)258, 260, 373n, 378, 384, 391Sādhyas187–188ṣaḍvarga348Śailānas88–89salokatā (with Brahman)132 with sun118, 133salt (experiment)216–218śama128, 260, 346n, 397, 398, 402śamala264Sāman42, 47n, 50n, 54n, 55, 58, 63, 88–92, 132, 148n, 150, 168, 170, 209, 232, 360, 382, 385Sāmaveda/icxvii, 46, 86–88, 91, 92, 113, 119, 125, 337, 357Sāṁkhya347saṁmoha (stupefaction)346, 347saṁnyāsa13, 133, 398sampad (dying)219–222saṁsāra4, 7, 11, 84, 245, 253saṁvṛtam210, 212Śāṇḍilya124, 125, 129sar150–151sarj (with enas)319–320, 323nis-sarj330sarvavidyā56, 62n, 63sat (cosmic principle)42, 220–222Śatapatha Brāhmaṇaxxii, 67, 70, 124, 277–281, 293–296sātmatā (identity with Brahman)13, 14, 132satya truth, reality64, 128, 191, 214, 222, 260 rule of life260, 351, 363n, 397–403 = Brahman, ṛta44, 58, 61, 398Satyaloka42, 61satyānṛta43, 61satyavacana128, 352, 353n, 399–400, 403Satyayajña Pauluṣi76Śāṭyāyani10, 92–93Śāṭyāyanī Gāyatrasyopaniṣad (= JUB)86Śaunaka (AV recension)xxii, 138, 165, 262, 268, 318, 327, 329Sautrāmaṇī131nSavayajñas/savas144–146, 240, 246, 322Savitṛ35 (= 415, 416n), 75, 164, 168, 170, 181, 323Sāyaṇa39n, 150, 246, 323, 333, 339n, 358n, 368, 377nsāyujya (with Brahman)132seed/semen/Samen (retas)236, 370 related to water doctrine/origin of men15, 24–28 (= 406–409), 112–113, 115 related to moon/waters44n, 115, 180n, 201–202, 260 of a Banyan tree215–216see also Retasyāsexual intercourse294n, 365n, 371 illicit, major sin296, 346, 349, 350–351, 363–367, 401 abstention from352, 353n, 403see also incestsilence, see Brahman priestsinxiv, xix–xx, 11, 139, 173, 227–228, 250–251, 256–261, 368, passim concept of sin, ethics256, 262–265, 276–277, 281, 287–291 Hartog on sin264–265, 271n, 276, 287–288 McKenzie289 Lefever264, 287, 289–290 sin as meaning of agham262–265, 276–277, 281–286 committed sin, see āgas evil caused by sin, see enas transference of sin310, 313, 318, 328, 330, 339, 352n, 353, 356n cardinal sins or vices290, 342–349, 363n, 366, 368, 397, 402see also vices major sinsxx, 342, 346, 350–353, 354, 356–366, 367, 400, see also mahāpātaka, killing a Brahmin, stealing, sexual intercourse (illicit) and drinking liquor minor sins339n, 351–352, 360, 366, see also upapātakasinner100, 109–110, 143, 154, 162, 289, 290, 344, 346–347, 353, 361, 366, 386, 401, passim destination in hell139–140, 155, 160–161, 166, 169, 209, 227–228, 237–241, 386 in connection with darkness223–224, 227, 229, 233, 237–239, 241 related to agham274, 276–277, 280, 283n, 285 related to āgas296, 299, 301–302, 304–305, 308, 341 related to enas306–309, 313, 317, 322–325, 336–337, 340see also sinŚiva82–83Śiva world (name of third world)190sleep (svapna, nidrā)147, 180, 220–222, 237, 251, 305, 318, 321, 338, 344 connected with death/Nirṛti103, 146–147, 233, 236–237 with Pitṛs147, 209, 236–237 the West180 a vice343–347, 349, 353–354, 402snakes/serpents156, 180, 187n, 188, 209, 268n, 389sneha (love)347śobhana (virtue)368, 377nśoka (sorrow)317, 346, 347Soma61n, 65n, 155, 182n, 196n, 202–203, 336, 377, passim in fourth position39, 193n, 194, 208 identity with moon40, 44n, 55n, 61n, 178n, 180, 182, 183, 196n and Anuṣṭubh39n, 55 in fifth position42, 44, 201 Soma hymns105 Soma sacrifices145, 356n, 394 Soma plant55n, 89n, 104–105, 138, 182, 227, 340, 359n, 362, 394–395 related to (different) regions42, 44, 174n, 180, 182, 201, 205n, 206, 208 associated with parāvat, darkness, night, the South164–165, 178n, 224, 227, 237, 240, 206 forgiving sin/enasgas297n, 301, 330South, passim quarter of death/nether world163, 177–178, 179, 181–182, 184, 204, 208, 240 world of the Pitṛs178–179, 180n, 181–182, 208, 209, 239 fourth world (Soma, moon, nocturnal sky)64, 127, 171, 182, 205–206, 240 connected with Brahman priest59–61, 64, 65n, 205 with Yama174n, 181n, 182, 185n quarter of Indra and Kṣatriyas181n, 182, 183 totality205 Rudras182n, 183, 192South-East (SE) (positive)178, 179, 204 (door to) the Pitṛloka175, 177n, 178–179, 184, 204, 209, 239 associated with Vāyu174n with Agni179nSouth-West (SW) (unfavourable/demonic quarter)178, 179n, 204 associated with nether world179n, 208 with Pitṛs174n with hell and Nirṛti/Nairṛta175, 177n, 184, 232, 239śraddhā128, 391, 392n, 397, 402–403śrath/vi-śrath (to loosen) (with āgas)301, 303 with enas308, 315–316śrauta46n, 48n, 72n, 143n, 144–146, 162, 178, 179, 204, 209, 232, 239–241, 396sṛṅkā66n, 69, 73–85śrotram (one of the prāṇas)38n, 44 microcosmic counterpart of regions197, 201–202stars (with regions in fourth/fifth world)42–43, 131n, 191, 194–197, 203stealing (esp. gold)342, 346, 348–352, 360–362, 366–367, 401–402steya (stealing)351, see also theftsthāṇu (stump)148–149, 152Stoma133, 156, 168, 388strīkāmyā (passion for women)344subterranean (under)worldxix, 37, 109, 136, 161, 176, 184, 188n, 235, 241 realm of the dead94–96, 108, 135–136, 162, 178, 255 undivided nether world101, 160 continuation of primeval chaos108 entrance in the West163, 176–177, 199 located in the South184subterranean waters42, 44–45, 81, 85, 157, 190, 193, 200 and celestial ocean during night40, 45, 199–200, 202–203 continuation of primeval waters40, 45, 190n, 198, 200sucarita248, 260, 378n, 397Śūdra183–184, 334, 362, 364n, 365suicide151n, 155, 165, 171n, 232sukṛtxiii, 245–248, 251, 369, 371, 373nsukṛtāṁ loka107, 143n, 209, 245–246, 387, 396 Yajamāna as sukṛt375–378sukṛta (good action, merit)8, 9, 260, 287, 368–375, 401–404 well performed ritual8, 155n, 246–248, 253, 369, 371, 373, 401 sacrificial merit8, 128, 172, 232, 245–252, 255, 369–371, 373n, 375–378, 393, 397 non-sacrificial/ethical merit9, 245–253, 255, 371–375 Gonda on246–252 related to karman8, 238n, 245–247, 249, 253, 370 related to puṇya249, 368–369, 373, 379–382, 388n, 401sukṛtasya/sukṛtāṁ loka106–107, 143n, 209, 245, 370, 374, 378, 384, 385, 396 obstruction to mokṣa378 with root kṛ247–249, 369sukṛtyā248, 369sun, passim alternation with moon39–41, 179n, 189 and the stone house108–109 opening to the fourth world89–92 doorkeeper/tester of the deceased27 (= 408), 90, 115, 118 identification/immortality with sun115, 118, 119, 120, 133 related to third/fourth world190–191, 193–194, 197 connected with gold/fire76–79, 81–83, 85 golden object buried under altar71, 72, 132 and ātman, see ātman committing sin324Śunaḥśepa356surā340–341, 350n, 362, 400, see also liquorSūrya76n, 324, 334 related to third world44, 189, 193, 196, 201–202Śuṣṇa (demon)100, 109, 224Suvar (name of ninth world)43, 60, 191Suvrata359śvabhra (hole, cleft)150, see also pit hell148n, 153Svādhyāya (= Brahmayajña)130–132, 397svakṛta (with enas), see enassvapna,147, 236n, 237, 343–345, 348, see also sleepsvargaloka42n, 54n, 67–68, 91n, 92, 124, 148n, 385, 399svargya67–69, 71, 385svarloka42Śvetaketu113–114, 210, 214, 216–218Śyāparṇas257Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa66tamas darkness100, 139, 141–142, 146n, 148n, 224, 226–229, 232, 234–236, 339 Sāṁkhya concept346, 348–349, 366tandrī (sloth, sleep)344–348, see also sleeptapas (austerity, asceticism)128, 181n, 255, 352, 372, 390–391, 395, 397–399, 402–403, passimtesting the deceased, see examinationtheft251, 342n, 345, 351, 361, 367, 400totality, see fourth itemtransmigration (saṁsāra, Seelenwanderung)3–19, 24 (= 406), 210, 240, 247, 382–384 its origin/development3–6, 12–14, 24, 119–121, 123, 126n, 127, 245locus classicus15, 24 (= 406) role of Kṣatriyas and ascetics/renouncers15–17see alsokarman, punarjanman, mokṣatrayī vidyā56n, 62–63, 73ntripartite cosmos, see cosmic triadTrita154, 325, 340, 353, 356ntṛṣṇā (avidity)347Turvaśa165, 172two-path-doctrine15, 24 (= 406), 111, 117, 119, 386 includes testing of the deceased119see alsodevayāna and pitṛyānatyāga346, 352, 401tyajas307, 318Uddālaka Āruṇi81n, 114, 213n, 214, 216–219, 295, 365nuddhatatva (pride)347Udgātṛ46, 53, 55, 64, 88, 358, 359Ulukya Jānaśruteya93unconscious (people)138, 142, 146n, 147n, 288, 322underworld94–110, 135–147, 148–161, 162–173, 174–209, passim undivided realm of the dead100–101, 110, 140, 142n, 144n, 160–161, 223, 239 divided into/overlapping domains of Hades and hell140, 239, see also Hades and hell; see further depth, adhara, darkness, parāvat, harmya, nirṛti, pit, garta, karta, kāṭa, dāra, and subterranean waters as fourth world53, 167, 203, 206 and primeval chaos108 entrance to, openings in earth, anthill153–154, 156, 160 entrance in the West163, 176–177, 199 connected with the South177–178, 181, 184, 205upamāsa28 (= 409)Upaniṣad(ic) (in general),7–19, 86–87, 111–117, 120, 128. 134, 144, 167–168, 223, 232, 237, 241, 245, 249, 253–254, 256, 259, 262, 276, 287, 293, 337, 341, 379–384, 388, 396, 397, 399, 402upapātaka (minor sin)339n, 351–352, 360, 366, see also sin, minorUpodaka (name of first world)42n, 190–192upper world (heaven and earth, gods and men)37, 43n, 109, 185, 188ūrdhvā diś (zenith)185, 186uruṣy318Urvaśī151n, 165, 372Uśanas57n, 165nUṣas (dawn)76n, 101, 164, 304Uttaṅka154n, 156vāc (speech, one of the prāṇas)44, 192, 197–198, 201–203, 365 opposed to manas57, 59, 62 in first/fourth/fifth position44n, 87, 197, 201–203vāc and om87–89, 93Vaiśya180n, 183, 356vākpāruṣya (abusive words)349Vala41, 137n, 139n, 148n, 154n, 316vānaprastha16, 87nVandana233, 236varaṇa (plant)280, 325Varuṇa97, 110, 139n, 364, 378n, 298, passim deity of fourth world42–44, 60n, 61n, 190–194, 196, 199–200, 203, 206–207 of fifth world43, 191, 197 and (subterranean) waters40, 43, 196, 198, 199–200, 206–207 and night/nocturnal sky/moon34n, 40, 43, 192–193, 196–199, 207 and nether world/death/harmya108–110, 139n, 163, 177, 187, 196, 203, 207–208, 224n, 240 and Yama106, 108–109, 146, 183, 236, 239–240 and Prajāpati60n, 185n, 196–197, 206 related to the West163, 174n, 177, 179n, 180–181, 183, 185n, 199, 206 related to the North183, 207–208 in relation to āgas298–303, 306 in relation to enas307, 313–315, 324, 332–335 for Ādityas associated with Varuṇa, see ĀdityasVasus38, 183, 190–192, 194vavra (cave, underworld/hell)100–101, 137n, 139, 148n, 154, 224, 227, see also pitVāyu39, 42–43, 87–88, 174n, 179n, 189–190, 194, 196–197, 203, 334vicakṣaṇād ṛtavo23–27 (= 405–409)vices (faults in human character)290, 342–349, 366–367, passimsee also indriyāṇi, doṣas, pāpmānas, vyasanāniVideha129vidyā, see knowledgeVijarā (river)116vīrahan354–355, 366viṣāda (despondency)346Viṣṇu41n, 78n, 104, 110, 187vi-śrath301, 316visukṛt/viṣukṛta251, 371Viśvakarman321viśvarūpa33, 75–79, 82, 185Viśvarūpa356n, 340, 352nViśve Devas38, 54, 58, 184–185, 190–191, 193–194, 196, 203vital powers44–45, 54, 133, 197, 201–202, 382, see further prāṇa, five, sixvittamaya (precious)66n, 74–75, 79–80, 85nVivasvat106, 163nVrātya166n, 387, 391vṛjina (deceit)9n, 251, 260, 346, 397Vṛtra9n, 41, 103, 148n, 167, 170, 224, 233, 236n, 259–260, 358vyagratva (distractedness)347vyasanāni (vices)342, 349, 362vyāvṛtatva (being indifferent towards others)347water doctrine (Wasserlehre)24–25 (= 406), 112–115 and Agnihotra111–115, 118–119see alsopañcāgnividyāwaters, passim earthly ocean200 primeval waters40–41, 53, 147n, 188n, 200, 206 associated with Prajāpti206 subterranean (continuation of primeval waters)40, 42, 44–45, 81, 85, 157, 190, 193, 198, 200, 206 celestial waters during night39, 40–45, 53, 55n, 195–197, 199–200, 202–203, see also nocturnal sky Varuṇa’s waters199–200, 206 waters as fourth/fifth world37–45, 55, 191, 195–197, 199–200, 203 waters in first position202–203 associated with the West180, 206 with the North207, 208West176, 184, 187, 205, passim (entrance to) nether world163, 176–177, 183, 199, 206 associated with Varuṇa/waters163, 174n, 177, 180n, 182n, 183, 185n, 199, 206–207 with Asuras178, 182n, 183–184 with Rākṣases182 with Ādityas183, 191n with Vaiśyas180n, 183 with Prajāpati185n with snakes and sleep180n with Pitṛs177n, 206n, 208–209 representing earth207witch-craft141, 166, 226, 320world(s), passim primeval, undifferentiated58, 60, 110, 194, 206 dualism underworld–upper world = cosmic triad37, 109–110, 185, 188 cosmic worlds, see cosmic triad and classification1 (cosmic layers, vertical) heaven and earth, passim, see also exchange between heaven and earth underworld, see underworldYadu165, 172Yajamāna8, 47–50, 89–92, 321–322, passim as sukṛt375–378yajña30n, 64, 128, 130, 191–192, 248, 370, 376n, 377n, 397–398, 402, 411nyajñakṛt377yajñanī62n, 65Yājñavalkya12, 19, 113–114, 124–125, 359n, 360n, 364Yajurveda Saṁhitā46, 167–169, 293, 331–337, 353, 355n, 366, 396Yajurvedic/in112, 119, 125, 337, 357, 367Yajurvedic Upaniṣads72, 130n, 134yakṣa (evil)313, 314yakṣma (a disease)225–226, 328–329Yama (god of death)206, 322, 335, passim his world in heaven101, 103, 105–109, 139, 141, 146–147, 209, 239–240, 394 his subterranean world of death94, 96, 108–109, 136n, 139, 141–142, 146–147, 162, 169, 209, 225–226, 235–236, 239–240 and the subterranean nadir187, 231harmya of106, 108, 139n, 224n and South174n, 179n, 181n, 182–183, 185n and sleep/dream146–147, 236–237 and Naciketas66–85, 365n and Pitṛs182, 240, 322 and moon198, 236 and Varuṇa106, 108–109, 146–147, 177n, 183, 206, 239–240, 335 incest Yama/Yamī363nyaśas(ā) (fame)342, 343, 385Yāska61n, 62n, 351, 367year (Jahr)27–28 (= 408–409), 29–35 (= 410–416)yonder world, see heaven and underworldyūpa (associated with Pitṛs/underworld)157–158, 180n, 188nzenith37n, 174n, 175, 185–188

Footnotes

Most of the text places quoted from the JUB refer to Oertel’s edition (1896, anuvāka division is disregarded) and have three digits. Eight text places, however, have a four-digit notation and refer to Sharma’s edition (1967, numbering also the anuvākas). For convenience, this four-digit notation has been converted to the three-digit number both in the text itself and in the index. It concerns the following text places: JUB 1, 9, 3, 4 (Sharma) = 1, 30, 4 (Oertel) (this vol. p. 373); JUB 3, 3, 4, 1–6 = 3, 14, 1–6 (p. 115, 119); JUB 3, 3, 4, 6 = 3, 14, 6 (p. 373); JUB 3, 5, 9, 4 = 3, 28, 4 (p. 120); JUB 3, 5, 9, 5 = 3, 28, 5 (p. 120); JUB 3, 6, 7, 7–8 = 3, 35, 7–8 (p. 131); JUB 3, 7, 1, 10 = 3, 38, 10 (p. 133); and JUB 4, 12, 2, 6 = 4, 28, 6 (p. 131n3).

Vedic Cosmology and Ethics

Selected Studies

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