is a political and diplomatic historian. He was assistant professor at Hiroshima University from 1969, and since 1981 has been a professor at Kobe University. Professor Iokibe has been the chair of the Japan Political Science Association (JPSA, 1998), chair of the reconstruction following the Tōhoku Earthquake of 2011, chair of directors at the Prefectural University of Kumamoto (2012), and since 2018 the chair of directors at Hyōgo Prefectural University. From 2007 to 2012 he was the rector of the Defense Academy. He has also been a visiting professor at Harvard University. His publications include The Diplomatic History of Postwar Japan (2013, editor) and Japanese Diplomacy in the 1950s: From Isolation to Integration (2008, co-editor).
Anatoly (Anatoliĭ) Vasil′evich Torkunov
is an expert in international relations, the recent history of Korea, and the history of diplomacy. From 1971 to 1972 and 1983 to 1986, he served at Soviet embassies in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the United States; he holds the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. In 1992, he became rector of MGIMO University, after serving as the dean of the School of International Relations and vice rector for external relations. He is the author and co-author of numerous scholarly works, including nine monographs, and is a member and section head of the Academic Council at the Security Council of Russia, president of the Russian International Studies Association (RISA), chairman of the board of directors of Russian Channel One, and chairman of the Moscow Region Civic Chamber.
Volume Editors and Authors
was professor at the Faculty of Law and Politics, Hōsei University, Tokyo, from 1988 to 2019 and has recently become an invited professor at Kanagawa University. He is a specialist in Russian history and the politics of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). He has been an honorary research (Nitobe) fellow at the Russian Research Centre, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (1983–1985), a visiting scholar at Harvard University Russian Research Center (1992–1994) and the Wilson Center, Washington, DC (1993), as well as a guest editorial writer for the Asahi shinbun (1999–2002). Professor Shimotomai was the president of the Japanese Association of International Relations and a member of the Japan-Russia Eminent Persons’ Council (2004–2006), and chairperson of the 10th World Congress of the International Council for Central and East European Studies (ICCEES) in Makuhari, Japan (2015). His recent publications include Kami to kakumei (God and Revolution, 2017), Sovieto renpōshi (A History of the Soviet Union, 2017), Rosia to Soren (Russia and the Soviet Union, 2013), Mosukuwa to Kin Nissei: Sobieto renpōshi (Moscow and Kim Il-sung: History of the Soviet Federation, 2007), and Ajia reisenshi (A History of the Asian Cold War, 2004; Korean ed. 2017).
Dmitry (Dmitriĭ) Viktorovich Streltsov
is head of the Afro-Asian Department at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University) and a leading research fellow at the Center of Japanese Studies of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IOS RAS) in Moscow. Since 2008, Professor Streltsov has headed the Russian Association of Japanologists (Assotsiatsiya yaponovedov). The author of numerous academic works, including the books Vneshnepoliticheskie prioritety Yaponii v Aziatsko-Tikhookeanskom regione (The Foreign Policy Priorities of Japan in the Asia-Pacific, 2015), he is also the chief editor of Ezhegodnik Yaponiya (Yearbook Japan) and of the e-journal Yaponskie issledovaniya (Japanese Studies in Russia). His research interests include the domestic and international politics of contemporary Japan, postwar Japanese history, Japanese energy and social policy, Russo-Japanese relations, economic integration in East Asia, and Russian diplomatic and security strategy in the Asia-Pacific region.
Kirill Evgen’evich Cherevko
is a leading researcher at the Institute of Russian History, Russian Academy of Sciences (IRH RAS), in Moscow. Under the guidance of the scholar Nikolaĭ Iosifovich Konrad (1891–1970) he made one of the first attempts to study and translate the 8th-century Japanese chronicle, Kojiki, into Russian. Professor Cherevko’s publications include Zarozhdenie russko-yaponskikh otnosheniĭ Zarozhdenie XVII–XIX veka- (The Emergence of Russo-Japanese Relations in the 17th–19th Centuries, 1999) and “Kodziki” (“Zapis′ o deyaniyakh drevnosti”): VIII v. i stanovlenie yaponskogo ėtnosa, ego yazyka i pis′mennosti (“Kojiki.” [Record of Ancient Matters]: the 8th Century and the Formation of the Japanese Ethnic Group, Its Language and Literature, 2003). He has been engaged in extensive research into the history of Russian-Japanese and Soviet-Japanese relations, in particular, the issues of territorial demarcation, and the ethno-genesis of the Japanese nation.
Sergey (Sergeĭ) Vladislavovich Chugrov
has been Professor of Sociology at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Russia, since 2002 and from 2007 the chief editor of the journal Polis. Political Studies. He worked as a columnist at the daily newspaper Izvestiya (1977–1987) and from 1988 has been affiliated with the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), Russian Academy of Sciences. His publications include Yaponiya v poiskakh novnoĭ identichnosti (Japan in Search of a New Identity, 2010); “American World Order: The End of the ‘End of History’?,” Japanese Journal of Political Science (September 2015); and “Foreign Policy in Statu Nascendi,” in Japanese and Russian Politics. Polar Opposites or Something in Common? (2015).
Vladimir Grigor’evich Datsyshen
is head of the General (World) History Department at the Siberian Federal University in Krasnoyarsk and is a professor at Hebei Normal University in Shijiazhuang, China. He is the author of numerous academic works, including Sovetsko-yaponskaya voĭna 1945 goda. Vzglyad na sobytiya i problemy cherez 70 let (Soviet-Japanese War of 1945. The Overview of Its Facts and Problems after Seventy Years, 2015). His research interests include the problems of international relations of Central and East Asia from the 17th to the first half of the 20th century, with a particular focus on the history of Russian-Japanese and Russian-Chinese relations in the areas of politics, economics, culture, and education.
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Grinyuk
(1944–2018) graduated in 1968 from the Far Eastern State University in Vladivostok, with a specialization in the Japanese language. He undertook his postgraduate studies at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Soviet (now Russian) Academy of Sciences (IOS RAS) in Moscow from 1969 to 1972. In 1980–1984, he worked as the deputy chief of the Novosti Press Agency in Tokyo. From 2003 until his death, he served as a leading research fellow at the Center for Japanese Studies of the Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, in Moscow. Dr. Grinyuk’s research focus was Japanese foreign policy. His published works include Demokraticheskoe studencheskoe dvizhenie v Yaponii posle Vtoroĭ mirovoĭ voĭny: (1945–1964 gg.) (Democratic Student Movement in Japan After WW II: [1945–1964], 1971).
Sergey (Sergeĭ) Viktorovich Grishachev
has been associate professor and head of the Department of the Modern East, Division for History, Political Science and Law at the Russian University for the Humanities (RSUH) since 2014; he also serves as the executive secretary of the Russian Association of Japanologists (Assotsiatsiya yaponovedov). He is a member of the editorial board for the e-journal Yaponskie issledovaniya (Japanese Studies in Russia). His research interests extend to international relations and the history of Russo-Japanese relations, with publications including Istoriya rossiĭsko-yaponskikh otnosheniĭ: XVIII–nachalo XXI vv (The History of Russo-Japanese Relations: 18th–21st Centuries, 2015).
is the Renison Research Professor in East Asian Studies at the University of Waterloo, Canada. She specializes in modern and contemporary international relations of East Asia, border studies, Cold War history, and Japanese politics and diplomacy. Professor Hara’s authored/edited books include Japanese-Soviet/Russian Relations since 1945: A Difficult Peace (1998); Cold War Frontiers in the Asia-Pacific: Divided Territories in the San Francisco System (2007); Northern Territories, Asia-Pacific Regional Conflicts and the Åland Experience: Untying the Kurillian Knot (2009, with Geoffrey Jukes); and San Francisco System and Its Legacies: Continuation, Transformation and Historical Reconciliation in the Asia-Pacific (2015).
is professor emeritus of Hokkaido University, Sapporo, where he worked at the Slavic Research Center from 1987 to 2006. A historian of the Russian and Soviet Far East, and Russo-Japanese relations, including the Japanese intervention in Siberia, his published works include Shiberia shuppei kakumei to kanshō 1917–1922 (Siberian Intervention: Revolution and Intervention, 1917–1922, 1989), Urajiosutoku monogatari: Roshia to Ajia no majiwaru machi (The Story of Vladivostok, 1998), and Nichiro sensō to Saharinto (The Russo-Japanese War and Sakhalin Island, 2011).
has been the director general: a Russian-Asian Crossroads City Japan Center for Asian Historical Records (JACAR), National Archives of Japan, since 2014 and until recently was professor of Japanese Diplomatic History at the University of Tsukuba, as well as visiting scholar at the Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies, Harvard University. Professor Hatano’s numerous publications include books and articles in Japanese and English on World War II and the diplomatic history of modern Japan, such as the co-authored The End of the Pacific War: Reappraisals (2007). He is currently serving as a chief editor of Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy (Diplomatic Archives of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs).
is professor emeritus of Osaka University and is a specialist in the history of Russo-Japanese relations. She is the editor of the journal Sever (The North), which promotes Harbin and Russian Far East studies in Japan, and the author, editor, and co-author of numerous articles, books, and other publications in Japanese, Russian, English, Chinese, and Hungarian. These include Daikokuya Kōdayū no seppun (The Kiss of Daikokuya Kōdayū, 1997); “Changing Japanese-Russian Images in the Edo Period,” in Japan and Russia: Three Centuries of Mutual Images (2008); Takadaya Kahei (2012); “Representations of Colonialism: Russians and Japanese in Manchuria,” in Japan and Russia. National Identity Through the Prism of Images (2014); and “Two Russias in Harbin,” in Russia and Its Northeast Asian Neighbors: China, Japan, and Korea, 1858–1945 (2017).
has been affiliated with the Kyoto Sangyo University since 1990, and has been both a professor and a member of the Institute for World Affairs of Kyoto Sangyo University since 2001 and 2012, respectively. He is a specialist in Russian studies and international relations, with recent publications including “Nichiro kankei no kako jūyonen” (Japanese-Russian Relations in the 21st Century), in Nichiro kankei shi. Parareru historī no chōsen (The History of Japanese-Russian Relations. Challenges of a Parallel History, 2015), and “Roshia to Ajia kyōdotai” (Russia and the Asian Community), in Chiiki to riron kara kangaeru Ajia kyōdotai (Asian Community Seen from the Viewpoint of Region and Theory, 2015).
Oleg Igorevich Kazakov
has worked as engineer, researcher, lecturer, assistant to the state Duma Deputy (Russian Parliament), journalist, and executive secretary of two academic journals. Since 2009 he has been research fellow of the Center for Japanese Studies of the Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (IFES RAS), in Moscow, and head of the Scientometrics and Information Technology Department at this institute. He is the author of numerous articles on various topics, including Japanese and Russian-Japanese relations, including K 60-letiyu Sovmestnoĭ deklaratsii SSSR i Yaponii 1956 goda (On the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Soviet-Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956, 2017). He is a member of the Council of the “Russia-Japan” Society (Obshchestvo “Rossiya-Yaponiya”) and Russian Association of Japanologists (Assotsiatsiya yaponovedov).
Alekseĭ Alekseevich Kirichenko
worked at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO) in Moscow following his retirement from military service in February 1987 until November 1989 when he was employed at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IOS RAS) in Moscow. He was head of the Department of International Relations at that institute until February 1996, and from 1996 a senior researcher there. His principal research area is the history of Russian-Japanese relations. He has authored and co-authored numerous scholarly publications in Russian, Japanese, English, Korean, and Belarusian. His authored publications include Shararezaru Nichiro no nihyakunen (The Unknown Pages of a Two Hundred Year History of Russian-Japanese Relations, 2013) and Yaponskaya razvedka protiv SSSR Japonskaja razvedka protiv SSSR (Japanese Intelligence Against the Soviet Union, 2016).
Valeriĭ Olegovich Kistanov
is head of the Center for Japanese Studies of the Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (IFES RAS), in Moscow. He is the author of many academic works, including the books Ėkonomicheskoe proniknovenie Yaponii v Latinskuyu Ameriku (Japan’s Economic Penetration into Latin America, 1982) and Yaponiya v ATR: anatomiya ėkonomicheskikh i politicheskikh otnosheniĭ (Japan in the Asia-Pacific: The Anatomy of Economic and Political Relations, 1995). His main research interests include Japanese domestic and foreign policy (economy, defense, social sphere, science, technology, culture, and history), as well as the entire range of issues surrounding Russian-Japanese relations.
is professor emeritus of Hōsei University, Tokyo, where she taught political history at the Faculty of Law from 1993 to 2017. She is a diplomatic historian of postwar Japan with research interests on Okinawa reversion in US-Japanese relations, political history and Japanese foreign policy, the political party and parliamentary cabinet systems, and political leadership. Her authored publications include Okinawa henkan o meguru seiji to gaikō (The Reversion of Okinawa, Politics and US-Japan Relations, 1994), for which she won the Ōhira Masayoshi Memorial Prize in 1995, and Sengo to kōdo seichō no shūen (The End of Postwar Period and High Economic Growth, 2002). She co-authored Anzen hōshō seisaku to sengo Nihon, 1972–1994 (Security Policy of Postwar Japan, 1972–1994, 2016), and Taiwa: Okinawa no sengo (Dialogue: Postwar Period of Okinawa, 2017).
Andrey (Andreĭ) Ivanovich Kravtsevich
worked from 1977 to August 1987 at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Soviet (now Russian) Academy of Sciences (IOS RAS) in Moscow. He has subsequently worked as a representative of the Academy of Sciences at the Soviet Embassy in Tokyo (1987–1992), where he was responsible for economic analyses; as an associate visiting professor at Keiō University, Tokyo (1992–1995); and at the Institute of Oriental Studies, where he worked as the head of the Center for Japanese studies (1996–2000). From 2000 to 2019 he was a professor at the Faculty of Law, Hōsei University, Tokyo. His current research interests include Russian-Japanese relations, in particular, the problem of their territorial dispute. His main publications include Nihon to no heiwa jōyaku ni kansuru Roshia no tachiba. Kokusaihōteki sokumen (The Position of Russia regarding a Peace Treaty with Japan: An Aspect of International Law, 2011) and Ugroza Dallesa: mif ili realnost? (The Dulles Threat: Myth or Reality?, 2014).
is professor of Japanese Modern History in the Division of International Relations, Department of Global Social Sciences, Tokyo Woman’s Christian University. His main research interests are the history of modern and contemporary Japan, its political and diplomatic dimensions in the interwar period, and Japan’s military history. His publications include Taisen kanki no Nihon rikugun (The Japanese Army in the Interwar Period, 2000); Nihon Seki Jūjisha to jindō enjo (The History of the Japanese Red Cross Society and Humanitarian Assistance; co-editor, 2009); Rekishi to wakai (History and Reconciliation; co-editor, 2011), Taisen kanki no kyūchū to seijika (The Imperial Court and the Politician in the Interwar Period, 2013); Futatsu no “kaikoku” to Nihon (Modern Japan Encounters the World Order, 2013); Nihon seijishi no naka no rikukaigun (The Japanese Army and Navy in Japanese Political History; co-editor, 2013).
Viktor Vyacheslavovich Kuz’minkov
is senior research fellow at the Center for Japanese Studies of the Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (IFES RAS), in Moscow, and associate professor at the Japanese Language Department, Institute of Foreign Languages, Moscow City University. He has authored many academic works, including Istoriya rossiĭsko-yaponskikh otnosheniĭ: XVIII–nachalo XXI vv (The History of Russian-Japanese Relations: 18th–21st Centuries, 2015) and K istorii territorial′nogo razmezhevaniya mezhdu Rossieĭ i Yaponieĭ: yaponskiĭ vzglyad (On the History of Territorial Delimitation Between Russia and Japan: A Japanese Perspective, 2016). His research interests include the domestic and international politics of contemporary Japan, Russian-Japanese relations, and security strategy in the Asia-Pacific region.
Anatasia Sergeevna Lozhkina
is an independent researcher of the history of Russian-Japanese relations. She was a fellow at the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies in 2010 and has published a number of journal articles. Her monograph Obraz Yaponii v sovetskom obshchestvennom soznanii (1931–1939) (The Image of Japan in the Soviet Public Consciousness [1931–1939]; 2011) was nominated as the best book on Japan by the Russian Association of Japanologists (Assotsiatsiya yaponovedov). She also presented a special seminar at the Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Harvard University, in March 2013. Currently, she is the director of Development and Fundraising at the Charitable Foundation “Arifmetika dobra.”
Igor Vladimirovich Lukoyanov
was a leading research fellow at the St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and professor at the Higher School of Economics (HSE), National Research University, St. Petersburg. He was the author of many academic works, including books, publications of historical sources, and collective works, including Pervaia mirovaia voĭna i konets Rossiĭskoĭ imperii (World War I and the End of the Russian Empire), vol. 1, Politicheskaia istoriia (Political History, 2015). His areas of specialization were Russian history of the 19th and 20th centuries, the history of foreign policy of the Russian empire, and studies in historiography and sources.
is professor of Diplomatic and Political History at the Graduate School of Law and Politics, Kobe University, where he holds a joint appointment with the Graduate School of International Cooperation Studies. His first book, Hainichi iminhō to Nichibei kankei (The Japanese Exclusion Act and US-Japan Relations, 2002), was awarded the Shimizu Hiroshi Prize by the Japanese Association of American Studies. The most recent of his numerous authored or co-edited publications include The History of US-Japan Relations: From Perry to the Present (2017). In addition to his monthly serialized periodical essays for Kiwameru, Daisan bunmei, and Issatsu no hon, he also contributes a newspaper column to the Jiyū minshu of the Liberal Democratic Party and the Sankei shinbun. He is currently co-editing a book, Beyond Versailles: The 1919 Moment in Asia (forthcoming 2019), that examines the aftermath of World War I from an East Asian perspective.
(1956–2014) was a Japanese political scientist and historian. She was appointed assistant professor from 1995 and from 1999 professor at the Niigata University of International and Information Studies. Her works include Nihon no kiro to Matsuoka gaikō (Japan’s Turning Point and Matsuoka Diplomacy, 1940–1941, 1993), Rosia no taigai seisaku to Ajia taiheiyō: datsu ideorogii no kenshō (Russian Foreign Policy and ATR-Verification of De-ideologization, 2000).
Alexander (Aleksandr) Nikolaevich Panov
has worked at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of USSR and the Russian Federation since 1968 in various diplomatic roles: Russian ambassador to the Republic of Korea (1992–1994), Japan (1996–2003), and Norway (2003–2006); Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (1994–1996), and Rector of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia (2006–2011). Since 2012 he has headed the Department of Diplomacy of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO). He is also a leading research fellow of the Institute for US and Canada Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences as well as a member of the Advisory Board of the Security Council of the Russian Federation. He has also authored many publications in the field of international relations, including Rossiya i Yaponiya. Stanovlenie i razvitie otnosheniĭ v kontse ХХ nachala ХХI veka (Russia and Japan: Formation and Development of Relations in the late 20th–early 21st Centuries, 2007).
Viktor Nikolaevich Pavlyatenko
(1947–2018) was a leading research fellow of the Center for Japanese Studies of the Institute of Far Eastern Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IFES RAS). He authored or co-authored numerous academic works, including the co-authored monograph Yadernoe oruzhie posle kholodnoĭ voĭny (Nuclear Weapons After the Cold War, 2006), as well as having conducted research project for a number of Russian public organizations such as the Russian Association of Japanologists (Assotsiatsiya yaponovedov). He was a member of the Russian Foreign Ministry’s Asia-Pacific Security Council. His research interests included Russian-Japanese relations, international politics in East Asia, and security strategy in the Asia-Pacific region.
Yuriĭ Sergeevich Pestushko
is the deputy director of the Pedagogical Institute of the Pacific National University (PNU), Khabarovsk, and teaches Japanese history and language at that institution. He is author of many academic works, including books and textbooks. His research interests extend to the domestic/international politics of Japan, subsuming Russo-Japanese relations from the mid-19th to the early 20th century and Japanese policy toward Korea. His publications include Rossiĭsko-yaponskie otnosheniya v gody Pervoĭ mirovoĭ voĭny (1914–1917 gg.) (Russo-Japanese Relations in the Period of WWI [1914–1917], 2008).
Konstantin Oganesovich Sarkisov
is a leading researcher at the Center for Japanese Studies, Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IOS RAS) in Moscow. He is a professor emeritus of Yamanashi Gakuin University in Kōfu, Japan (2002–2012), and from 1996 to 2012 taught Asian-Pacific foreign policy at several Japanese universities. He has authored and co-authored a number of books and articles on Russo-Japanese relations, Japan’s foreign and internal policy, international relations in East Asia, and Japanese history, including Rossiya i Yaponiya. Sto let otnosheniĭ (Russia and Japan: One Hundred Years of Relations, 2015). His current research focus is on the history of Russo(Soviet)-Japanese relations as well as on the territorial dispute between these two nations.
Yaroslav Aleksandrovich Shulatov
is associate professor at Kobe University. He has taught at Hiroshima City University and has been a visiting researcher at the University of Tokyo, Harvard University, and Hokkaido University. His area of specialization is Russian and Japanese modern history, with a special interest in diplomatic, military, and economic aspects. His current research centers on Russo/Soviet-Japanese and international relations in East Asia (e.g., Korea, China, Mongolia), particularly during the first half of the 20th century. He authored Na puti k sotrudnichestvu: rossiisko-yaponskie otnosheniya v 1905–1914 gg. (On the Path to Cooperation: Russo-Japanese Relations in 1905–1914, 2008) and co-authored a number of books and textbooks on Russo-Japanese relations as well as on the history of Japan and Russia.
is professor emeritus of the National Defense Academy in Yokosuka, and the International Research Center for Japanese Studies in Kyoto. He was the president of Japan Society of Strategic Studies, and the vice president of the Military History Society of Japan. He has published a number of books, including Gyakusetsu no guntai (Army of Paradoxes, 1998) and Gaimushō kakushinha: sekai shinchitsujo no genʾei (The Reformist Group in the Foreign Ministry: Illusions of the New World Order, 2010).
has been professor and director of the Institute for World Affairs, Kyoto Sangyo University, since 2010. He served in the Japanese foreign ministry from 1968, and for much of his career has focused his attention on Russia. He retired in 2002, after serving as Japanese ambassador to the Netherlands, and has since taught at universities abroad, including in Leiden, Princeton, Santa Barbara, Seoul, and Taiwan. His recent publications in English include Japan’s Foreign Policy 1945–2009 (2005), Japan and Reconciliation in Post-war Asia: The Murayama Statement and its Implications (2012; editor), and, East Asia’s Haunted Present: Historical Memories and the Resurgence of Nationalism (2008, co-editor) and Building Confidence in East Asia: Maritime Conflicts, Interdependence and Asian Identity Thinking (2008; co-editor). His research interests include International politics and Japanese foreign policy in East Asia, territorial problems and historical memory in Northeast Asia, civilizational development, conflicts, and convergence.
was appointed associate professor at Seikei University, Tokyo, in 1988 and professor from 1991; he retired as professor emeritus in 2014. In 1992, he was guest researcher at the Institute of Russian History, Russian Academy of Sciences (IRH RAS), in Moscow. Professor Tomita’s publications include Sutaarinizumu no tōchi kōzō: 1930 nendai (Political Structures of the Stalinist Regime in the 1930s, 1996); Senkanki no Nisso kankei 1917–1937 (Japanese-Soviet Relations, 1917–1937, 2010); and Shiberia yokuryūsha tachi no sengo: reisen ka no seron to undō, 1945–1956 (Siberian Internees After the War: Public Opinion and Movements During the Cold War, 1945–1956, 2013).