A book of such complexity involves numerous editorial, bibliographical, and linguistic challenges. Japanese names, terms, and sources have been romanized using the modified Hepburn system while the romanization of Russian (Cyrillic script) has been simplified and generally only acknowledges the use of the accent “ė” and “ĭ.” Every effort has nonetheless been made to provide consistency with regard to Russian-language terms, names, and bibliographical sources. Chinese terms and names are romanized using the Pinyin system unless accepted practice renders them in the older Wades-Giles system. Japanese place names that have been anglicized appear in that form (e.g., Hokkaido, not Hokkaidō; Tokyo, not Tōkyō) unless cited in an original-language source.
Japanese names are presented in traditional order with surname preceding first name, unless an individual has principally been active outside Japan. Russian names appear in full form (first, patronymic, last) in the bibliographies after each essay and in the list of individuals at the back of the book (birth and death dates are also included there). Exceptions in the romanization of Russian names include those of individuals whose names have become familiar in an anglicized form, for example, Catherine (not Ekaterina) I, Nicholas (not Nikolaĭ), Nikita Khruschchev (not Nikita Хrushchev) or Joseph Stalin (not Iosif Stalin [Russian] or Ioseb St’alini [Georgian]). The full names of the Russian contributors to this publication are included in the “Notes on Contributors”; select authors use an anglicized or variant form in the romanization of their names (e.g., Alexander not Aleksandr) in accordance with their own professional history.
Until October 1917 Russia employed the Julian calendar while other regions, such as Europe and North America, used the Gregorian calendar. The Julian calendar was twelve days behind the Gregorian calendar in the 19th century and thirteen days in the 20th century. Both dates are generally included for events pre-dating October 1917, with the Julian date preceding the Gregorian date, as for example, in the signing of the Treaty of St. Petersburg on April 25 (May 7), 1875. Bibliographical citations of Russian archival sources retain the original Russian forms, therefore: f. (Фонд, fond): section or archive number; ed. hr. (Единица хранения, edinitsa khraneniya): storage unit; pol. (Полка, polka): shelf; op. (Опись, opis’): file number (also pap. [Папка, papka]); d. (Дело, delo): folder; por. (Порция, portsiya): section of an inventory; ch. (Часть, chast’): part; l. (Лист, listis): sheet or page (recto); and ob. (Оборот листа, oborot lista): sheet or page (verso).