IndexIndexacademic support74access/accessible/accessing2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 18, 24, 42, 44, 47, 50–54, 60, 61, 64, 76, 78, 79, 81, 89, 91–100, 102, 103, 125–127, 131, 132, 147, 158, 161, 162, 165, 166, 177, 178, 180–183, 185, 187, 188, 200–206, 211, 213–215, 223, 224, 226, 228–231, 241–244, 247, 249, 258, 267, 269, 275, 277, 281, 296acculturationix, 4, 24, 58, 98, 115, 144, 146–148, 150, 177, 179, 180–183, 185, 190, 191, 296achievement43, 69, 115, 132, 133, 141, 142, 151, 170, 172, 177, 229, 232, 256, 257, 270, 279agencyx, 9, 18, 20, 31–33, 35, 44, 62, 65, 76, 114, 120, 123, 137, 149, 178, 201, 202, 206, 207, 223, 229, 242, 272, 273, 288assimilation163asylum seeker/asylees1, 5, 9–11, 48, 54, 88, 90–93, 100–104, 133, 148, 178, 199, 200, 203–206, 208, 209, 212–215, 221–224, 227, 229, 230, 233, 234, 240, 241, 247, 255, 268–270, 293, 294careerx, 6, 53, 55, 102, 115, 122, 124, 125, 151, 189, 213, 260caring5, 61, 62, 77, 78, 225, 244, 281case study58, 63, 150, 245, 246child soldier24collaborate/collaboration/collaborativexv, 5, 31, 33–36, 62, 63, 76, 77, 79–81, 89, 103, 104, 116, 127, 171, 172, 209, 212, 215, 232, 273, 271–273community4–7, 18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 33–35, 43, 47, 62, 64, 77–81, 88, 89, 94, 95, 100, 101, 104, 114–122, 124–127, 131, 133, 138, 139, 144–150, 158, 161, 162, 166, 167, 171–173, 178–181, 183, 187, 209, 210, 213, 215, 222, 223, 228, 229, 232, 233, 246–251, 253, 257, 258, 268, 270–272, 274, 278–280, 285, 293–296conflict20, 32, 33, 42, 46, 69, 92, 95, 113, 114, 163, 180, 208, 222, 232, 233, 242, 246, 249–252, 258, 267, 268, 276, 296constructivist4, 26, 34, 36convention refugee9, 54, 200, 201, 203, 213counselling20–24, 30cultural capital8, 102, 177, 182, 184, 187, 189, 228, 249culturally appropriateix, 6, 33, 116, 232, 284culture4, 7, 8, 11, 12, 26, 28, 34, 58, 61, 73, 115, 117, 122, 124, 143–146, 148–150, 158, 164, 165, 167, 171, 177, 179, 182–184, 189, 214, 242, 244, 248, 251, 252, 258, 272, 278, 280, 288, 293, 294Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)133dependency22, 224Direct Provision9, 10, 201, 203, 204, 207, 208, 210, 223–226discriminationx, 8, 101, 115, 148, 226, 245displaced89, 113, 133, 136, 157, 158, 162, 168, 178, 240, 241, 249, 267–269, 271, 273, 275, 277–279, 281–283, 285, 287–291diversity6–8, 32, 55, 78, 98, 103, 116, 128, 145, 146, 184, 185, 210, 211, 220, 248, 271–273, 278educational outcomes35, 46, 53, 247, 258emigration8, 26, 46, 199, 221employmentix, , x, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 22, 23, 24, 33, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58, 95, 96, 100–102, 115, 123–126, 138, 177, 179, 180, 189–191, 224, 233, 240, 242, 247, 260, 267, 268, 270, 295, 296empowered/empowering/empowerment3, 21, 22, 26, 28, 31, 33, 34, 61, 63, 79, 166, 182, 188, 190, 286English LanguageEnglish as an Additional Language (EAL)12, 57–61, 63–65, 68–71, 73, 74, 78, 80, 81, 97–99, 212, 213, 230, 267, 270, 273, 277–279, 281–284, 286, 288English as a Second Language (ESL/ESOL)47, 49, 50, 53, 94, 97, 99, 102, 104, 161, 210, 247English Language Learner (ELL)4, 6–9, 132, 135, 136, 139–143, 147, 150, 151, 156, 158–161, 164, 167, 169, 170, 172English Language School (ELS)4, 5, 57, 58, 60, 61, 63, 65–69, 72–76, 78, 79, 81ethnographic/ethnography4, 58, 63, 64, 158, 167exclusion26, 46, 163, 224, 225, 249, 267, 273, 280, 285, 287, 288family reunification204Freire, P.169genocide178Global Compact on Refugees (GCR)89globalisation149, 163, 221, 240, 293goal(s)6, 42, 44–46, 49, 51–55, 89, 96, 132, 158, 180, 182, 186, 190, 192, 212, 223, 243, 253, 258, 294, 295graduate students48healing18, 22–25, 29, 31, 34–36, 259higher education4, 5, 8, 11, 48, 49, 52–54, 88, 89, 91–96, 101, 103, 104, 132, 177, 180, 181, 185, 186, 191, 211, 246, 248, 249, 258, 259, 294, 295high school students47–50, 167housingix, x, 2, 3, 12, 22, 23, 42, 115, 181, 223, 224, 233, 240, 247, 267, 270immigrant3, 6, 9, 11, 20, 42, 43, 46, 50, 53, 90, 100, 103, 113, 114, 119, 127, 131–133, 135–139, 141–151inequality11, 102, 228, 272Intensive English Centre (IEC)97–99integration2, 8, 9, 11, 17, 31, 35, 36, 42, 46, 80, 95, 97, 102, 118, 120, 125–127, 156, 164, 166, 167, 169, 177–179, 182, 188, 189, 199, 202, 206, 208–210, 223, 227–230, 233, 244, 248, 270, 293, 295internally displaced178, 240, 293intervention17, 18, 21–23, 28, 33, 45, 113, 116, 121, 214, 229, 250, 253language learning4, 5, 10, 12, 88, 94, 96, 171, 212, 231, 282, 283, 287, 295language acquisition3, 12, 23, 32, 146, 159language classes22, 31, 180language programmes31, 35, 101, 136leadership76, 81, 94, 116, 146, 147, 216, 267, 271, 273–276, 278, 279, 282, 284Local Education Authorities (LEA)10, 227–229, 232mainstream4, 9, 32, 57, 58, 60, 61, 63, 74–79, 81, 95, 97–99, 126, 140, 141, 158, 203, 209, 212–215, 230, 231, 258, 267, 275–277Māori21, 28, 34, 35marginalised34mediation232, 233medical2, 3, 19–22, 113, 183, 184, 186, 188, 191, 192, 223, 233, 253mental health1, 17–23, 25, 31, 36, 116, 138, 144, 150, 203, 213, 223, 224, 247, 252, 259mental illness19mentor6, 119, 122–124, 189, 191, 212, 243, 244, 245migrant/migration23, 26, 31, 66, 88, 89, 91, 95, 100–103, 113–116, 120, 121, 123, 133, 138, 143, 144, 147, 148, 150, 151, 161, 165, 168, 177, 178, 186, 188, 190, 191, 199, 205, 206, 208, 210, 212–216, 229–231, 233, 234, 240, 246, 251–253, 256, 268–270, 274, 275, 293motivation21, 50, 52, 89, 104, 171, 205, 242, 243multicultural/multiculturalism4, 28, 57, 59, 65, 68, 76, 114, 216National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA)43, 47, 49–51, 53, 54natural disaster157, 179neoliberal5, 88, 95, 97, 100, 103, 269newcomerx, 4, 5, 7, 31, 32, 34, 57–60, 65, 81, 138, 140–143, 147, 150, 157, 158, 160, 162, 164–167, 169, 172, 179, 180, 182–184, 186, 188–191, 246, 247, 294–296New Zealand Refugee Resettlement Strategy43, 50, 53normalisation23, 30outcomes2, 12, 18, 22, 33, 35, 43, 46, 53, 62, 78, 80, 81, 89, 94, 95, 124, 125, 142, 148, 158, 172, 201, 205, 209, 213, 247, 248, 253, 257, 258, 272, 279partnership5, 58, 61, 116, 118, 119, 127, 181, 210, 212, 252, 271, 276pathology/pathologising3, 17–20, 22, 23pedagogy5, 26, 45, 267, 271, 272, 280pedagogical17, 62, 170, 172, 203, 251, 258policy/policymakers5, 7, 8, 12, 28, 44, 46, 54, 59, 60, 61, 76, 78, 80, 88–91, 94–96, 98, 100, 102–104, 113, 116, 120, 131, 132, 142, 143, 146, 147, 160, 162–164, 177, 178, 181, 188, 190, 192, 199, 201, 202, 205, 206, 209–211, 216, 224, 227, 229, 230, 242, 249, 254, 255, 257–260, 267–272, 274–276, 278, 279, 287, 288, 294, 296Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)17–20, 35, 252power/powerful5, 8, 18, 20, 24, 25, 26, 32, 33, 35, 36, 43, 62, 63, 76–80, 123, 151, 156, 165, 227, 247, 250, 283, 294powhiri34prejudicex, 19, 131, 165, 247, 248, 258prevention31problem-solving31–33, 35programme refugees9, 200, 202, 203, 205, 207, 213–215psychosocialix, 7, 8, 20, 45, 54, 115, 117, 143, 150, 257, 259, 295psychopharmacology21psychotherapy21purpose/purposeful10, 26, 33, 63, 116, 133, 141, 144, 147, 149, 179, 200, 223, 241, 252, 253, 270, 273quota refugee17, 42, 43, 47, 48, 54recertification8, 180, 186, 188, 191refugee-background3, 4, 18, 23, 26, 32, 34, 44, 45, 47, 53, 55, 57, 64Refugee Education Center (REC)18, 25–35religion7, 157, 205resettlementix, x, 1–6, 9, 11, 12, 19, 23, 24, 33, 35, 42–45, 47, 50, 53–55, 58, 61, 89, 90, 93, 94, 96, 102, 116, 136–138, 140, 144, 164, 177–179, 181, 188, 190–192, 200, 201, 207, 215, 221, 223, 227, 241, 247, 256, 268, 269, 287, 293, 296resilience3, 4, 18, 20, 23, 25, 26, 36, 42, 62, 79, 115, 120, 202, 244, 253, 256, 295resilientx, 17, 36, 79, 192resources19, 20, 23, 28, 36, 52, 54, 60, 79, 80, 97, 99, 100, 102, 120, 126, 132, 140–142, 144, 145, 147, 159, 163, 173, 177, 188, 210–212, 228, 229, 231, 240, 246, 250, 251, 254, 257, 259, 267, 272, 277, 278, 286, 288, 295rights1, 7, 10, 18, 25, 26, 28–30, 32, 35, 42, 43, 62, 88, 91, 92, 104, 161, 163, 187, 191, 199, 201, 202, 204, 214, 224, 227, 228, 240–242, 254, 257, 268, 270safetyx, 4, 18, 24, 25, 28–31, 36, 144, 226, 244, 253, 258, 268, 294school-based programmes116self-sufficiency/self-sufficient8, 36, 102, 177–180, 189–191, 295separated children9, 201, 202, 204, 205, 208, 213, 214, 224, 260services4–6, 17, 20–24, 36, 43, 44, 53, 54, 59, 81, 94–96, 100, 102, 113, 114, 116, 117, 119–121, 125–127, 136, 137, 144, 160–162, 178, 181, 182, 192, 202, 205, 208, 212–215, 223, 228, 229, 232, 233, 245–248, 250, 255, 257, 259, 260, 268–270, 272, 276social capital23, 182, 183, 186, 253social justice79, 88, 91, 103, 272, 294stigma/stigmatised18, 20, 101, 204, 253strength-based3, 120supportix, x, 1–12, 17, 19–21, 23, 25, 26, 29, 31–33, 35, 44–48, 50, 51, 53–55, 57–61, 63, 64, 75–81, 90, 91, 93–100, 102–104, 113, 115–122, 125–128, 132, 133, 136, 137, 140–147, 149, 150, 156, 157, 159, 160, 162, 166, 168, 170–172, 177, 181–183, 187, 191, 200–205, 208–216, 223–225, 228–234, 243–246, 248–253, 255, 257–259, 267, 269–271, 275–278, 282, 284–288, 294–296specialist support212survivor19, 22, 24, 26, 36, 57, 62, 251, 253Syriaix, 10, 11, 17, 90, 131, 178, 242, 246, 247, 249–251, 267–270, 274, 277–280, 283–288, 293tertiary study44therapy3, 19–22, 24, 30, 31, 35, 228therapeutic17, 18, 22, 25, 35transitionxii, 4, 5, 10, 57–81, 97–99, 121, 140, 157, 160, 162, 171, 204, 205, 214, 241, 242, 253, 255, 258, 259, 296trauma2–4, 7, 17–20, 22–26, 29, 31, 35, 36, 45, 58, 91, 93, 95, 100, 115, 120, 138, 144, 146, 148–150, 162, 179, 183, 203, 212, 215, 250, 252–253, 258, 270, 271, 295, 296trust11, 17, 18, 24–27, 35, 63–65, 78, 114, 126, 134, 213, 280unaccompanied minors9, 166, 200–203, 205, 207, 213, 222, 225, 229, 230undocumented131, 132, 138unemployment22, 101, 123, 199, 221United Nationals High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR)2, 9, 19, 42, 44, 89, 90, 92, 93, 113, 114, 131, 178, 200, 202, 208, 231, 269, 293United Nations Convention on Refugees17victimx, 3, 4, 8, 19, 23, 26, 242, 295welcomex, 7, 17, 18, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 34, 36, 73, 77, 90, 136, 160, 164, 180, 228, 278, 280, 289, 281, 284, 285, 293, 296welcoming4, 6, 12, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 31, 33, 34, 78, 121, 136, 160, 172, 183, 270, 271, 284, 285, 294, 295wellbeing/well-being18, 29, 36, 42, 44, 62, 115, 126, 137, 150, 156, 201, 255, 276womenx, 2, 21, 88, 94, 103World Health Organisation (WHO)18, 36
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