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IndexAbstract Expressionism16, 337, 337n3, 344Abstract Poetry355, 359, 363Academica Sinica359Achebe, Chinua210adaptation134, 293, 327Admussen, Nick14, 281Ai Qing34, 36Ai Weiwei315, 328, 344, 345Aldington, Richard11, 171Allt, Peter210n2, 212Alspach, Russell K.210n2, 212An Lushan Rebellion218, 221Andreu, Paul315ancient style(gushi)214Anti-Spiritual Pollution Campaign333, 334, 342aporia14, 269, 334Au Chung-to1, 2n4, 218n13, 222n15Auden, W. H.34, 36, 59, 61, 92, 108, 109Bai Guang113Bai Juyi (Bo Juyi)25Bai Qiu154, 166, 168, 173, 174n36, 175, 176n38baihua (vernacular)51, 112, 217, 236, 238Balcom, John220n14, 222Li shishe (Bamboo Hat poetry group)11–12, 153Banpo (historical site)223, 286, 287Barmé, Geremie286, 287, 333n44Barth, John317Baudelaire, Charles91, 109, 157, 158, 159, 172Bauhaus308Bei Dao6, 13, 181, 182, 189–208, 283, 286, 307, 343n16Beijing4, 5, 246, 273, 290, 295, 302, 311, 342, 345Beiwanglu (Memoranda)112Benn, Gottfried171, 375, 380bensheng Taiwanese222Berman, Marshall319, 327bi (metaphor)24, 48–49, 92Bi Guo161Bihui 160Bi Jia170Bian Zhilin22, 25n11, 27, 29, 215, 320opacity30romanticism26Bible and Biblical allusion262binaries266, 302, 336Borges, Jorge Luis113, 304–306, 320Bradshaw, David1n2Breton, André11, 171, 196Burgee, John Burgee310Bush, Christopher1, 339n9Butler, Christopher1n1Cage, John293Cao Baohua34Cao Cao225Cao Xinzhi36capitalism133, 164, 265, 267, 319Carbojosa, Natalia339Carter, Mia1Cayley, John15, 284, 284n6, 285, 288, 294, 294n24, 294n25, 295–302center-periphery conflict2, 272Cesaire, Aimé210Cézanne, Paul113, 158Chang, Heesok1n1Che Qianzi336Chen Fangming10, 132Chenbao shijuan (Morning Poetry Supplement—journal)25Chen Jiangfan26Chen Jingrong36, 58, 62, 69, 75–76Chen Mingtai165Chen Qianwu (Huan Fu)153, 154, 154n4, 168, 170, 172n34, 173, 174n36Chen Xiaomei284Chiang Kai-shek221Chicago261n1, 281, 308–311, 314Childs, Peter1n1Chinese modernist poetics7, 239, 239n12Chinese past222Chinese script302Chineseness288–289, 327–328debates over306–307, 321, 322, 334–335Chuci 49Chuangshiji 109chunshi (pure poetry)87ci (lyric)217Civil War2n4, 9, 11, 33, 153, 181, 184Clunas, Craig337n3contemporary Chinese art285Craven, David337n3Creeley, Robert319n21Crescent Moon group(Xinyuepai)Cubists158Cullingford, Elizabeth Butler211, 212Cultural Revolution102, 147, 148, 181, 188, 217, 231, 270, 342, 344Pop285, 286post-9, 12, 333n44cybertextual transformation294, 294n25Dadaism158Dai Wangshu8, 22, 24, 26–27, 31–34, 36, 98, 108, 160, 160n15Dao Zi336Darío, Rubén320n27Darwish, Mahmoud210Deng Xiaoping194, 231–232, 285, 333, 345Derrida, Jacques15, 305, 331Dettmar, Kevin1, 1n2digital literature280n43, 284–285, 293–294, 299, 299n34, 302Dingdian (Pinnacle)34Dirlik, Arif265, 322Dondero, George334Dragon Boat Festival117, 229, 231Drama-tic synthesis8, 62, 70dramatic (dramatization)59, 63–64, 66, 71Du Fu8, 38–39, 41, 43, 45–51, 53, 55, 123, 226, 228, 237–238Du Guoqing (Tu Kuo-ch’ing)154, 166, 170–171Du Heng21, 26Du Yunxie35, 58, 68, 77, 108Duo Duo181, 336Dutta-Roy, Sonjoy211Eatough, Matt1, 1n2Edmond, Jacob15, 283Eisenstein, Sergei319Eliot, T. S.35, 36, 60–61, 63–68, 71–74, 78, 82, 102, 109, 209, 210, 214, 321, 326, 334, 335Éluard, Paul171Empiricism319Empson, William28, 35, 61, 108Ersoy, Ahmet1n1exile (piaobo, also “floating life”)10–13, 134, 136, 145–146, 148, 181–182, 184, 188, 192, 194, 196, 200, 204, 208, 216–218, 221–222, 286–287, 287n12, 288, 290, 294Expressionism16Fei Ming25, 35Feng Naichao7, 23, 32, 86Feng Yi’er336n2Feng Zhi8, 22, 35–36, 38, 39, 40, 42–56, 94n24, 94–98, 108, 231Fenollosa, Ernest339n9, 355Fiss, Géraldine8, 38Fu (rhymeprose)50, 50n16Fujian222, 345Futurism11, 129, 171Freeman, Judi338Friday Art Group(Xingqiwupai)Friedman, Alan1, 1n2Friedman, Susan Stanford2FitzGerald, Carolyn1, 1n4, 2Gallagher, Sharon272Gao Minglu337–338Gao Xingjian287, 288, 294, 333–334global aesthetics209globalization14, 265, 267–268, 275, 280–283, 286, 337Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von8, 38, 39, 42, 45–50, 53–56, 95, 113, 335Gu Bei154, 170Gu Cheng181gushi (ancient style poetry)214Guanxi271, 275Gautier, Théophile320Gibbon, Edward305–306, 320n27Graeber, David319n25Gunn, Edward215–216, 215n11Guo Moruo24, 29, 31Habermas, Jürgen318Hai Zi323Hang Yuehe36, 58Hayot, Eric266, 267, 321He Jingzhi231n19He Qifang27, 29, 34, 215He Shang (River elegy)287hierarchies256–257, 270, 270n22,in global histories266–267Hirsch, Edward211, 211n7historicism169anti-historicism72–73historical sense71–72Hitchcock, Henry-Russell324Hockx, Michel217, 268n18Hoklo language221Hologography (holography)299Hong Xiuquan328Hoover, Paul319n21horizontal transplantation11, 153, 157–158, 166Hou Ruhua26Hu Pinqing171Hu Shi24, 25, 85–88, 94, 111, 215Eight tenets82, 107, 235, 235n2Huai Yuan14, 241, 243–246Huan Fu(Chen Qianwu)Huang Hesheng154Huang Jiguang229, 231, 232Huang Qingxuan237, 237n9Huang Rui347Huang Yong160, 250Hugo, Victor320n27huise (opaque)7, 30, 83huodong274–276, 278–279Huoxing (Mars)22Huyssen, Andreas318, 319n20HyperCard software284–285, 294, 298n32, 299Hypertext294, 298, 300–301link-node structure and277, 298–301ICA (Institute of Contemporary Arts)284n2Imagists / Imagism11, 16, 31, 37, 158, 173, 320, 339imdb.com276Indra’s net298Industrial Revolution133, 139, 319International style308–309, 315, 320, 324, 326, 329, 335Internet130, 263Ireland209, 211–213, 234iteration15, 292, 298n32, 299, 302,Jameson, Fredric4, 72, 284n4, 315, 319, 321–322, 333Jencks, Charles309, 320Ji Xian (Lu Yu; Lu Yishi)4, 22n3, 133, 154, 167, 181, 245, 257horizontal transplantation11, 166six tenets of Modernists156–160Jiang Nan336n2Jiapu 270Jin Kemu26Jin Lian153, 154, 168jinti shi (recent style poetry)214Jintian (Today—journal)188, 342Johnson, Philip310, 324Josipovici, Gabriel334Joyce, James71, 72, 280, 320Kandinsky, Wassily337n4Kitasona Katsue171Klein, Lucas15, 304Kline, Franz16Koolhaas, Rem311Koran305, 306, 320Korean War231, 232Krasznahorkai, László278, 279Lacan, Jacques85, 359Lan Dizhi7, 21Lanxing 153, 154, 160, 175language41, 64, 97, 118, 129–130, 155, 172, 174, 235, 239abstraction and359Adorno and205barrier154Bei Dao, Shang Qin and200, 201, 203–204, 208games and252globalization and283hologography and299Lacan and85“language” poetry335Luo Fu and218poetic, literary68, 84, 88, 89, 150, 163–165, 168, 250Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret)308, 320Le Moulin group9, 108, 110Les contemporains(Xiandai)Leung, Ping-kwan (Liang Bingjun)78Levenson, Michael1Li Anshu336n2, 347n22Li Baifeng27Li Bo (Li Bai)123, 217, 218Li Dian9, 82Li Guangtian27, 35, 95Li He218Li Jinfa7, 23–24, 27, 32, 86–87, 93–94Li Kuixian171Li Shangyin24, 25, 28Li Xinruo27Li Xu355n26Liang Shiqiu25, 93, 111Liang Zongdai22, 94, 108light and globalization293, 298–299Lin Geng26, 29Lin Hengtai110, 153, 154, 159, 160, 161, 167, 173Lin Huiyin25Lin, Nikky12, 181linear (and non-linear)9, 59, 63–74, 77–78, 80, 297, 298, 300Lloyd, David211, 234Literati6, 17, 336, 338, 352, 364Literature23, 60, 82, 94, 103, 136, 145, 171, 173communism and58, 133, 156–157global literary histories34, 36, 299, 321, 323local and11, 16, 151, 175n37, 285modernism and4, 21n1, 72, 83, 103, 140, 145, 207, 283, 317–323questioning of hierarchies of16, 293–294, 307, 331–335social function and94, 103, 188, 190location270, 285–286, 288–296, 301–303, 346London, England209, 210, 213, 294, 295Long, Hoyt261n1, 264, 269, 281Lü De’an345–354Lu Xun83n3, 85, 280n43, 320Lu Yu(Ji Xian)Luce, Christopher H.340Luo Fu (Lo Fu)10, 98, 102, 135, 141, 146, 169, 218, 220–222, 246, 248–249marginalization of181, 221Luo Men (Lo Men)160Luo Qing (Lo Ch’ing; Luo Qingzhe)336Luo Yihe323Lupke, Christopher13, 209Lyotard, Jean-François315, 318MacDougall, Bonnie S.5n8Mallarmé, Stéphane8, 27Mainlanders (waishengren)2, 221Manfredi, Paul17, 336Mang Ke336Mao Goes Pop exhibition285, 286Mao Zedong58, 83n3, 231n19, 327, 343Mao style (MaoSpeak)286Mar, Ronald (Ma Lang)109Marnetti, F. T.11Marx, Karl (Marxism)34, 139Marxian reification233May Fourth5, 9, 14, 22, 31, 74, 75, 78, 132, 157, 239, 341McHale, Brian318McKinsey, Martin212, 213McPherson, Tara264, 269n19measure words14, 236–243, 246, 248–250, 254–257mechanization233media (multimedia, new media)15, 16, 17, 273, 293–295, 301, 302, 336, 338–339, 352, 354, 363Meishu (Art—journal)343Menglong Poetry (Misty, Obscure Poetry)12, 98, 181, 188, 189, 190n13, 201, 222n17, 342–343Miaowu shufa (Contingent school)336n1Michaux, Henri196, 331Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig308, 311, 320Milton, John329modern Chinese grammar236, 238Modernism“Chinese-style”59, 61, 80, 284, 295, 321mot juste in296Poundian285, 295, 296, 302problems of as a term2–3, 158, 283, 318–319, 321, 326, 334–335wave / network and284–285, 293, 297, 302–303Modernists(Xiandaipai)Modernity2–6, 9, 77, 159, 167, 172–173, 243, 265–266, 284, 306, 324, 331, 332, 338, 358Mohammed306Moretti, Franco261, 271–273, 275, 281, 284moshi xing (paradigmatic form)84Motherwell, Robert348Mu Dan1, 35, 57, 58, 66–67, 69, 75, 77, 108Mu Mutian7, 23, 32, 34, 86–88music-picturesqueness theory (yinhua)83, 88Musil, Robert320myth13, 72, 73, 97, 124, 290national184, 209, 211–214National Language Movement197Neruda, Pablo210network14, 261n1, 265–281as conceptual metaphor261, 263network analysis15, 261–262, 264network diagram265–266, 271, 271n27, 275, 277–278New Poetry(xinshi)New York310, 345, 353Nietzsche, Friedrich41, 72, 73, 74, 77Nine Leaves Poets8, 9, 58–59, 61, 70, 73–75, 77–78, 80–81Nishiwaki Junzaburo171node14, 15, 263, 265–269, 271–272, 275–277node-link(hypertext)objective correlative64–65, 67, 326Obscure Poetry(Menglong)oceanic utopianism287Olson, Charles319n21Owen, Stephen283, 284, 285–286, 287–288, 302, 307–308, 324, 334Paris94, 308, 327Parnassianism26, 320n27Perelman, Bob321performance (poetry and)64, 170, 173, 252, 257, 262, 273, 275, 276, 278–279, 284–285, 294–295, 301periphery-center conflict2, 272Perloff, Majorie1, 15petit récit315, 317, 320, 335piaobo(exile)Picasso, Pablo319, 320place(location)Plutzik, Hyam171poetic-ness(shiyi)Pollard, D. E.333n44, 342n14Postmodernism108, 128, 137, 305, 306, 311, 315, 317–322, 326, 334–335post-photography362–363Pound, Ezra5, 15–16, 60, 72, 102, 209, 210, 285, 295, 296, 298, 302, 319, 320, 331–332, 339, 355Promoting the Common Language197Proust, Marcel320Pruitt-Igoe309, 320pure poetry (poesie pure)7, 8, 21–25, 32, 36, 85, 87–89, 161, 163Qian Dian34Qian Zhongshu215n11Qiao Lin170Qin Zihao153, 160Qu Leilei294Qu Yuan10, 117–118, 231–232rationalism39n2, 319recent style poetry(jinti shi)Red Guards147, 232repetition poetics286, 289, 291, 293–294, 296, 298, 299Rilke, Rainer Maria8, 35, 39–56, 59, 79, 80, 92, 95, 109Rodin, Auguste43romanticism10, 24, 26, 37, 31, 89, 110, 123, 128, 132–133, 267roots-seeking(xungen)Ruan Meihui11–12, 153Rui Tui170Saussy, Haun305, 321–322sea (hai)289, 293Sensory correspondence (ganjue de jiaocuo)88Shang Qin13, 14, 109, 129, 182–190, 192, 196–201, 203, 207–208, 240, 250Shi chuangzao (Poetry composition)58Shi Qiu171Shi Weisi26Shi Zhecun3, 21, 27, 28, 32, 82Shijing (Book of Odes)49, 113Shikan (Poetry)25Shike yu xiongnian (Visitor in hard times)23Shipai (Poets Group)336Shisihang ji (Sonnets)35, 50shiyi (poetic-ness)9, 83–85, 92, 98Shizhi (Poetry intent)22Sima Qian (Sima Xiangru)329simultaneity73, 74, 78–80sincerity167–168, 172–173, 297Sitwell, Edith171Song Lin332, 336sound-foot (yin chi)89, 91So, Richard Jean261, 264, 268, 269,Southwest Associated University (Xi’nan lianda)9, 35, 58, 61, 95, 108spatial9, 59–61, 67–69, 78, 80, 89, 257, 290, 296–297, 301–302Spivak, Gayatri281–282Stars art group(Xingxing Huahui)Story of the Stone / Dream of Red Mansions / Honglou Meng271–273Su Dongpo10, 25, 217Sullivan, Michael339Sun Dayu22, 25, 94, 108Sun Lei336Sun Zuoyun34Surrealism108, 109, 153n1, 154, 161, 162–164, 166, 167, 171, 173, 196, 197, 239Swensen, Cole326Symbolism / Symbolists7, 23, 25, 26, 32, 34, 37, 41, 83, 86, 91–92, 108, 158, 320n27Synthesis50, 55, 67, 68, 70–71, 317synthetic (tradition)59, 63, 68, 80Taiwan wenyi 164Tamen poetry group (They)345Tang Qi58, 78–80Tang Shi36, 58, 73–74, 75Tang, Xiaobing284Tang Xiaodu278Tang Xuanzong218, 220Tao Qian347n21technology5, 129temporal (temporality)9, 17, 59–61, 63–64, 71–74, 78–80, 211, 257, 264, 273, 296, 300–302, 321, 339the classical84–85, 98, 101–103, 220, 232, 240, 297the past8–9, 10, 50, 52–53, 59, 71–81, 102, 234, 295the present8, 50, 53, 54, 59, 71–80, 98, 212, 226, 228Thing poem (thing-poetry)8, 39, 40–42, 56Third World210three beauties89tihuashi 338time59–61, 71, 73, 77, 78–82, 296–297, 324, 326, 337, 348Today(Jintian)Toffler, Alvin319Tradition (traditional)3, 9, 11, 13, 37, 74, 80, 83, 97, 102, 112, 130, 145, 163, 173, 210, 234, 238–240, 256, 283–288, 293–298, 302, 307, 335, 337–338, 341, 347–348Classical Chinese85, 89, 111, 123–124, 134–135, 213, 216–218, 221–222, 278Western61, 73, 93, 94, 128, 214, 267, 283–288Modernist58, 62, 107, 110New synthetic59, 63, 65, 68Japanese166transhistorical72–73translation11, 15, 87, 107, 129, 153, 177, 196, 255, 279, 302, 319, 321–322, 324, 333–334, 356Trotsky, Leon307Ueta Toshio171ut pictura poesis 339Valéry, Paul30, 239Van Crevel, Maghiel196, 273, 274n28, 275, 232Van Tieghem, Paul37Vendler, Helen210Verlaine, Paul24–26, 113, 320n27vernacular (vernacularism)14, 32, 51, 82, 83–88, 92, 94, 213, 215–218, 235–240, 243, 248, 256–257, 307Victorian Era209Vorticism339Walcott, Derek210Walz, Robin1n1Wang Ai336Wang Guowei217Wang Duqing23, 32, 86–88Wang Jiaxin336n2Wang Jing333n44Wang Li236, 238Wang Mingxian311Wang Wei10, 218Wang Xianyang154Wang Xiaoni9, 82, 84–85Wang Zuoliang61War of Resistance10, 23, 32, 34–35wavesmodernist movement and3, 23, 284Yang and Cayley’s use of289, 297–299, 302–303Wei River Valley223Weinberger, Eliot321, 334Weiyu (Light rain)23Wellsweep Press294Wen Tingyun24, 25Wen Yiduo25, 35, 88–94Wenfu 50n16Winkiel, Laura1Williams, William Carlos16, 320Wittgenstein, Ludwig319Wollaeger, Mark1Wong, Lisa14, 235world literature333–335center-periphery (China) in16, 307, 331circulation theories of271n2, 284n4location in theories of293, 321–323wave and network as metaphors of284, 293world literary history113, 171world poetry50world-systems theory of261World Wide Web(Internet)Worldspace51, 53, 54Wu Benxing22Wu Guanzhong343Wu Kuan340Wu Xinghua13, 213–218, 233Wu Yingtao154, 161n17, 166, 168, 171Wu Zhuoliu164Xi Chuan6, 16, 275n34, 278, 304–305, 322–333, 335Xi Xi14, 252, 254–257Xia Yu (Hsia Yü)9–10, 107, 111–131, 368Xiandai (Les contemporains—journal)3, 4, 7, 21, 22, 23, 32, 82, 108Xiandai pai (Modernists)21–37, 111, 129, 157, 168, 222n15Xiandai shi jikan (Modern poetry quarterly)3, 14, 109–110, 153, 182, 239Xiandai shifeng (Modern poetry style)22Xiandai wenyi (Modern literature and art)22xiang (image, pictograph)92, 339Xiao Kaiyu13, 213, 222–226, 228, 231, 233Xiaoya (Elegentia)22Xin Di58xinshi (New Poetry)21, 82, 107Xinshi (New poetry—journal)22, 34, 35, 108Xinyue (The Crescent—journal)94xinyue (style)160Xinyuepai (Crescent group)25, 26, 31–32, 88, 132xing (analogy)24, 48–49, 92Xingxing Huahui (Stars art collective)342Xingqiwupai (Friday Art Group)345Xu Chi34Xu Demin17, 354–358Xu Jialing336n2Xu Zhimo25, 29, 32, 98, 111xungen (roots-seeking)334Ya Din161n17Ya Xian153, 160, 181, 240, 252Yamanaka Chiruu171Yamasaki, Minoru309Yan Jun275Yan Li336, 343n16, 345Yan’an34Yan’an Talks5n8, 197Yang Guifei218, 220, 221, 222Yang Jiang215n11Yang Lian15, 181, 278, 283–291, 293–299, 331Yang Xiaobin17, 354, 358, 361–364Yanglish288Yangshao pottery337n3Yeats, William Butler13–14, 209–214, 216, 233–234Yeh, Michelle (Xi Mi)9–10, 97n27, 107, 128n17, 164, 198, 244–245, 286, 306–307Yeung, Jessica334Yi (Yang)287Yip Wai-lim (Ye Weilian)51, 108, 181, 214n10, 240Yu Guangzhong10, 132–152, 160, 163, 181, 240Yuan Kejia8–9, 36, 58–59, 62–68, 70, 71, 73, 77, 80, 108Zhang Ailing (Eileen Chang)131, 215n11Zhan Bing153–154, 170, 174–175Zhang Mo153, 160, 161n16, 171, 181Zhang Xudong322Zhao Tianyi154, 166, 167, 168, 171Zhao Yuanren (Yuen Ren Chao)238Zhdanov, Andrei334zhen ji (strike truth)12Zheng Chouyu111, 124, 239, 249Zheng Min35, 58, 69, 108Zhongguo xinshi (Chinese New Poetry)35, 58Zhou Zuoren24, 85Zhu Guangqian28Zhu Qi336n2Zhu Xiang25Zhu Yanhong8, 57Zhu Ziqing35, 94Zupu270–271798 District347n20