Index

9/11 13 , 32 , 35 , 60 , 69 , 117 , 161 , 162 , 180 , 182 , 187 , 188 , 211
Afghanistan 5 , 207 , 208 , 230
Africa 24 , 72 , 96 , 100 , 112 , 199 , 226 , 228 , 265 , 273 , 287
Africanization 10
Aga Khan Foundation 60 , 280 , 290
Ahmad 221
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud 235
al Islah 266
Al Itihad al Islaami 266
Al-Andalus 272Al Andaluz12 , 13
Albania 203 , 204 , 206 , 208
Albanophobia 205
al-Qaradawi, Yusuf 94 , 98 , 104 , 234 , 235
Anagnostou, Dia 202
Antoniou, Dimitris 134
Arab 41 , 72 , 107109 , 202 , 226 , 235 , 236 , 253258 , 260Arabic147 , 199 , 215 , 216 , 226 , 228 , 234239 , 240246 , 260 , 290
Asad, Talal 91 , 111
Association 1 , 5 , 11 , 34 , 35 , 37 , 38 , 43 , 94 , 105 , 129 , 178 , 199 , 215 , 216 , 217 , 236 , 287 , 289 , 290
asylum seekers 5 , 208 , 219 , 227 , 228 , 232 , 247 , 258
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal 121
attitudes 161179 , 180197 , 228 , 235 , 266
Austria 83 , 88 , 172 , 178 , 228
authenticity 21 , 110 , 111
authority 21 , 39 , 54 , 91 , 92111 , 168 , 169 , 204 , 211
Bahrain 95
Baldwin-Edwards, Martin 116
Balkans 7 , 112 , 116119 , 124 , 199
Bangladesh 10 , 11 , 206 , 209 , 272 , 274 , 275 , 286
Barelwi 12 , 272 , 287 , 288
Basu, Amrita 166
Bayes, Jane H. 173
Bektashi 134 , 204
Belgium 2 , 49 , 178 , 236
Bosnia 5 , 8
Brisman, Shira 251
British Empire 121 , 122
Buddhism 78
Bulgaria 118 , 119 , 132 , 274
burials 35 , 289
Carlbom, Aje 243
Casanova, José 28 , 51
Catholic Church 5465 , 175 , 184 , 187 , 289
centralization 276 , 285
centre/periphery 276
charity 98 , 120
church–state 4 , 24 , 29 , 45 , 49 , 219state–religion17 , 18 , 20 , 4548 , 53 , 54 , 56 , 61 , 62 , 64
children 63 , 75 , 81 , 85 , 130 , 135 , 152 , 153 , 176 , 207 , 216 , 226 , 236 , 239242 , 247 , 248 , 255 , 256 , 259 , 260 , 262 , 289 , 290
citizenship 1 , 5 , 8 , 12 , 17 , 19 , 22 , 45 , 65 , 112 , 113 , 116 , 125 , 128130 , 142 , 150 , 152 , 153 , 163169 , 171174 , 179 , 183 , 186 , 199 , 202 , 203 , 219 , 220 , 230 , 291
civil society 16 , 28 , 33 , 43 , 60 , 91 , 102 , 107 , 289
Clogg, Richard 120 , 122
coercive isomorphism 3843
colonial legacies 16 , 19 , 24
colonialism 137 , 157 , 282
Concordat 17 , 57 , 58 , 60 , 61
Constantinople 114 , 115 , 119 , 120
constitution 149 , 151 , 162 , 198 , 210 , 272
convert 143 , 148 , 163converts6 , 9 , 73 , 137 , 143 , 146 , 149
corporatism 45 , 47 , 48 , 54 , 57 , 58 , 60
Council of Europe 49
Crul, Maurice 171
cultural racism 16
culture 23 , 46 , 60 , 71 , 74 , 85 , 106 , 114 , 115 , 128 , 133 , 135 , 155 , 168 , 169 , 171 , 172 , 173 , 176 , 193 , 194 , 239 , 240 , 245 , 247 , 248 , 251 , 253 , 255 , 258 , 261263 , 267 , 268 , 286 , 287 , 290 , 291
curriculum 12 , 20 , 42 , 70 , 71 , 75 , 7986 , 115 , 186
Cyprus 118 , 128
Democracy 128 , 170 , 238 , 272 , 282
Denizenship 144 , 149 , 150
Denmark 228 , 230 , 231 , 232
Deobandi 12 , 101 , 217 , 272 , 287
Diaspora 217 , 219 , 225229 , 237239 , 243249 , 251 , 253 , 255 , 256 , 262 , 263 , 265268
diasporic community 23 , 225 , 226 , 227 , 282
DiMaggio, Paul 39
Discrimination 58 , 71 , 116 , 128 , 135 , 153 , 154 , 156 , 157 , 174 , 180 , 187 , 188 , 209 , 218 , 219 , 258 , 259
Divani, Lena 122
Diversification 20 , 222 , 283
Diversity 20 , 27 , 30 , 38 , 47 , 48 , 54 , 58 , 6163 , 73 , 78 , 85 , 96 , 102 , 170 , 173 , 182 , 183 , 200 , 201 , 210 , 215 , 216 , 222 , 225 , 255 , 258 , 269273 , 285 , 291
Dublin 8 , 9 , 21 , 5566 , 92111 , 137160
Egan, Shekinah 163 , 172
Egypt 201 , 203 , 207 , 212 , 214 , 215 , 235
Espoo 72 , 73 , 77 , 81
Essentialism 139
Esteves, Alina 270
Estonia 228
Ethics 61 , 75 , 76 , 77
ethnic hierarchy 6
ethnicity 7 , 54 , 113 , 116 , 117 , 132 , 134 , 137 , 152 , 162 , 165 , 172 , 182 , 201 , 219 , 220 , 286 , 292
ethno-nationalism 22 , 161
European Council for Fatwa and Research 55 , 94 , 95 , 98 , 104 , 109
European Union 2 , 4 , 27 , 43 , 57 , 162 , 180
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland 75 , 230
Evergeti, Venetia 21 , 198 , 199
Family 21 , 24 , 49 , 77 , 93 , 94 , 101 , 108 , 138 , 139 , 140 , 142 , 143 , 145 , 146 , 147 , 150 , 151 , 154 , 156 , 157 , 188 , 207 , 230 , 232 , 233 , 234 , 236 , 237 , 239 , 247 , 248 , 249 , 251 , 253 , 259 , 262 , 263 , 282 , 292
Federation of Islamic Organisations in Europe 216
Ferrari, Silvio 27
Ferree, Myra M. 167
Fetzer, Joel S. 40
Financial crisis 287
Finnish Security Intelligence Service 31 , 41 , 67
Fonseca, Lucinda 270
former Yugoslavia 5
Fras, Max 177
freedom of religion 5 , 29 , 30 , 75 , 81 , 86
functional differentiation 48
funding 21 , 27 , 37 , 38 , 40 , 43 , 44 , 93 , 97 , 99 , 105 , 212 , 238 , 289
Garbin, David 284
Gastarbeiter 15
Geertz, Clifford 91
Gender 153 , 155 , 161 , 164 , 165 , 168 , 169 , 174 , 175 , 177 , 179 , 244 , 247 , 248 , 263 , 267 , 268
Gerholm, Thomas 14
Globalization 3 , 10 , 137 , 212 , 272
Governance 19 , 28 , 29 , 32 , 33 , 35 , 42 , 56 , 67 , 68 , 70 , 71 , 74 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 83 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 282
Governmentality 16 , 17
Greek Orthodoxy 115 , 119
Grillo, Ralph 15 , 282
Gropas, Ruby 202
Guinea-Bissau 10 , 11 , 182 , 183 , 272 , 274 , 278 , 280 , 281 , 282 , 286 , 287
Gülen movement 98
Habermas, Jürgen 139
Halal 8 , 12 , 287
Halawa, Hussein 55 , 100 , 104
Hatzopoulos, Pavlos 205
Hayes, Brian 170 , 171 , 176
Heiskala, Risto 28
Herbert, David 177
Hierarchy 6 , 71 , 92 , 95 , 102 , 103 , 133
Hijab 144 , 154 , 163 , 166 , 167 , 168 , 169 , 175 , 266
Hindu 58 , 61 , 162 , 195 , 270 , 273
Honneth, Axel 21 , 138 , 139 , 140 , 141 , 152 , 158
Iivonen, Pekka 82
Imams 94 , 95 , 97 , 98 , 99 , 100 , 101 , 102 , 103 , 104 , 105 , 106 , 107 , 108 , 109 , 110 , 148 , 211 , 218 , 290
Immigration 7 , 9 , 10 , 19 , 30 , 31 , 41 , 69 , 107 , 108 , 136 , 137 , 138 , 157 , 163 , 164 , 171 , 172 , 178 , 188 , 195 , 199 , 201 , 208 , 219 , 221 , 227 , 230 , 232 , 235 , 270 , 271 , 272 , 275 , 286 , 289 , 292
Inglis, Tom 62
inter-religious relations 17
Islamic Community of Lisbon 1 , 11 , 17 , 59 , 60 , 183 , 184 , 282
Islamic Council of Finland 19 , 20 , 27 , 29 , 33 , 34 , 38 , 42 , 70
Islamic Cultural Centre of Ireland 55 , 93 , 94 , 95
Islamic education 14 , 16 , 67 , 68 , 70 , 72 , 73 , 81 , 82 , 85 , 86 , 99 , 100
Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq 228
Islamization 13 , 212
Islamophobia 13 , 16 , 19 , 46 , 63 , 137 , 181 , 185 , 197 , 199 , 201 , 211 , 219 , 221 , 235
Isma’ili 10 , 63Islamili 270 , 280
Jew 118Jewish 52 , 53 , 61 , 63 , 273
Jordan 228 , 229 , 231 , 235
Kambouri, Neli 205
Karakasidou, Anastasia 113
Kazakhstan 203
Kemalism 125
Khan, Adil Hussain 91110
Khiabany, Gholam 170
Kiliç, Sevgi 178
Kindergarten 236 , 242
King Abdullah ii 235
Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 122
Korais, Adamantions 115
Kosovo 5 , 6
Kristeva, Julia 165
Kurdistan 228
Kurds 6 , 127 , 229
Kuru, Ahmet 53 , 65
Kuwait 95
labor market 235 , 241
Larsson, Göran 2
Laurence, Jonathan 47 , 50 , 57 , 61 , 65
Law 5 , 8 , 11 , 17 , 21 , 31 , 40 , 55 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 71 , 74 , 78 , 100 , 104 , 108 , 118 , 123 , 125 , 127 , 129 , 149 , 151 , 152 , 185 , 201 , 211 , 220
Leadership 21 , 96 , 97 , 99 , 102 , 126 , 146 , 147 , 157 , 185 , 228
legal opportunity structure 74 , 86
legal regulation 4
Ley, David 288
Libya 95
Lisbon 1 , 11 , 17 , 23 , 24 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 65 , 183 , 184 , 185 , 187 , 195 , 269 , 271 , 272 , 273 , 274 , 275 , 276 , 277 , 278 , 279 , 280 , 281 , 282 , 283 , 284 , 285 , 286 , 288 , 289 , 290 , 292
Lithman, Yngve 14
local community 24 , 99 , 104 , 105 , 106 , 153 , 154 , 156 , 157 , 215 , 279 , 286 , 288 , 289 , 290 , 292
local emplacement 270 , 271 , 272 , 282 , 285
Lutheran 4 , 5 , 30 , 72 , 73 , 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 87 , 230
Maktoum Foundation 55 , 93 , 94 , 95 , 110
Mamede, Suleiman Valy 60
Maréchal, Brigitte 14
Marginalization 32 , 134 , 181 , 229 , 276
material religion 245 , 246 , 247 , 267
Maussen, Marcel 70
Media 1 , 3 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 22 , 24 , 29 , 34 , 47 , 48 , 66 , 68 , 78 , 108 , 112 , 118 , 148 , 153 , 155157 , 164 , 180 , 181 , 186 , 187 , 195 , 217
Memories 143 , 144 , 246 , 251 , 253
Men 1 , 133 , 167 , 207 , 229 , 233 , 236 , 238 , 245 , 248 , 256 , 257 , 259 , 260 , 261 , 266
Metcalf, Barbara 14
methodological nationalism 3
Michail, Domna 134
Middle East 5 , 7 , 72 , 96 , 103 , 112 , 117 , 225 , 228
Migration 3 , 5 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 15 , 24 , 30 , 34 , 49 , 50 , 55 , 62 , 117 , 126 , 127 , 132 , 180 , 183 , 189 , 197 , 199 , 200 , 203 , 204 , 205 , 207 , 208 , 210 , 218 , 219 , 220 , 221 , 225 , 227 , 231 , 245248 , 267278 , 280 , 287 , 292
Minaret 16
Minkenberg, Michael 49
Minority 5 , 7 , 8 , 11 , 17 , 18 , 20 , 2931 , 35 , 40 , 4244 , 54 , 69 , 71 , 74 , 76 , 8183 , 86 , 112 , 113 , 116121 , 123136 , 157 , 162 , 166170 , 177 , 182 , 183 , 195 , 198 , 199 , 200 , 201 , 202 , 216 , 218 , 220 , 222 , 225 , 236 , 241 , 272 , 275
Misrecognition 22 , 139 , 141 , 142 , 143 , 144 , 146157
Modood, Tariq 221
Morley, David 245
Morocco 10 , 15 , 206 , 272 , 275
Mosque 1 , 6 , 8 , 11 , 12 , 14 , 16 , 21 , 34 , 35 , 37 , 41 , 59 , 60 , 79 , 91 , 93110 , 123 , 129 , 147 , 148 , 149 , 155 , 181 , 184 , 198 , 201 , 211 , 212 , 215 , 216 , 217 , 219 , 221 , 234 , 240 , 242 , 260 , 280290
Mouride 15
Mozambique 10 , 17 , 182 , 183 , 184 , 185 , 195 , 272 , 274 , 282 , 291
Mubarak, Hosni 235
Muhammad cartoons controversy 32 , 37
multicultural work 238 , 244
multiculturalism 71 , 85 , 130 , 165 , 170 , 183 , 230 , 238 , 240 , 244
Muslim Brotherhood 97 , 98 , 108
Muslimness 13 , 19 , 181 , 186
national identity 7 , 9 , 13 , 1718 , 21 , 112 , 113115 , 119120 , 161 , 164166 , 169 , 173 , 178 , 204 , 211
national security 3133 , 41 , 68 , 151
nationalism 3 , 7 , 15 , 22 , 43 , 61 , 65 , 113114 , 116 , 130 , 161 , 166167 , 180 , 198 , 204
nationality 6 , 24 , 107 , 113114 , 116 , 129 , 164 , 183 , 185 , 202203 , 206207 , 215216 , 219 , 220 , 271 , 274 , 279 , 292
neighbourhood 102 , 238 , 259 , 270 , 280 , 282283 , 285288 , 292
neoliberalism 24 , 78
Netherlands 2 , 14 , 45 , 4950 , 63 , 69 , 170 , 190192 , 194 , 230
Holland 101 , 236
New Public Management 20 , 28 , 32 , 43 , 78
New Religious Movements 5859 , 6364 , 182
news media 164
ngo 230 , 237240 , 253
Nigeria 100 , 203 , 206
North Africa 7 , 72 , 107 , 238Africa
Norway 63 , 228 , 230 , 232
Ombudsman for Minorities 3537 , 3940 , 43
Onniselkä, Suaad 84
opportunity structure 29 , 38 , 40 , 71 , 74 , 8687
organisation 29 , 116 , 216
civil society organizations 43 , 60
grassroots organizations 108109
Islamic organizations 4 , 5 , 10 , 31 , 3435 , 4041
mosque organizations 9395 , 97 , 99100 , 107 , 109110 , 147
Muslims organizations 6 , 9 , 29 , 40 , 42 , 69 , 9193 , 9798 , 109 , 111 , 185 , 200 , 217 , 234 , 242
religious organizations 5 , 21 , 28 , 35 , 37 , 113 , 135 , 210 , 216 , 241
representative organizations 20 , 27 , 39
student organizations 107
umbrella organizations 34 , 57 , 95 , 184 , 186
Orthodox 4 , 7 , 18 , 3031 , 4243 , 5253 , 73 , 7576 , 8081 , 113115 , 119 , 122 , 124 , 162 , 170 , 198 , 203205 , 210211 , 216 , 273
Ottoman Empire 3 , 7 , 1718 , 112116 , 118121 , 125 , 135 , 201 , 204 , 218 , 221222
outsiders 9 , 91 , 95 , 97 , 106 , 108 , 171 , 253
Pakistan 1011 , 15 , 40 , 59 , 100101 , 104 , 196 , 201 , 205209 , 212 , 215217 , 272 , 274275 , 286288
Palestine 208 , 231 , 238239
path dependence 33 , 4243
persecution 23 , 132 , 227 , 229 , 232233 , 240 , 243
Pires, Sonia 289
plurality 48 , 56 , 58 , 68 , 71 , 7778 , 80 , 135 , 137 , 178 , 287 , 292
Poland 51 , 190191 , 194
Policarpo, José 187
Polis, Adamantia 114
political Islam 50 , 99
political party 7 , 12 , 1416 , 149 , 211 , 230 , 287
political participation 15 , 149 , 292
politics 4 , 19 , 21 , 4648 , 50 , 65 , 96 , 103 , 110 , 117 , 131 , 182 , 199 , 201 , 216 , 219221 , 269 , 283
Pomaks 7 , 127 , 131132 , 133135
Popkewitz, Thomas 79
Portugal 12 , 45 , 1012 , 1718 , 20 , 2224 , 4555 , 5765 , 113 , 180197 , 270276 , 281283 , 285287 , 289291
Portuguese Empire 3 , 10 , 182183 , 188 , 271
Portuguese Islam 10 , 13 , 18 , 23 , 49 , 54 , 60 , 6364 , 181192 , 195197 , 272275 , 285 , 290291
post-Cold War 3 , 5 , 29 , 34
Powell, Walter 39
power 21 , 34 , 6162 , 6465 , 79 , 9192 , 9596 , 167 , 179 , 267 , 289
relations 66 , 95 , 165 , 169 , 185 , 197 , 225
structures 21 , 91 , 111
prayer room 6 , 12 , 280281 , 283284 , 286287
prejudice 84 , 135 , 180 , 182 , 188 , 190 , 209 , 211212 , 214 , 226
Promey, Sally 251
public authorities 20 , 27 , 3536 , 3843 , 233 , 237
public religion 22 , 161
public schools 6 , 31 , 70 , 162 , 166 , 170171 , 176 , 178 , 241school
public sphere 13 , 1618 , 21 , 23 , 92 , 153 , 165 , 172 , 175 , 177179 , 186 , 200201 , 210 , 216219 , 222 , 291
Pyykkönen, Miikka 33 , 38
Qatar 95
Quinn, Ruairi 170171
quota refugees 5 , 227229refugee
race 117 , 135 , 137 , 155
racialization 16 , 199
racism 2 , 4 , 6 , 12 , 13 , 16 , 24 , 71 , 135 , 155 , 162 , 171 , 175 , 201 , 209 , 219 , 221 , 226 , 258
Račius, Egdūnas 2
radicalisation 17 , 27 , 32 , 42
radio 11 , 187
Rajamäki, Kari 230
recognition 1 , 11 , 19 , 2122 , 3031 , 55 , 62 , 7778 , 91 , 9699 , 110111 , 112 , 120 , 127 , 136 , 137154 , 156158 , 162 , 177 , 181 , 210 , 218219 , 288
refugee 56 , 8 , 23 , 55 , 72 , 108 , 122 , 124 , 182 , 185 , 195 , 200201 , 203 , 207 , 208 , 219 , 221 , 226233 , 237240 , 244 , 247 , 258 , 262 , 267quota refugee
regulation 4 , 29 , 30 , 56 , 58 , 65 , 7071 , 77 , 79 , 85 , 123 , 163 , 165 , 170 , 172 , 208 , 248
religion 17 , 9 , 23 , 2833 , 39 , 41 , 46 , 54 , 5657 , 78 , 8587 , 9192 , 103 , 110 , 112 , 114117 , 120123 , 125126 , 128129 , 132 , 134135 , 137 , 146147 , 151 , 153156 , 161162 , 164165 , 168 , 172 , 174179 , 181 , 204205 , 212 , 219221 , 245 , 247 , 267 , 269271 , 275 , 281 , 285287 , 292
Islamic religion 3 , 7 , 14 , 136 , 144 , 148149 , 153154 , 156
minority religion 20 , 2931 , 4244 , 69 , 71 , 7476 , 8183 , 241
other religions 1 , 30 , 75 , 80 , 8283 , 176 , 273public religion
religion of intolerance 190 , 192193state-religion relations
religionization 78
religious dialogue 1 , 15 , 49 , 54 , 102 , 186 , 188 , 237 , 239 , 289 , 291
religious diversity 30 , 4748 , 58 , 6163 , 173 , 182183 , 270273
religious education 6 , 2021 , 31 , 35 , 42 , 6783 , 8688 , 92 , 99100 , 102104 , 186 , 290
representative council 3637
resource mobilization 29 , 38 , 4041
re-territorialization 269
Ricoeur, Paul 146
rights 17 , 22 , 30 , 53 , 57 , 74 , 79 , 113 , 121 , 123124 , 126 , 128 , 130131 , 140141 , 165166 , 172 , 210
broadcasting 59
civil 67 , 144 , 169 , 219220 , 271
human 149 , 151 , 168 , 210 , 232
religious 75
women’s 92 , 164 , 179
Rissanen, Inkeri 85
Roma 7 , 131135
Romania 122
Rottman 168
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (rcsi) 8 , 55 , 100
Ruba, Salih 15
Russian Empire 35 , 29 , 30 , 118
Said, Edward 6
Salafiyya 98 , 100 , 106 , 266
Saudi Arabia 95 , 100101 , 108 , 228 , 266
Schattschneider, Elmer 47
Schneider, Jens 171
scholars (religious) 9799 , 102103 , 106 , 108109 , 234235 , 266
school 8 , 20 , 35 , 42 , 5657 , 6768 , 7088 , 115 , 120 , 123 , 125128 , 130 , 163 , 167169 , 175177 , 227 , 236242 , 260 , 266 , 280281 , 290291public schools
sectarianism 23 , 104 , 108109 , 226227 , 231 , 233238 , 240 , 242244
sectarianization 226
secularization 4 , 12 , 15 , 19 , 24 , 30 , 51 , 53 , 5657 , 64 , 77 , 8687 , 131 , 134 , 161 , 170 , 175178 , 181 , 211 , 228 , 233 , 235237 , 239 , 243 , 272 , 284
securitization 17 , 19 , 29 , 3133 , 38 , 4143 , 6769 , 117 , 150152 , 182 , 234
Senegal 10 , 15 , 206207 , 272 , 274275Africa
sensory culture 251 , 268
service provision 288
Shahid al Mihrab Organization 228 , 235
Shi‘a 11 , 79 , 84 , 100 , 109 , 217
silence 2223 , 181 , 192 , 196 , 242
silencing 23 , 240 , 244
Skoulariki, Athena 202
social capital 28 , 60 , 181 , 195 , 197 , 255 , 270 , 272 , 286 , 289
social fragmentation 23
Somalia 5 , 6 , 23 , 72 , 77 , 206207 , 228 , 245247 , 258268
Soper, J. Christopher 40
South Africa 8 , 55 , 100Africa
South Asia 5 , 7 , 9 , 55 , 59 , 96 , 98 , 100101 , 103104 , 107 , 182 , 198 , 202 , 207 , 216 , 272
Soviet Union 5 , 31 , 41 , 199
space 8 , 1415 , 17 , 2324 , 46 , 101 , 105 , 107 , 117 , 157158 , 188 , 204 , 214219 , 225 , 227 , 234 , 243 , 245 , 256 , 259261 , 263 , 266268 , 270272 , 282283 , 285 , 287288 , 291292
public space 11 , 19 , 215 , 217 , 225 , 227 , 233 , 236
private space 245246 , 251253 , 258 , 269 , 284
Spain 12 , 45 , 4950 , 63 , 220
spatiality 23 , 269 , 270271 , 275 , 288 , 292
state autonomy 48
state–religion relations 1718 , 20 , 4548 , 5356 , 6165
statistics 5 , 59 , 117 , 190 , 200209
stereotypes 135 , 155 , 188 , 214
Stevens, Lorna 166
stigmatization 108 , 133
student 8 , 1011 , 17 , 55 , 7476 , 80 , 100 , 107 , 128 , 154 , 177 , 201 , 247 , 272 , 282
subjectivity 13 , 161
Sub-Saharan Africa 5Africa
suburb 11 , 23 , 225 , 227230 , 234 , 237238 , 240 , 243 , 275290
suburbanisation 276
Sudan 23 , 206 , 246258 , 266268
Sufism 104 , 106 , 264 , 266 , 272 , 287
neo-Sufi 217
Sunni 56 , 1011 , 18 , 21 , 58 , 60 , 84 , 100 , 109 , 134 , 137138 , 148 , 157 , 182 , 184 , 228 , 233236 , 239 , 242 , 270272 , 283 , 287288
Sweden 4 , 30 , 226 , 228 , 230232
Switzerland 45 , 49 , 63 , 125
symbol 23 , 64 , 91 , 110 , 161 , 167168 , 172177 , 186 , 234 , 236 , 243 , 245 , 249257 , 262 , 267268 , 284
Syria 201 , 203 , 206209 , 228229 , 231 , 239
Tablighi Jamaat 16 , 98 , 217 , 272 , 287288
Tampere 5 , 6768 , 80 , 8687
Tariqa 12
Tatar 46 , 30 , 69 , 72 , 75 , 80 , 118
television 11 , 102 , 187 , 234 , 237 , 260
terrorism 4 , 17 , 27 , 32 , 35 , 4142 , 95 , 117 , 151 , 171 , 191196 , 199 , 211
counterterrorism 67
war on terror 4 , 187
Thrace 78 , 17 , 21 , 112114 , 116 , 118136 , 201203 , 220221
Tiesler, Nina Clara 22 , 180 , 272 , 288
Tohidi, Nayereh 173
translocal 15
transnational religious movements 15
transnationalism 1519 , 4950 , 55 , 94 , 97 , 103 , 200201 , 215 , 217219 , 222 , 225226 , 240 , 247 , 269 , 290 , 292
Treaty of Lausanne 7 , 119131 , 136
Triandafyllidou, Anna 219
Troubeta, Sevasti 221
Tsitselikis, Kosntantinos 5 , 202
Turkey 57 , 15 , 18 , 21 , 72 , 113136 , 175 , 185186 , 199 , 201 , 203208 , 211 , 214 , 218219 , 221 , 228
Turkoman 229
Turku 227 , 229 , 233242
Tweed, Thomas A. 23 , 256 , 258 , 267
‘ulama 97 , 100 , 102103 , 106scholars (religious)
umma 16 , 96 , 219 , 260
unhcr 5 , 227229 , 231232
United Kingdom 2 , 14 , 45 , 63 , 69 , 161 , 170 , 178179 , 190
urbanization 30 , 125 , 133 , 225 , 269270 , 275 , 280 , 282284 , 288 , 290291
Uzbekistan 203
Vakil, AbdoolKarim 59 , 60 , 285
Vanhanen, Matti 230
veil 16 , 22 , 161179 , 214hijab
Vietnam 227
violence 23 , 188 , 190 , 218 , 227228 , 231235 , 237 , 240 , 243
Wahhabi 100 , 266
war on terror 4 , 187terrorism
Watt, Philip 175
Werbner, Pnina 285
Werdmolder, Hans 174
Williamson, Milly 170
women 1 , 12 , 23 , 92 , 107 , 109 , 133 , 143144 , 146147 , 154 , 162179 , 187188 , 207 , 211 , 216 , 233 , 238 , 245268 , 284 , 288
World War i 119 , 135
World War ii 3 , 41 , 126 , 204
worship 23 , 98 , 201 , 205 , 215216 , 269271 , 278 , 280288 , 291292
Yuval-Davis, Nira 165 , 174
Zapata-Barrero, Ricard 220

Muslims at the Margins of Europe

Finland, Greece, Ireland and Portugal

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