Index9/1113, 32, 35, 60, 69, 117, 161, 162, 180, 182, 187, 188, 211Afghanistan5, 207, 208, 230Africa24, 72, 96, 100, 112, 199, 226, 228, 265, 273, 287Africanization10Aga Khan Foundation60, 280, 290Ahmad221Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud235al Islah266Al Itihad al Islaami266Al-Andalus272Al Andaluz12, 13Albania203, 204, 206, 208Albanophobia205al-Qaradawi, Yusuf94, 98, 104, 234, 235Anagnostou, Dia202Antoniou, Dimitris134Arab41, 72, 107109, 202, 226, 235, 236, 253258, 260Arabic147, 199, 215, 216, 226, 228, 234239, 240246, 260, 290Asad, Talal91, 111Association1, 5, 11, 34, 35, 37, 38, 43, 94, 105, 129, 178, 199, 215, 216, 217, 236, 287, 289, 290asylum seekers5, 208, 219, 227, 228, 232, 247, 258Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal121attitudes161179, 180197, 228, 235, 266Austria83, 88, 172, 178, 228authenticity21, 110, 111authority21, 39, 54, 91, 92111, 168, 169, 204, 211Bahrain95Baldwin-Edwards, Martin116Balkans7, 112, 116119, 124, 199Bangladesh10, 11, 206, 209, 272, 274, 275, 286Barelwi12, 272, 287, 288Basu, Amrita166Bayes, Jane H.173Bektashi134, 204Belgium2, 49, 178, 236Bosnia5, 8Brisman, Shira251British Empire121, 122Buddhism78Bulgaria118, 119, 132, 274burials35, 289Carlbom, Aje243Casanova, José28, 51Catholic Church5465, 175, 184, 187, 289centralization276, 285centre/periphery276charity98, 120church–state4, 24, 29, 45, 49, 219state–religion17, 18, 20, 4548, 53, 54, 56, 61, 62, 64children63, 75, 81, 85, 130, 135, 152, 153, 176, 207, 216, 226, 236, 239242, 247, 248, 255, 256, 259, 260, 262, 289, 290citizenship1, 5, 8, 12, 17, 19, 22, 45, 65, 112, 113, 116, 125, 128130, 142, 150, 152, 153, 163169, 171174, 179, 183, 186, 199, 202, 203, 219, 220, 230, 291civil society16, 28, 33, 43, 60, 91, 102, 107, 289Clogg, Richard120, 122coercive isomorphism3843colonial legacies16, 19, 24colonialism137, 157, 282Concordat17, 57, 58, 60, 61Constantinople114, 115, 119, 120constitution149, 151, 162, 198, 210, 272convert143, 148, 163converts6, 9, 73, 137, 143, 146, 149corporatism45, 47, 48, 54, 57, 58, 60Council of Europe49Crul, Maurice171cultural racism16culture23, 46, 60, 71, 74, 85, 106, 114, 115, 128, 133, 135, 155, 168, 169, 171, 172, 173, 176, 193, 194, 239, 240, 245, 247, 248, 251, 253, 255, 258, 261263, 267, 268, 286, 287, 290, 291curriculum12, 20, 42, 70, 71, 75, 7986, 115, 186Cyprus118, 128Democracy128, 170, 238, 272, 282Denizenship144, 149, 150Denmark228, 230, 231, 232Deobandi12, 101, 217, 272, 287Diaspora217, 219, 225229, 237239, 243249, 251, 253, 255, 256, 262, 263, 265268diasporic community23, 225, 226, 227, 282DiMaggio, Paul39Discrimination58, 71, 116, 128, 135, 153, 154, 156, 157, 174, 180, 187, 188, 209, 218, 219, 258, 259Divani, Lena122Diversification20, 222, 283Diversity20, 27, 30, 38, 47, 48, 54, 58, 6163, 73, 78, 85, 96, 102, 170, 173, 182, 183, 200, 201, 210, 215, 216, 222, 225, 255, 258, 269273, 285, 291Dublin8, 9, 21, 5566, 92111, 137160Egan, Shekinah163, 172Egypt201, 203, 207, 212, 214, 215, 235Espoo72, 73, 77, 81Essentialism139Esteves, Alina270Estonia228Ethics61, 75, 76, 77ethnic hierarchy6ethnicity7, 54, 113, 116, 117, 132, 134, 137, 152, 162, 165, 172, 182, 201, 219, 220, 286, 292ethno-nationalism22, 161European Council for Fatwa and Research55, 94, 95, 98, 104, 109European Union2, 4, 27, 43, 57, 162, 180Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland75, 230Evergeti, Venetia21, 198, 199Family21, 24, 49, 77, 93, 94, 101, 108, 138, 139, 140, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 150, 151, 154, 156, 157, 188, 207, 230, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237, 239, 247, 248, 249, 251, 253, 259, 262, 263, 282, 292Federation of Islamic Organisations in Europe216Ferrari, Silvio27Ferree, Myra M.167Fetzer, Joel S.40Financial crisis287Finnish Security Intelligence Service31, 41, 67Fonseca, Lucinda270former Yugoslavia5Fras, Max177freedom of religion5, 29, 30, 75, 81, 86functional differentiation48funding21, 27, 37, 38, 40, 43, 44, 93, 97, 99, 105, 212, 238, 289Garbin, David284Gastarbeiter15Geertz, Clifford91Gender153, 155, 161, 164, 165, 168, 169, 174, 175, 177, 179, 244, 247, 248, 263, 267, 268Gerholm, Thomas14Globalization3, 10, 137, 212, 272Governance19, 28, 29, 32, 33, 35, 42, 56, 67, 68, 70, 71, 74, 77, 78, 79, 83, 85, 86, 87, 282Governmentality16, 17Greek Orthodoxy115, 119Grillo, Ralph15, 282Gropas, Ruby202Guinea-Bissau10, 11, 182, 183, 272, 274, 278, 280, 281, 282, 286, 287Gülen movement98Habermas, Jürgen139Halal8, 12, 287Halawa, Hussein55, 100, 104Hatzopoulos, Pavlos205Hayes, Brian170, 171, 176Heiskala, Risto28Herbert, David177Hierarchy6, 71, 92, 95, 102, 103, 133Hijab144, 154, 163, 166, 167, 168, 169, 175, 266Hindu58, 61, 162, 195, 270, 273Honneth, Axel21, 138, 139, 140, 141, 152, 158Iivonen, Pekka82Imams94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 148, 211, 218, 290Immigration7, 9, 10, 19, 30, 31, 41, 69, 107, 108, 136, 137, 138, 157, 163, 164, 171, 172, 178, 188, 195, 199, 201, 208, 219, 221, 227, 230, 232, 235, 270, 271, 272, 275, 286, 289, 292Inglis, Tom62inter-religious relations17Islamic Community of Lisbon1, 11, 17, 59, 60, 183, 184, 282Islamic Council of Finland19, 20, 27, 29, 33, 34, 38, 42, 70Islamic Cultural Centre of Ireland55, 93, 94, 95Islamic education14, 16, 67, 68, 70, 72, 73, 81, 82, 85, 86, 99, 100Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq228Islamization13, 212Islamophobia13, 16, 19, 46, 63, 137, 181, 185, 197, 199, 201, 211, 219, 221, 235Isma’ili10, 63Islamili 270, 280Jew118Jewish 52, 53, 61, 63, 273Jordan228, 229, 231, 235Kambouri, Neli205Karakasidou, Anastasia113Kazakhstan203Kemalism125Khan, Adil Hussain91110Khiabany, Gholam170Kiliç, Sevgi178Kindergarten236, 242King Abdullah ii235Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes122Korais, Adamantions115Kosovo5, 6Kristeva, Julia165Kurdistan228Kurds6, 127, 229Kuru, Ahmet53, 65Kuwait95labor market235, 241Larsson, Göran2Laurence, Jonathan47, 50, 57, 61, 65Law5, 8, 11, 17, 21, 31, 40, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 71, 74, 78, 100, 104, 108, 118, 123, 125, 127, 129, 149, 151, 152, 185, 201, 211, 220Leadership21, 96, 97, 99, 102, 126, 146, 147, 157, 185, 228legal opportunity structure74, 86legal regulation4Ley, David288Libya95Lisbon1, 11, 17, 23, 24, 58, 59, 60, 65, 183, 184, 185, 187, 195, 269, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 288, 289, 290, 292Lithman, Yngve14local community24, 99, 104, 105, 106, 153, 154, 156, 157, 215, 279, 286, 288, 289, 290, 292local emplacement270, 271, 272, 282, 285Lutheran4, 5, 30, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 87, 230Maktoum Foundation55, 93, 94, 95, 110Mamede, Suleiman Valy60Maréchal, Brigitte14Marginalization32, 134, 181, 229, 276material religion245, 246, 247, 267Maussen, Marcel70Media1, 3, 12, 13, 14, 22, 24, 29, 34, 47, 48, 66, 68, 78, 108, 112, 118, 148, 153, 155157, 164, 180, 181, 186, 187, 195, 217Memories143, 144, 246, 251, 253Men1, 133, 167, 207, 229, 233, 236, 238, 245, 248, 256, 257, 259, 260, 261, 266Metcalf, Barbara14methodological nationalism3Michail, Domna134Middle East5, 7, 72, 96, 103, 112, 117, 225, 228Migration3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 15, 24, 30, 34, 49, 50, 55, 62, 117, 126, 127, 132, 180, 183, 189, 197, 199, 200, 203, 204, 205, 207, 208, 210, 218, 219, 220, 221, 225, 227, 231, 245248, 267278, 280, 287, 292Minaret16Minkenberg, Michael49Minority5, 7, 8, 11, 17, 18, 20, 2931, 35, 40, 4244, 54, 69, 71, 74, 76, 8183, 86, 112, 113, 116121, 123136, 157, 162, 166170, 177, 182, 183, 195, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 216, 218, 220, 222, 225, 236, 241, 272, 275Misrecognition22, 139, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146157Modood, Tariq221Morley, David245Morocco10, 15, 206, 272, 275Mosque1, 6, 8, 11, 12, 14, 16, 21, 34, 35, 37, 41, 59, 60, 79, 91, 93110, 123, 129, 147, 148, 149, 155, 181, 184, 198, 201, 211, 212, 215, 216, 217, 219, 221, 234, 240, 242, 260, 280290Mouride15Mozambique10, 17, 182, 183, 184, 185, 195, 272, 274, 282, 291Mubarak, Hosni235Muhammad cartoons controversy32, 37multicultural work238, 244multiculturalism71, 85, 130, 165, 170, 183, 230, 238, 240, 244Muslim Brotherhood97, 98, 108Muslimness13, 19, 181, 186national identity7, 9, 13, 1718, 21, 112, 113115, 119120, 161, 164166, 169, 173, 178, 204, 211national security3133, 41, 68, 151nationalism3, 7, 15, 22, 43, 61, 65, 113114, 116, 130, 161, 166167, 180, 198, 204nationality6, 24, 107, 113114, 116, 129, 164, 183, 185, 202203, 206207, 215216, 219, 220, 271, 274, 279, 292neighbourhood102, 238, 259, 270, 280, 282283, 285288, 292neoliberalism24, 78Netherlands2, 14, 45, 4950, 63, 69, 170, 190192, 194, 230Holland101, 236New Public Management20, 28, 32, 43, 78New Religious Movements5859, 6364, 182news media164ngo230, 237240, 253Nigeria100, 203, 206North Africa7, 72, 107, 238AfricaNorway63, 228, 230, 232Ombudsman for Minorities3537, 3940, 43Onniselkä, Suaad84opportunity structure29, 38, 40, 71, 74, 8687organisation29, 116, 216civil society organizations43, 60grassroots organizations108109Islamic organizations4, 5, 10, 31, 3435, 4041mosque organizations9395, 97, 99100, 107, 109110, 147Muslims organizations6, 9, 29, 40, 42, 69, 9193, 9798, 109, 111, 185, 200, 217, 234, 242religious organizations5, 21, 28, 35, 37, 113, 135, 210, 216, 241representative organizations20, 27, 39student organizations107umbrella organizations34, 57, 95, 184, 186Orthodox4, 7, 18, 3031, 4243, 5253, 73, 7576, 8081, 113115, 119, 122, 124, 162, 170, 198, 203205, 210211, 216, 273Ottoman Empire3, 7, 1718, 112116, 118121, 125, 135, 201, 204, 218, 221222outsiders9, 91, 95, 97, 106, 108, 171, 253Pakistan1011, 15, 40, 59, 100101, 104, 196, 201, 205209, 212, 215217, 272, 274275, 286288Palestine208, 231, 238239path dependence33, 4243persecution23, 132, 227, 229, 232233, 240, 243Pires, Sonia289plurality48, 56, 58, 68, 71, 7778, 80, 135, 137, 178, 287, 292Poland51, 190191, 194Policarpo, José187Polis, Adamantia114political Islam50, 99political party7, 12, 1416, 149, 211, 230, 287political participation15, 149, 292politics4, 19, 21, 4648, 50, 65, 96, 103, 110, 117, 131, 182, 199, 201, 216, 219221, 269, 283Pomaks7, 127, 131132, 133135Popkewitz, Thomas79Portugal12, 45, 1012, 1718, 20, 2224, 4555, 5765, 113, 180197, 270276, 281283, 285287, 289291Portuguese Empire3, 10, 182183, 188, 271Portuguese Islam10, 13, 18, 23, 49, 54, 60, 6364, 181192, 195197, 272275, 285, 290291post-Cold War3, 5, 29, 34Powell, Walter39power21, 34, 6162, 6465, 79, 9192, 9596, 167, 179, 267, 289relations66, 95, 165, 169, 185, 197, 225structures21, 91, 111prayer room6, 12, 280281, 283284, 286287prejudice84, 135, 180, 182, 188, 190, 209, 211212, 214, 226Promey, Sally251public authorities20, 27, 3536, 3843, 233, 237public religion22, 161public schools6, 31, 70, 162, 166, 170171, 176, 178, 241schoolpublic sphere13, 1618, 21, 23, 92, 153, 165, 172, 175, 177179, 186, 200201, 210, 216219, 222, 291Pyykkönen, Miikka33, 38Qatar95Quinn, Ruairi170171quota refugees5, 227229refugeerace117, 135, 137, 155racialization16, 199racism2, 4, 6, 12, 13, 16, 24, 71, 135, 155, 162, 171, 175, 201, 209, 219, 221, 226, 258Račius, Egdūnas2radicalisation17, 27, 32, 42radio11, 187Rajamäki, Kari230recognition1, 11, 19, 2122, 3031, 55, 62, 7778, 91, 9699, 110111, 112, 120, 127, 136, 137154, 156158, 162, 177, 181, 210, 218219, 288refugee56, 8, 23, 55, 72, 108, 122, 124, 182, 185, 195, 200201, 203, 207, 208, 219, 221, 226233, 237240, 244, 247, 258, 262, 267quota refugeeregulation4, 29, 30, 56, 58, 65, 7071, 77, 79, 85, 123, 163, 165, 170, 172, 208, 248religion17, 9, 23, 2833, 39, 41, 46, 54, 5657, 78, 8587, 9192, 103, 110, 112, 114117, 120123, 125126, 128129, 132, 134135, 137, 146147, 151, 153156, 161162, 164165, 168, 172, 174179, 181, 204205, 212, 219221, 245, 247, 267, 269271, 275, 281, 285287, 292Islamic religion3, 7, 14, 136, 144, 148149, 153154, 156minority religion20, 2931, 4244, 69, 71, 7476, 8183, 241other religions1, 30, 75, 80, 8283, 176, 273public religionreligion of intolerance190, 192193state-religion relationsreligionization78religious dialogue1, 15, 49, 54, 102, 186, 188, 237, 239, 289, 291religious diversity30, 4748, 58, 6163, 173, 182183, 270273religious education6, 2021, 31, 35, 42, 6783, 8688, 92, 99100, 102104, 186, 290representative council3637resource mobilization29, 38, 4041re-territorialization269Ricoeur, Paul146rights17, 22, 30, 53, 57, 74, 79, 113, 121, 123124, 126, 128, 130131, 140141, 165166, 172, 210broadcasting59civil67, 144, 169, 219220, 271human149, 151, 168, 210, 232religious75women’s92, 164, 179Rissanen, Inkeri85Roma7, 131135Romania122Rottman168Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (rcsi)8, 55, 100Ruba, Salih15Russian Empire35, 29, 30, 118Said, Edward6Salafiyya98, 100, 106, 266Saudi Arabia95, 100101, 108, 228, 266Schattschneider, Elmer47Schneider, Jens171scholars (religious)9799, 102103, 106, 108109, 234235, 266school8, 20, 35, 42, 5657, 6768, 7088, 115, 120, 123, 125128, 130, 163, 167169, 175177, 227, 236242, 260, 266, 280281, 290291public schoolssectarianism23, 104, 108109, 226227, 231, 233238, 240, 242244sectarianization226secularization4, 12, 15, 19, 24, 30, 51, 53, 5657, 64, 77, 8687, 131, 134, 161, 170, 175178, 181, 211, 228, 233, 235237, 239, 243, 272, 284securitization17, 19, 29, 3133, 38, 4143, 6769, 117, 150152, 182, 234Senegal10, 15, 206207, 272, 274275Africasensory culture251, 268service provision288Shahid al Mihrab Organization228, 235Shi‘a11, 79, 84, 100, 109, 217silence2223, 181, 192, 196, 242silencing23, 240, 244Skoulariki, Athena202social capital28, 60, 181, 195, 197, 255, 270, 272, 286, 289social fragmentation23Somalia5, 6, 23, 72, 77, 206207, 228, 245247, 258268Soper, J. Christopher40South Africa8, 55, 100AfricaSouth Asia5, 7, 9, 55, 59, 96, 98, 100101, 103104, 107, 182, 198, 202, 207, 216, 272Soviet Union5, 31, 41, 199space8, 1415, 17, 2324, 46, 101, 105, 107, 117, 157158, 188, 204, 214219, 225, 227, 234, 243, 245, 256, 259261, 263, 266268, 270272, 282283, 285, 287288, 291292public space11, 19, 215, 217, 225, 227, 233, 236private space245246, 251253, 258, 269, 284Spain12, 45, 4950, 63, 220spatiality23, 269, 270271, 275, 288, 292state autonomy48state–religion relations1718, 20, 4548, 5356, 6165statistics5, 59, 117, 190, 200209stereotypes135, 155, 188, 214Stevens, Lorna166stigmatization108, 133student8, 1011, 17, 55, 7476, 80, 100, 107, 128, 154, 177, 201, 247, 272, 282subjectivity13, 161Sub-Saharan Africa5Africasuburb11, 23, 225, 227230, 234, 237238, 240, 243, 275290suburbanisation276Sudan23, 206, 246258, 266268Sufism104, 106, 264, 266, 272, 287neo-Sufi217Sunni56, 1011, 18, 21, 58, 60, 84, 100, 109, 134, 137138, 148, 157, 182, 184, 228, 233236, 239, 242, 270272, 283, 287288Sweden4, 30, 226, 228, 230232Switzerland45, 49, 63, 125symbol23, 64, 91, 110, 161, 167168, 172177, 186, 234, 236, 243, 245, 249257, 262, 267268, 284Syria201, 203, 206209, 228229, 231, 239Tablighi Jamaat16, 98, 217, 272, 287288Tampere5, 6768, 80, 8687Tariqa12Tatar46, 30, 69, 72, 75, 80, 118television11, 102, 187, 234, 237, 260terrorism4, 17, 27, 32, 35, 4142, 95, 117, 151, 171, 191196, 199, 211counterterrorism67war on terror4, 187Thrace78, 17, 21, 112114, 116, 118136, 201203, 220221Tiesler, Nina Clara22, 180, 272, 288Tohidi, Nayereh173translocal15transnational religious movements15transnationalism1519, 4950, 55, 94, 97, 103, 200201, 215, 217219, 222, 225226, 240, 247, 269, 290, 292Treaty of Lausanne7, 119131, 136Triandafyllidou, Anna219Troubeta, Sevasti221Tsitselikis, Kosntantinos5, 202Turkey57, 15, 18, 21, 72, 113136, 175, 185186, 199, 201, 203208, 211, 214, 218219, 221, 228Turkoman229Turku227, 229, 233242Tweed, Thomas A.23, 256, 258, 267‘ulama97, 100, 102103, 106scholars (religious)umma16, 96, 219, 260unhcr5, 227229, 231232United Kingdom2, 14, 45, 63, 69, 161, 170, 178179, 190urbanization30, 125, 133, 225, 269270, 275, 280, 282284, 288, 290291Uzbekistan203Vakil, AbdoolKarim59, 60, 285Vanhanen, Matti230veil16, 22, 161179, 214hijabVietnam227violence23, 188, 190, 218, 227228, 231235, 237, 240, 243Wahhabi100, 266war on terror4, 187terrorismWatt, Philip175Werbner, Pnina285Werdmolder, Hans174Williamson, Milly170women1, 12, 23, 92, 107, 109, 133, 143144, 146147, 154, 162179, 187188, 207, 211, 216, 233, 238, 245268, 284, 288World War i119, 135World War ii3, 41, 126, 204worship23, 98, 201, 205, 215216, 269271, 278, 280288, 291292Yuval-Davis, Nira165, 174Zapata-Barrero, Ricard220

Muslims at the Margins of Europe

Finland, Greece, Ireland and Portugal

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