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in STEM Education 2.0
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4.1The STEM integration spectrum.57
4.2Tool for determining knowledge and process of STEM disciplines needed or used in integrated STEM projects.58
4.3STEM processes and knowledge identification tool completed using the parabolic hotdog cooker as the project.59
4.4The zone of optimal learning where assignment complexity and students’ capacity align.60
9.1Example of bridging between formal school learning and informal learning via an after school program (adapted from Noam et al., 2002).145
10.1Students working on PBL projects in S.O.S model.160
10.2A digital story created for a PBL project.161
10.3A website created for a PBL project.162
10.4A brochure design for a PBL project in the S.O.S model.163
10.5A circuit bug created in STEM Art class as part of the iTECH-STEM program.164
10.6Students working on stop-motion Digital Storytelling projects during iTECH-STEM.165
10.7Students working on programming projects in iTECH-STEM.166
10.83D Modeling in iTECH-STEM.167
10.9Students learn how to use 3D-printers in iTECH-STEM.167
12.1An excerpt from the Next Generation Science Standards for two performance expectations and their elaborations from the Life Science Topic 1-LS 1, entitled From Molecules to Organisms: Structure and Processes.194
12.2An adaptation of the Next Generation Science Standards to specify dinosaurs as organisms in a bundle of performance expectations for K-2 learners.195
12.3The three elements involved in conceptualizing assessment as a process of reasoning from evidence (from Pellegrino et al., 2014, p. 49, reproduced with permission).200
12.4A scenario written in students’ language situating the SCLE within a “story” in which students think and act like paleontologists. The guiding question for the SCLE refers to the scientists’ work that students will simulate during four sequential lessons. The performance task is indicated (in italics) as part of the story and naturally includes evidence that students have met the student expectation for the SCLE.201
12.5Developmental rubric for assessing the iSTEM performance task.202
12.6Leading questions (LQ) and lesson-level performance expectations (LPE) for the four lessons in the SCLE, How We Know What We Know about Dinosaurs.203
12.7General SCLE Lesson Template used to construct the sequence of lessons comprising an iSTEM Performance TASK. Note the dual focus on what both teacher and students do.204
12.8Storyline for Lesson 1 in How Do We Know What We Know about Dinosaurs?205
12.9Schematic of the “revise and reflect clock diagram,” indicating the process occurring at all stages of the 12-step process of designing an iSTEM learning performance. In the initial conception of the SCLE (dark arrows), completion of Step 2 after Step 1 requires the designer to revisit Step 1 and to check for coherence between the two steps (indicated by the dual arrow). The process occurs throughout the more or less linear process of moving through the 12 steps. Once all 12 steps are completed, the designer reviews the steps once again and adjusts decision outcomes at each step when necessary to maintain coherence in the system.206
12.10A linear depiction of the 12-step process of iSTEM performance task design for classroom assessments.208
13.1Image of Bailey’s construction of a car using LEGOs and litteBits.232
13.2Bailey continuing construction of his car from Day 1.235
14.1Predicted rescaled leadership importance ratings for gender and experience groups.262
14.2Predicted current leader capacity for significant effect variables.264
16.1Project crossover questions 18 and 19.307
16.2Question 18, When did you first become interested in science, in general.307
16.3Question 19, When did you first become interested in chemistry/physics [your career disipline].308
16.4FOCIS learning activities.309
16.5FOCIS instrument items.310
16.6Future career aspiration question.311
1.1Standards for Mathematical Practice (NGA Center & CCSSO, 2010) and Related NGSS Science and Engineering Practice (NGSS Lead States, 2013).10
2.1Percentages of US schools that don’t offer core mathematics and science classes.29
2.2Percent of 8th grade students proficient in math and science according to the NAEP.29
5.1Recommendations of national reports on STEM education.75
7.1Critical components for Inclusive STEM High Schools ISHSs in Opportunity Structures for Preparation and Inspiration in STEM (OSPrI Study) developed deductively and inductively.115
12.1Adapted 12-step approach to designing classroom task assessments aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards.198
12.2Levels of student-centered instructional strategies in integrated STEM learning environments.210
14.1Ingredients for leading innovation.253
14.2Leadership importance scale question means.261
14.3Multilevel model for leadership importance.262
14.4Question Means for Current Leadership Capacity and Change in Leadership Capacity Scales.263
14.5Multilevel regression for current leadership capacity – Significant variables.264
15.1Impacts of school and out of school-related activities on STEM-major intentions.287
15.2Impacts of Pygmalion effect variables on STEM-major intentions.289
15.3Impacts of self-expectation and math and science efficacy on STEM major intentions.290
15.4Independent samples t-test comparing positive and negative changers’ average changes in school, Pygmalion, and motivational factors.291
16.1Comparison of descriptive statistics among youth participants in Grades 3–8.312
16.2Learning activity preference comparisons between Science & Engineering Aspiring Youth (SEA) versus non-Science & Engineering Aspiring (non-SEA) Youth.313
18.1Principals’ perceptions on partnership outcomes.343
19.1Percentage of students in tertiary education enrolled in STEM tertiary education programs (both sexes) (2011–2015).354
19.2Percentage of students in STEM tertiary education programs (both sexes), by discipline (2015).355

STEM Education 2.0

Myths and Truths – What Has K-12 STEM Education Research Taught Us?

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