Index of SubjectsAbsence (from meetings)28, 40, 66, 87, 115Accounts (of associations)37, 40, 44, 46, 48, 55Admission process28, 68, 184–86, 191Agdistis72Agrippa (M. Vipsanius)127n40Agrippa I76n3Akiva (Rabbi)198, 201Akmoneia99n9, 169n58Alburnus Maior32n77Alexandria76–96, 98, 99n11, 108–9, 128, 145n113, 150n138, 165n35, 178n104Alexandria Troas142Am-haareṣ183–88, 190, 193–205Amisus35n90Amun50Andania73Anthas19Anthedon19Antinous29n63, 134Antioch146, 165n35, 165n39Antioch in Pisida34Antiochus III109n69Antiochus IV25n42Antoninus Pius139, 145n117Aphrodisias163, 165, 173Aphrodite19, 176n97Apion139n90Apocalypticism69Apollo22n34, 110n75–76Apprenticeship38, 187Arados98n8, 103n29,Archisynagogoi92n56, 101, 108n63, 147, 150n136, 152, 169–71ArchivesOf Jewish communities99, 149, 178Of Rome99n11Aristotle19–20, 56Artapanus75Artemis22n34, 172Artists117–19, 131–43, 147, 153, 171, 177Asclepius22AsyliainviolabilityAthena14, 19Athens15–16, 20n23, 21, 22n34, 25–26, 28, 34, 66, 73, 101, 111–12, 131, 133, 168, 190n21Athletes117–19, 125, 131–32, 135–36, 138–40, 142–44, 152, 171, 177Atonement63–64Attalids18, 22, 134Augustales29, 87n41, 138n81, 151n140Augustus29, 79n6, 79n8–9, 80n13, 93n61, 94, 103n34, 120–22, 124, 126, 129n49, 140, 145n113Aurarioi162–63Bans on associationslegal regulationsBendis21n28, 66Benefactors47, 57, 99, 117, 150, 155, 174, 175n88, 176Berenice85n34, 98n7, 108–9, 111, 147n126, 169n85Beroia25n44Berytus17n14, 98n8, 103n29, 104, 107n58, 110n72Brigetio147n123Brixia29n63, 147n123, 150–51Burial2, 5, 14, 28, 38, 40, 42–45, 47, 50–54, 87, 137–38, 192–93Caesar90n53, 93n61, 103, 120–22, 124–25, 127, 129Caligula86, 144, 165n39Candidatesadmission processCapua147n123Caracalla146Caravans5–6Cassandreia32n77Centonarii30Charity51, 53–54Chichester138n81China6, 39, 55, 57Christians1–3, 32, 70, 98, 101n22, 103n31, 116, 118, 144n112, 152, 156, 157–60, 178, 188Chytroi22n34Circumcision145, 154Civic cult19, 22–23, 33, 73, 80–81, 127, 141Claudius79n10, 131, 144–45Cologne146n119Colonies (Roman)34–35, 150, 151n141Colophon25n44Constantine146n119, 152Coptos38Corinth34, 35n90, 102n23, 188n18Cos16–17, 28, 127, 134n68, 176n96Council (civic)5, 77, 79, 146n119, 151, 177Crete176n96Curiae31n71, 160Cyme99n9Cyrene73Cyzicus29n64Delos16–19, 21–23, 25, 97–114, 175n88Delphi101n16, 110, 131, 133, 135n74, 141Demes15Dendara48–50Dendrophori30, 151n140Diocletian135, 143Dionysus16, 18–19, 21, 41, 64, 98n8, 102, 104n37, 115, 117–19, 130–42, 172Dispute resolutionjurisdictionDokimasiaadmission processDomitian84Drunkenness88–90, 94, 120Dunhuang55–56Edfu47–49, 145n116Elephantine41, 45, 105Entrance fee143Ephebesyouth organizationsEphesus32n77, 108n59, 109n69, 128–29, 145n115, 159n10, 166n42, 172, 175n89Epidauros141n98Essenes61, 105, 182Ethnic groupsforeignersEucharistmealsEuergetismbenefactorsEumenes II134, 141Exclusion (of members)58–71Exclusivity21, 56Expulsions of Jews144Fabri29–30, 123, 138n81, 158–59FinesFor violation of statutes26n47, 28, 40, 47, 53–55, 65–66, 69, 75, 87, 151For violation of graves31n74, 101n17, 148–49, 171Flaccus86, 89–93Food laws70, 113, 126, 184–92ForeignersAssociations of15–18, 23, 70, 97–114, 116, 123, 129, 148, 170,politeumaAs members16, 19Funerary cult105Gerasa25–26Gerousia29, 80n13, 148, 150n136, 172n74Ghoran46Gladiators143n108, 161God-fearers163–65, 173, 177Gorgippia176n97Guilds (medieval)6, 38–39, 54Gymnasium25, 41Hadrian29n63, 132–34, 139, 142, 145n117, 153n152Halicarnassus107, 109, 111–13Harsomteus49Hathor49Hawara38Herakleia Pontica32n79Herakleopolis4n10, 82, 86n36, 108Herakles23Hermes41, 44–45, 134Hermonassa176n97Hermonthis32n75Herod130n52Hetaireia27, 103n31, 104n35, 106, 144, 145n115, 158–59Hierapolis33, 99n11, 109n69, 149, 151, 174, 178Hippocrates74Horos40, 49, 52Hosn Niha32n78Household associations73Hyrcanus II121, 124–25, 130Iasos141n98Idumeans82Imitation (of institutions by associations) 20–21, 33–34, 46, 60, 73, 110, 141, 190n21ImmigrantsforeignersIndia6Infamia143Initiates22, 33n83, 73Intercisa147n123Inviolability126, 131–33, 135Ioudaios (translation)11–12Isis32n78, 41–42, 57, 84, 98n8, 106n53, 110n70Iuvenesyouth organizationsJamnia26n50Jason (high priest)25Jerusalem (excl. temple)25, 165n35, 193Jurisdiction (within associations)46–47, 53, 55, 112Kalchedon21n26Kallatis18–19Karanis50Kerkethoeris51Khnum41Kinship language67, 150–51Kom Ombo44–45, 47–48, 52Kourion32n77Lanuvium26, 29n63, 134n71Laodikeia161n18, 170Laos107, 113n92, 151, 171n67, 176–77Laurentum147n123Legal personality110, 138Legal regulations on associationsGreek21n25, 22–23, 99–100, 111–13Roman1–2, 14, 29–31, 34–35, 89–94, 99–100, 103–4, 107–8, 119–30, 136–43, 155, 157–60, 166–67Other37, 54–56Leontopolis108Levites186, 188–89, 200, 202n49Lex Irnitana34, 127Lex Ursonensis34Libation38, 41, 73Liternum29n63Lucius Antonius99n12, 107, 108n59, 110n71, 121L. Cornelius Lentulus128–29Lucius Mummius141n99Maenads28Magdola39–40Magistrates (of associations)20, 32–33, 43–49, 53–54, 115, 117, 137n80, 150, 169,priestsMagna Charta125–26Magnesia (Maeander)161Manumission101Maresha26Marzeaḥ27, 103–6Mater Magna30Maximianus135MealsCommunal meal5, 36, 40, 46, 50, 66, 70, 93, 103, 106, 112n87, 113, 158, 186–87, 190–91, 193–97, 205Eucharist188n18Symposion50–51, 64, 89, 187n15–16, 190, 194Meeting places21–23, 49–51, 92, 104–5, 111–13, 115, 117, 167–75Membership lists16, 19, 116n5, 146n119, 178n103Memphis42, 82Menelaus (high priest)25Menorah168Merida147n123Methymna25n44MeticsforeignersMiletus29n64, 122n19, 153n152, 160–67, 173Military (membership)22, 41, 43, 46, 48, 82–83, 85, 90, 108, 109n69, 167Military service (exemption)100, 117, 124, 126–33Misenum138n81Mithras116MoneyCollected by associations40, 47, 49, 53, 55, 87, 93n61, 105, 109–11, 120, 124, 172Sent to Jerusalem97n3, 100, 124, 126MysteriesinitiatesNaples134Narmouthis44Naro147n123Naukratis79n7, 85, 109Nemesis167Neoiyouth organizationsNicomedeia29n64, 102n23, 148, 151, 158–59Norbanus Flaccus108n59Numa30Nysa107, 151n142, 175–77Oath38, 71–74Obligatory membership147, 154Oescus147n123Oropos101n16, 174n86Ostia147n123, 150Paros103, 120, 124, 155Parsa19n18Patara22n33Pathyris48Patriarch151–52, 171Patronage30, 49, 57, 100n14, 116, 137–38, 150, 151n140Paul1–3Pergamon18, 22Perinthos147–48, 170n59Pesach180, 190–91n22Pharisees23–24, 61, 70, 182Philadelphia (Fayyum)47n42, 50Philadelphia (Lydia)72Philippi28, 32n78, 34, 35n90, 113n90Philippopolis32n79Philosophers158Phoenicians27n51, 97–114, 116Phratries15, 50, 112Phylai161Politeuma3, 4n10, 26, 77–87, 91, 95, 108–9, 111n79Pompeii84Poseidon17n14, 176n97Poseidonius of Apameia106Presbyteroi108Priests (Jewish)61, 73, 75, 81, 186, 188–89, 197, 200, 203Priests (non-Jewish)18, 21n26, 21n28, 22, 33, 39–57, 73, 84n29, 104, 107n58, 127, 134, 145, 172, 176Professional organization14, 27, 29–33, 38–39, 43, 82n20, 104, 108, 131–43, 146n120, 147–49, 153, 166Proseuchai1n1, 92–95Ptolemais (Egypt)85Ptolemy II39Ptolemy VIII56n82Purity60, 63, 74, 184–95, 202–4Puteoli98n8, 110, 116n4, 150n136Pythagoreans60Qumran23–26, 58–75, 179, 181–82, 184n8, 188, 191, 201–2Ratiaria34Religio licita100n14, 127–28, 156ReligionEnabling associations8, 15–27, 30–34, 38–45, 54–56, 90–91, 94, 128–30, 133–34, 140, 166, 172Modern notions12, 15n5, 118–19Rhegion131n56Rhodes16–17, 19, 25, 101, 131, 140n93, 176n96Richard II54RomeAlliance with Jews120, 130, 170–71Jews in2, 93n61, 120, 144, 147n123, 150, 164, 169n58Other associations in30, 93n61, 117, 120–21, 134, 136–40, 143Ruler cult40–42, 57, 97, 93, 134, 151n140,AugustalesSabazius18Sabbath92n56, 97n3, 100, 109, 113, 124, 126–27, 130, 145n116, 193, 201, 204Samaritans23, 104, 106, 111, 175n88, 194–97, 202n49Samos98n7SanctuariesPublic22–23, 25–26, 39–41, 44–50, 56–57, 101, 104, 110–12, 148, 172Of associations17–18, 21–23, 73, 134n70Saqqara42–45, 47Sarapis16, 18, 32n78, 41–42, 57Sardeis22, 99n12, 107–12, 113n93, 121, 124, 126Saura32n78Sebastopolis169n58Septimius Severus122, 128n46, 133, 134n72Shechem26n50Sidon26n50, 82n20, 83, 98n8, 105, 110n75Sidyma29n64Sikyon141n98Slaves15, 101n16, 203Smyrna34, 134n70, 171Sobek39–43, 48Soknebtunis40, 44, 47, 50Solon167n48Stobi148n127, 151, 171n67, 175n92Stymphalos141n98SymposionmealsSynagogia106SynagogueAncient term11, 87n44, 92n56, 100–2, 147–48Building76, 92n58, 107, 147n126, 167–70, 174–75Modern concept2, 8, 11, 24, 59–60, 70Syracuse131Tanagra140n93Tanais176Taxation31n74, 85, 131–32, 145n116, 146, 149, 151–52, 154, 163Tebtunis39–40, 44, 46–47, 50, 66, 82n20TechnitaiartistsTemple (Jerusalem)63, 94, 100, 110, 113, 124, 126, 172, 184, 189TemplessanctuariesTeos18, 141Thebes (Egypt)38Theos Hypsistos50, 164n33, 173n82, 176Thessalonike34, 35n90, 148, 165n35Thoth38n7, 43–45, 48Tithes184–95, 202–4Toposinschriften160–67Toriaion25n45Trajan35n90, 79n10, 144n112, 158–59Troesmis34Trust56, 185, 189–91, 193Twelve Tables128n46Tyre23, 98n8, 102n29, 104–5, 107n58, 110, 111n81, 112n87, 116n4Ugarit27n51Utilitas publica123, 125Vienne138n81Virunum35n90, 116n5Voluntary participation5, 60, 63, 65, 154Wine48, 73, 88–89, 186–89WomenAssociations of42, 46, 55, 87In mixed associations15, 63, 72–73, 150–51, 191–92In leading positions150–51, 171–73Xois82n20Xystarchs142YaḥadQumranYouth organizations25, 29, 151n140, 167n46ZeusNo epithet18, 19n18, 25, 170n59Hypsistos47n42, 50Karaios19Labraundos22n33Narenos32n77Phrygios84Zorava32n79