IndexA-effect.V-effekt, VerfremdungseffektAbolition37, 45, 49, 51Abolitionism2829, 151n5, 152Danish45, 5657Adonis9, 19, 2829, 33, 3536, 38Aesthetic4n10, 19, 21, 22, 27, 35, 412, 65, 109, 150, 153, 1645, 194, 213practice 5, 10–13, (feminist)111, 17375, 178, 18283representation36, 63, 84, 200regime111, 115, 117, 121, 123Rancièredesire (Baudelaire)120of the theatre13031, 13840of the museum.Display case, MuseumAesthetics56, 89, 1113, 40, 60, 110, 116of excess/exaggeration65, 79of “doubled-voiced discourse,”6668film196, 203Affection-image193, 202205, 208Affective202205, 21213Agency12, 32, 134, 145, 177, 188, 195historical11011, 11415, 121, 123masculine173, 175reader/spectator134Alienation55, 94, 129, 141, 146VerfremdungseffektAllegory, (H.C. Andersen)4245, 4850, 5253, 60, 157(Baudelaire)157, 161, 165“Anaconda” (Minaj).MinajAndersen, H.C.4160Andersen, Jens45, 49Archive4, 78, 20Hutchins Center for African and African American Research5transatlantic slave trade23Art18, 11contemporary2, 12, 17391history105, 18488Visual artAshcroft, Bill119Aunt Jemima9, 63, 65, 67, 7174, 76, 79, 8163“Old Aunt Jemima” (song)6970Baartman, Sara14, 79, 424, 525, 59, 67, 79, 95n23, 151, 184autopsy report34, 7, 11exhibition56, 17476portrayal in Venus (Parks)12947portrayal in Vénus noire (Kechiche)13, 193, 195 (Saartjie)199, 20413“Baby Got Back” (Sir Mix-a-Lot).Sir Mix-a-LotBarker, Jennifer210Barthes, Roland123, 182, 188Bas bleu déclamant sa pièce, Le (Daumier)162Baudelaire, Charles10, 12, 108109, 11115, 11618, 120, 124, 14970Beaumont, Mme de48n21Beer, Gillian167Behn, Aphra31Benjamin, Walter67, 111, 12224, 135n19Birth of Venus, The (Botticelli)93, 14243Blackface65, 6771Black female body18, 13, 267, 304, 916, 105, 193Walker, K., Minaj, DesireBlack Venus113contemporary parody. Walker, K., Minajin fairy tale.Andersen, H.C., Fairy taleItalian imperial propaganda89105theatre and the spectacle.Parkssemantic re-figurations.Gilroyshort story.Carterin Baudelaire.Baudelairedisplayed bodies.Display case, Museumin film.Kechiche, DreyerBlake, William9, 19, 2426, 30, 37Europe Supported by Africa and America25Body1, 3, 52, 64, 102, 151, 165, 169, 12947, 17391, 19698, 204, 2069, 212–14Black Female Body, DesireBrecht, Bertolt22, 129, 133, 137, 140, 14446, 141n29Epic theatre, VerfremdungseffektCamerawork198, 206, 21011Calasso, Roberto169Campassi, Gabriella92n11Caponetto, Rosetta Giuliani95Carter, Angela10, 10815, 11824Cartesian200201, 203Certeau, Michel de110n7Chambers, Ross110, 121Cinema, (narrative)4, 11, 98, 193214Deleuze, Cinematography, GazeCamerawork, Haptic, Kechiche, DreyerCinematography13, 193, 196214Christian viii of Denmark45, 56Close-up13, 193, 196, 202204, 206207Cognitive11, 13, 12931, 146, 193, 200, 203, 205, 209, 213Colonial5, 812, 1921, 234, 37, 416, 546, 5860, 65, 79, 8994, 1045, 133, 142, 151, 155, 170, 177, 1846, 189, 193n1, 207imagery92fantasies96100power dynamics11113, 11920, 123Gaze, Universal ExhibitionColonialism9, 19, 170, 186Denmark4445, 51, 5556, 59Italy90105Compagnon, Antoine153Conrad, Joseph50Contact zone27PrattCuvier, Georges35, 7, 43n7, 137n23, 151, 176in Vénus noire193n, 206208Daumier, Honoré16163, 165, 167Le Bas bleu déclamant sa pièce162Decadence16566, 168Decolonization177Degeneration89, 91, 9495, 102, 104Deleuze, Gilles193, 196, 202205, 210n36Deserts of Libya, The (Il deserto di Libya, Tobino)8990, 96100, 105Desire3, 89, 13, 1920, 2930, 34, 367, 434, 82, 142, 14446, 163–64and repulsion5, 52, 95, 137object of31n18and knowledge production65, 79, 83, 111, 174–95male69, 78, 9799, 101, 103, 112, 114, 120, 123, 197, 199, 204ocular15659, 200GazeDisplacement19, 2224, 3132, 163, 165Display case12, 17384, 18790Dreyer, Carl Theodor13, 19394, 19698, 202204, 206, 208, 21213Dundes, Alan46Duval, Jeanne10, 108109, 11115, 118–23Duve, Arne54Embodied9, 63, 67, 72, 82, 108spectatorship in cinema196, 208, 210, 21213Walker, K.Epic theatre11, 12931, 133n11, 138, 141, 146TheatreEpistemology, 8, 1011, 129, 131, 194, 197, 200, 203, 205Ethical5, 11, 13, 134, 150, 196, 200, 213Europe Supported by Africa and America (Blake)19, 24–25Exposition universelle.Universal ExpositionFace97–98, 193213Fairy tale910, 4144, 49, 108, 12124FolkloreFalconetti, Renée Maria194, 212Felsenstein, Frank21n, 22n, 23n7, 27n14Flaiano, Ennio10, 89102, 104105Feminism76, 109, 195Feminist1, 10, 111, 11415, 118, 161, 186, 19798“Anaconda,”23Minajpost-feminist6567, 76, 78black feminist thought74film criticism98white108109, 121, 124Figure45, 7Black Venus, Hottentot Venus, SpivakFiguration2, 58, 1011, 13, 19, 27, 12947, 19394, 196Flaubert, Gustave117, 161Focalizer5, 2628, 91, 97, 99101Folklore4648, 121, 123Foucault, Michel12, 149, 15556Freak13032, 134, 145, 150, 195phenomena137, 146, 166Freak showFreak show1112, 43, 645, 129, 132, 13640, 147, 149, 151, 197Frederik vii of Denmark51Fusco, Coco12, 17374, 18890Gamble, Sarah110Gates, Jr., Henry Louis66, 79, 84Gautier, Théophile153, 16869GazeColonial and imperial5, 10, 12, 103, 151, 186male, objectifying13, 26, 30, 31n19, 8990, 97105, 132, 19799and the museum12, 17378, 18384, 186, 188, 190white63, 65, 70oppositional75, 84to, defined.Schroederalienating150and the cinema193199, 203n21, 205208, 21213Gender13, 1923, 28n15, 34, 37, 91, 9395, 105, 109, 13031, 13435, 137, 159, 170, 18586performance29in blackface comedy69Masculinity, Looking relations, FeminismGenderedGendered89, 1113, 178, 194division of labor31power dynamics67, 186typecasting200, 207, 210GenderGenre810, 19, 23n8, 27n14, 4243, 50, 60, 75, 108, 11314, 12124, 131Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Étienne16667Gilman, Sander L.1, 6, 35, 55n51, 95n23, 144, 151n5Gilroy, Beryl9, 1924, 2738Gjerden, Jorunn S.96, 108n1Glass case.Display caseGlissant, Édouard195nGómez-Peña, Guillermo12, 17374, 18890Gordon-Chipembere, Natasha8, 52, 5455Gould, Stephen1, 8Grønbech, Bo4647Hajamadi, Fariba12, 17374, 17884, 186Hamlet (Shakespeare)142Hands193, 20611Hansen, Thorkild42n6, 47n16, 51, 5657, 59Haptic13, 193, 20810, 21213Henderson, Mae G.4n10, 14Heterotopia12, 149, 15557, 16970Hip hop4n10, 7578, 144Historicalcontext5, 8, 20, 42, 44, 49, 54, 59, 83, 109, 113representation9, 66, 115, 174novel2223romance23n8fabrication55 “imagined” Baartman135construct123, 200History1112, 19, 24, 63, 70, 7274, 79, 8184, 111, 11314, 11718, 142African American 6384post/colonial3, 910, 23, 4142, 44, 5556, 5960, 89, 109of Black Venus5, 8repackaged, remixed67, 24, 13132, 135alternative2021natural, scientific12, 14951, 155–56, 158, 165visual and art65, 173, 178, 18386, 18889, 194, 197African American, Historical, ColonialHottentot apron1, 31n19, 5455Hottentot Venus3n8, 8, 12, 31n19, 34n20, 64, 67, 77, 79, 82, 84, 95n23, 135n19, 136, 142, 144, 17476, 189, 193, 197, 203, 199, 207in Baudelaire149159, 165, 170Hutcheon, Linda66, 112n11, 113n, 114, 120Repetition, ParodyHysteria16365Ideology8, 2021, 2728, 32, 36, 42n5, 6869, 123blackness as construct34n20fascist89, 94bourgeois124Imagination7, 10, 10810, 12223, 133n11, 137, 143, 168, 17476in Baudelaire115, 150, 153, 156, 160, 169, 170Imaginary.Imagination, ColonialImmersion13, 82, 193, 210, 213Imperialism9, 10, 4142, 49, 10821, 124, 133, 137, 15556, 170Italian8992, 102105Imperialist.ImperialismIrony2122, 28, 30, 36, 38, 53, 56, 96, 100, 105, 113, 140, 140, 143, 146, 150, 153, 156, 161, 16465, 170, 213Italiani brava gente104Jeanne d’Arc13, 19397, 200204, 208209, 21213Jegerstedt, Kari59, 96, 195n6Jezebel9, 63, 65, 67, 7477, 8084Joan of ArcJeanne D’ArcJørgensen, Aage56Kaplan, Ann E.103105Kechiche, Abdellatif2, 13, 19398, 199n12, 206, 209, 21114Kinaesthetic193, 210, 211, 213Knowledge production8, 11, 13, 17475, 193, 195, 200, 206Kofoed, Niels5354Land of the Covenant5859Larsen, Ebba Kathrine57Legend19, 2324, 2728, 151n5of Sara Baartman42, 55, 59 “Les Épaves” (Mme Reybaud)46, 49Literature811, 1938, 4160, 89105, 10825, 129147, 14970PoetryLewis, Robin Coste67Ligon, Richard21n, 23Looking relations103105, 197GazeMa Rainey67, 7076, 79“Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom,”7076, 79Magubane, Zine34n20, 44, 55n51Marker, Frederick J.51Marks, Laura200201, 208Masculinity10, 29, 69, 75, 89, 94, 101, 104Materiality201, 206, 208Matoaka1920Matus, Jill111, 112n12, 113n13, 11415, 120Mauron, Charles167Mbeki, Thabo1, 14Medicine show64Melancholia153, 154n21, 157, 16365Merleau-Ponty, Maurice196, 210n36Metaphor.ReplacementMetonymy.DisplacementMichelet, Jules117Miller, J. Hillis200201Minaj, Nicki23, 910, 63, 6569, 7479, 8284“Anaconda,”23, 9, 75, 77, 78Minstrel show64, 6869, 7072, 79, 83Minstrelsy65, 6770, 74Modernity91, 150, 15356anti-modernity153Monster12, 14970See also Freak showMortensen, Klaus P.54Moses49, 5759Mulvey, Laura98, 103, 19899, 204Munford, Rebecca11415, 120Museum7, 1112, 64, 15659, 17391Madame Tussauds65, 76, 84of “living curiosities,”14960, 16670Mute speech.RancièreMyth14243, 157, 165, 169, 174of racial hierarchy4, 102, 104–105of Venus and Adonis9, 1921, 29, 35, 37Egyptian mythology54Adonis, Aunt Jemima, CarterNadar, Félix113, 152n9Napoleon iii154Narrative610, 19, 2123, 26–38, 52, 91, 97, 103, 108, 11213, 115, 145, 156n18“Black Venus narrative” (Sharpley-Whiting)43slave37travel71n36cinema98, 19496, 19899, 201202, 208Western, hegemonic110, 1823, 186, 190counter-189Nochlin, Linda18384Objectification7778, 84, 13234, 137, 142, 17677, 188, 193214Oral tradition10, 108, 12123Ongetiteld (Rose)18688Onlooker7476, 8283, 186GazeOpacity195n6, 200Orient43, 58, 99100, 18384, 190Oriental8, 5758, 98, 100, 102, 104, 140, 146, 148, 168, 182Orientalism8, 57n2, 58, 98114, 120, 133n1, 184Orientalist114, 120, (Gérôme)18384Origin of Man16570Other4n10, 10, 2123, 28, 6566, 82, 84, 97, 101, 103105, 109, 119, 133, 13637, 139Spivak112, 114, 120OtheringOthering18384, 19395, 19798imperialist (Spivak)120Oxfeldt, Elisabeth4142, 49, 58Palma, Silvana92Parks, Suzan-Lori11, 82, 129, 12947Parody4n10, 9, 28, 63, 66, 73, 7779, 111, 142, 15758, 163, 207Signifyin(g), HutcheonPerception26, 129, 135, 146, 201206, 20810Cartesian, HapticPerformative13, 193, 196, 204205, 210, 211n39, 213Peripheral seeing205206Perspective193, 200205, 214Phantasm42, 49, 53Pascal, Blaise16768Pocahontas.MatoakaPoe, Edgar Allan163Poetry149170Polezzi, Loredana90n5Ponzanesi, Sandra9293Postcolonial23, 810, 44, 90, 105, 108, 177, 193n1critique17374, 187Colonial, HistoryPratt, Mary Louise27n13, 90Preciosity (précieuse)16163, 168Progress150, 15357, 16770Prostitution12, 34, 78, 14955, 15860, 170Qureshi, Sadiah4344Rose, Tracey17374, 176n4, 18490Race, (intersectionality)9, 12, 1922, 3234, 43n7, 70, 79, 94, 109, 130, 132, 133n11, 137, 144, 149, 152, 170, 200, 206mixed4445, 49, 53, 56, 95n23as spectacle131, 135, 143, 147theory, (Gobineau)166, (Gautier)16869Racialized, RacismRacialized12, 9, 11, 13, 2021, 123, 194, 195n4, 200, 207, 210markers6RaceRacism6667, 7879, 83, 95n23, 133n11, 177Rancière, Jacques10, 24, 124distribution of the sensible26, 110aesthetic regime111, 11516mute speech11718Rape29, 3536, 42, 77, 79, 101, 104Regeneration91, 94, 100102, 104“Repetition with critical difference” (Hutcheon)9, 63, 66, 7779, 81, 84Replacement19, 2223, 32, 34, 37Representative regime116, 118RancièreRe-presentation108Re-vision.RichMme Reybaud46“Les Épaves”Rice, Thomas D. “Daddy,”68Rich, Adrienne66Robecchi-Bricchetti, Luigi8990Ross, Alison117Rothenberg, Molly Anne7, 7n20, 15Rømer, Ludewig Ferdinand51Sage, Lorna109Said, Edward W.120n34, 182, 184Sanyal, Debarati151, 170Schmid, Susanne120Schneider, Marcel102Schroeder, Jonathan9798Schyff, Karlien van der59Scopophilia65, 82Sega, Maria Teresa92n2Scandinavian5, 41Sexism24, 83, 177Sexuality5, 20, 26, 28n15, 29, 3132, 35, 37, 4244, 71, 77, 109, 137, 165deviant48and love5254, 5556, 59and taboo57black female6370, 144, 147 (Baartman)9, 143, 14647Sexualized9, 2021, 3236, 49, 6365, 70, 81, 10811, 129, 133, 159Black female body, Desire, GazeSexual violence45, 46, 60, 79Shakespeare, William33HamletSharpley-Whiting, T. Denean4, 5, 11, 43, 55n51, 197Short Cut, The (Tempo di uccidere, Flaiano)90, 104–106, 105Signifyin(g)9, 63, 66, 79GatesSir Mix-a-Lot23, 78Sideshow64, 137n20, 178Slavery78, 2023, 26, 31, 33, 37, 45, 47n16, 49, 51, 53, 79, 8284, 91, 134Abolition, AbolitionismSmith, John19Sòrgoni, Barbara95n23Stead, Evanghelia16566Stefani, Giulietta10, 89, 9395, 101Space78, 12, 27n13, 120, 156, 164, 174, 17879, 184, 18990, 201, 203204, 209narrative28imaginary115colonial119for the Other133counter-14950, 155allegorized157Museum, SpatialSpan ii (Rose)187–88Spatial1011, 115, 156, 203208, 211, 213Looking relations, Affective, Close-up, SpaceSpectacle11, 65, 83, 112, 12947, 183, 197, 201Spectating bodies131, 146, 17391Spectator1112, 26, 6566, 7879, 8284, 98, 129, 13947object looking back at17375, 177, 182, 18491of dialectical theatre13435, 139, 141and visual involvement197, 199, 205207, 210–13Spectatorship, Gaze, KinastheticsSpectatorship11–13theatrical130urban space149bodily193cinematic196, 206, 208, 213Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty8, 12425on the figure5, 20, 59n69postcolonial reason109, 112, 114, 120un-learning17374, 17778, 191Unlearning, Other, OtheringStedman, John Gabriel23, 31n17, 37Stefani, Giuletta10, 89, 934, 101, 104Stereotype4n10, 811, 13, 20, 2627, 38, 65, 67, 7173, 77, 8184, 89, 95n23, 111, 131, 13940, 161n47, 194, 209, 213Subtlety, A.Walker, K.Sugar Baby.Walker, K.Svalesen, Leif53n43Švrljuga, Željka96, 108n, 135n19, 195n6Symbolism9, 2426, 28, 3637, 42, 45, 47, 54, 63, 74, 78, 92n11, 140, 142, 14445, 194in Blake2438of Baartman59, 135, 176, 195, 207degeneration102, 104, (evil)165of social unity157, 185Aunt Jemima, Black VenusTabula rasa11920Tactile206, 208209Theatre5, 11, 4553, 56, 12947Andersen, H.C., Brecht, Epic theatre, ParksTransatlantic slave trade9, 23, 29, 4647, 51, 53Tobino, Mario10, 89, 90, 101103, 105Deserts of Libya, TheTopsøe-Jensen, Helge44, 52Torres, Yahima194Typecast(ing).StereotypeUn-Begotten/Nude (Hajamadi)178, 181Universal Exposition15457Unlearning8, 11, 12, 150Spivak, “un-learning”Un-Remembered/Dancer (Hajamadi)178–79Un-Sleeping/Bride, (Hajamadi)178, 180Vall, Reneé van de200201, 205206V-effekt.VerfremdungseffektVenus (Parks)12947Venus Hottentot.Hottentot VenusVénus noire, scene (Kechiche)198, 209Verfremdungseffekt11, 133n13, 139Viewer.SpectatorVirey, Julien-Joseph152Vitrine.Display caseVisual arts2, 1112, 6384, 17391, 197, 200, 205Visual pleasure.MulveyVoice10, 27n14, 32, 36, 38, 77, 84, 88, 91, 101102, 104, 10824, 136, 170“double-voiced discourse”Aesthetics. Also see HutcheonWalker, Barbara G.54Walker, Kara2, 9, 6370, 7374, 7884A Subtlety64, 7980, 163Warner, Marina51, 57n62, 60Willis, Deborah2, 8