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IndexAbe, Shinzō45, 189-190, 192, 196Abu Ghraib11Active Measures Working Group20Adler-Nissen, Rebecca107, 115adversarial diplomatic relationships.hostile nations, public diplomacy andaesthetics, role of111-112affective polarization67, 69, 70-71, 79Afghan-Americans59Ager, Dennis121Albright, Madeleine161algorithms, role of10-11, 12, 88, 91Alliance Française (AF)121, 123Allison, Graham188Al Qaeda158, 163, 164Amaq (IS news agency)158Amazon87Ambassador for Digital Affairs96American exceptionalism42American Ireland Fund53American Irish Historical Society53American Jewish Committee53-54amplifier effect113Anderson, Benedict120Anglo-German model of public engagement26-27Anholt, Simon29, 30, 124Anholt GfK Nation Brands Index (Anholt)29The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (journal)3, 143anti-democratic movements81.hostile nations, public diplomacy andArab Spring55Arab Uprising148-149Araud, Gérard45-46Ardern, Jacinda111-112Argentina40, 110Armenia146Arquilla, John10ASEAN183, 184, 192-195Asia Silicon Valley Development Plan97al-Assad, Bashar92Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)183, 184, 192-195Astana Film Festival31athletes, role of47, 138Atta, Mohamed159Atwood, Margaret34audience: domestic13-15, 23-24, 26, 41, 48-50, 107unmotivated75, 77augmented reality (AR)86, 87, 88Aung San Suu Kyi184Australia18, 183, 184, 192, 194, 196authoritarianism149.hostile nations, public diplomacy andauthority, skepticism of15, 40Bad News (social media game)80Bahrain67Baidu97Baltic nation MFAs93Bastille Day46Beccalli-Falco, Ferdinando “Nani”94Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)177-178Bennett, W. Lance113Berger, J.M.157Berlin Wall8Berridge, Geoffrey146-147Bhatia, Kartika159big data, role of9, 10-11, 86, 91, 98bilateral hostile nation relationships136, 146bin Laden, Osama154, 163bin Mohamad, Mahathir193Birthright Israel52Bjola, Corneliu23, 90Black Crows (television series)165Black Lives Matter47Bloom, Mia157Boko Haram90Bolsonaro, Jair40Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan (film)31Bosnia-Herzegovina62Boston Review (journal)22branding, national27-29, 30-31, 37, 44, 59, 123-124, 188-189Branson, Richard131Brazil40, 177Brexit referendum48, 49“Bring Back Our Girls”90Britain30, 34, 97, 111-112, 164British Council26British Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO)92-93British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) World Service19, 26-27BBC Russian Service31Bruce Gregory138Building Welcoming Communities Campaign55Bush administration13, 14Bymanm, Daniel156Callick, Rowan188Cambodia193Cambridge Analytica114Canada44-45, 74, 102-103Cardozo, Elsa39Castells, Manuel59-60, 126, 127, 130Castro, Fidel139celebrity role of42Center on Public Diplomacy (CPD)3Central European University24Central Foreign Affairs Commission (CPC)172-173, 175Chadian diaspora60Chalabi, Ahmad57Chávez, Hugo39, 139, 141China1-2, 4, 46-47, 75, 147, 151, 169-181ASEAN and194Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)177-178Chinese characteristics, importance of171, 172, 174-175, 180counterbalanced by other Indo-Pacific nations190-192cultural exchange138, 173, 177-178cultural self-confidence175-176disinformation from67, 72global initiatives shared by177media, resource allocation for142nation branding in188-189“New Era” narrative195-196public diplomacy spending by187“public,” use of term in170sharp power, use by16-20Xi Jinping172, 174, 175-176, 178, 183, 187-189, 195-196.Indo-Pacific region, public diplomacy inChina Model of public diplomacy169-181Indo-Pacific influence183institutionalisation variable171-172, 173-174party diplomacy172, 179power structure variable171, 172-173trends forecast for173-178as “Whole-Nation System”172, 179Chinese companies, in Silicon Valley97-98Chinese diaspora52, 53Clash of Civilizations theory118climate change77, 118, 130-131Clinton, Hillary17-18, 52, 54Clinton–Bush Haiti Fund55coercion, role of7, 17-18, 162, 194cognitive biases76, 77, 78cognitive diversity118cognitive exhaustion72-73, 79Cold War15, 17-18, 32, 113, 171collaboration, role of2, 129-130, 132colonialism123Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)44Commonwealth Summit111-112communication2-3, 92, 130, 146changes in109, 125-126dialogic111digital84, 85-89strategies12-13, 130, 132telecommunications, role of62-63communism: communist governments148-149Communist Party of China (CPC)170-173, 175, 177, 179-180, 187Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership46Confucius Institutes19 46-47, 128, 170Congress for Cultural Freedom18Constantinou, Costas127, 128constructivism86, 144Copenhagen climate talks in130Coptic Christians53-55, 61Coptic Orphans61Cornut, Jérémie37corporations role of95corrective messaging67, 68, 70-71, 77-78, 81, 114counter-terrorism108, 155, 157-167creating narratives in162-165public diplomacy’s relevance165-167recruitment157-165religion and161-162social media messaging157-158, 164, 166-167socio-economic issues of158-160country of origin (COO)53-55, 56-57, 58-59, 60-62country of residence (COR)53-55, 58, 60-62credibility, role of10-12, 16, 20, 26-27Crimea66, 71-72, 91Cuba94, 138, 141, 149Cull Nicholas21, 24, 38, 46cultural diversity118-120, 125-132leveraging of118-119, 125, 129, 132cultural exchange46-47, 80-81, 138, 141China138, 173, 177-178culture4, 8, 42, 118-132boundaries of124-125cultural filters14cultural unification120globalization and125-126, 131-132Maori111-112popular culture, role of47public diplomacy and118-119, 126-127, 132state-centric diplomacy and119-125, 132textual-oriented85-86Current Time (website)71Czechoslovakia30data-driven interactions83-84, 87decentralization9-10democracy-based programmes144democratic and non-democratic states’ relationships135, 144, 146, 149-152.hostile nations, public diplomacy anddemocratic institutions, loss of confidence in81Democratic National Committee18democratization40denationalization43-44Deng Xiaoping138-139Denmark96-97, 98Der Derian, James127Deutsche Welle (DW)26-27d’Hooghe, Ingrid171, 187diaspora diplomacy3, 52-63definition of55-57future of61-63public diplomacy and52, 57-61, 63scope of52-55The Difference (Page)118Digital Age94digital diplomacy4, 22-23, 83-100, 102-116digital communication84, 85-89digital tools, use of79, 103-104, 108-110domestic digital diplomacy (DDD)4, 84, 85, 89-94emotion, role in109-112, 115-116future of112-116identity and emotion in105-109, 115-116Silicon Valley diplomacy84, 85, 94-99digital emotional intelligence (DEI)88-89digital information warfare113, 115digital literacy programmes93digitization89, 94diplomacy: actor-centric131, 132bilateral98-99, 129consular services47-48cosmopolitan126-127, 128cultural123, 175digital tool use in103-104, 108-110face-to-face92-93golf, use in45hetero-diplomacy127homo-diplomacy127humanity-centered119, 126-132index29issue-based61-62local offices, role of47mediatisation of110-111multilateral94-95, 98-99, 129, 130, 151paradox of49-50party diplomacy (China)172, 179of the peoples39ping-pong138Silicon Valley9, 84, 85, 94-99societisation1-2state-centric119-125, 128-132sustainability126-127whole-of-government136, 149, 150, 152.diaspora diplomacy; digital diplomacy; public diplomacydiplomatic failure41diplomatic representation, evolution of94-95diplomatic sites125-126disinformation23, 37, 65-81, 87, 91, 93campaigns11-12, 66-67, 70-72, 89, 92, 105, 113-114countering of31-32, 66, 70-71, 73-74, 77-78, 79-81digital93, 105emotion, role of68, 72-73, 112-116frequent exposure to75-76identity-grievance campaigns66, 67-69, 70-71, 79incidental exposure66, 75-77, 77-78information gaslighting66, 71-73, 73-74, 79, 80-81lack of control72-73.fake news; hostile nations, public diplomacy and; propagandadisintermediation dilemma42-43domestic audience23-24, 26, 41, 47-50, 107, 123Dubai Expo34Duterte, Rodrigo40, 184, 193duty of care48echo-chamber reasoning114Edelman Trust Barometer27Edney, Kingsley171education, role of62, 79, 138, 162, 178Egypt53-54, 55, 61, 139Einstein, Albert35Eisenhower, Dwight8Elizabeth, Queen of England111-112Élysée Treaty (1963)28embassies98-99, 137, 151emotion, role of: in digital diplomacy109-112, 115-116emotional connection128emotional contagion104-105emotional content filters79emotional dampening tools79-80emotional framing86emotion as evidence114identity and105-109, 115-116engagement by deed25Engagement: Public Diplomacy in a Globalized World (Welsh and Fearn)24Entman, Robert M.141-142, 143Ernst & Young Ethiopia61Estonia32ETAPA96Ethiopian Commodities Exchange61Ethiopian diaspora59, 61Ethiopian Intellectual Property Office59European Football Championship30European Union (EU)37, 40-41, 43, 60, 62External Action Service’s Disinformation Review32Parliament43exchanges, virtual80-81Expo 201731, 34Facebook13-14, 19, 67, 96, 109-111, 114, 143Factcheck.org (website)80fake news91, 93, 112-113countering31-32, 80emotional elements of10-11fake images114hostile governments, use by17, 19, 23on social media11, 69, 71-72, 74, 79-80.disinformationFalkland Islands110Farage, Nigel41Fearn, Daniel24Fisher, Ali129-130Fitzpatrick, Kathy127, 131foreign exchange students13foreign ministries.ministries of foreign affairs (MFAs)foreign policy, role of8, 23-24, 26, 31, 53-54, 123Fox and Friends (television show)43France28, 46, 96, 120-121, 123, 187French National Rally (formerly National Front)41The Friendly Sons of St Patrick53Fulbright scholarship138Future Library34Gabre-Madhin, Eleni61Gaddafi, Muammar139Garrett, Kelly79General Electric (GE) Europe94Germany11, 15, 28, 187Ghanem, Hafez159Gilboa, Eytan11, 171Global Britain48Global Community (Iriye)126global consciousness128, 130Global Diaspora Forum52Global Engagement Center (GEC)164, 165-166Global Fund for Women (GFW)100globalization1, 3, 89, 99, 125-126, 131-132Global North62Global Public Goods (GPG)127Global South39-41, 118Global Ties US80-81Goethe Institute26-27Golan, Guy J.142Goldstein, Steve43Golovchenko, Yevgeniy115Gonzalez, Emma114Goodall, H. L., Jr.164Good Country Index (Anholt)29Google86, 87, 94, 96, 97, 99Gorbachev, Mikhail139Graham, Sarah Ellen108great-power rivalry23Great War (WWI)34Gregory, Bruce138, 143, 150, 151Groupe de Réflexions et d’Analyses d’Intêréts Tchadiens (GRANIT)60Guantanamo11Guha, Priya97Gullion, Edmund11Gülmez, Seçkin Barış128Hagel, Charles13The Hague Journal of Diplomacy (journal)1-5, 47-48Haiti59Haitian diaspora54-55hard power17, 147-148, 153Hartig, Falk171Hartmann, Mareike115Hayden, Craig108Hebrew University34-35hetero-diplomacy127Hitler, Adolf30Ho, Elaine55-56, 57, 63Holmes, Marcus37holographic imagery92, 93homo-diplomacy127hostile nations, public diplomacy and4, 134-153bilateral relationships136cultural exchange138, 141diplomatic representation challenge146embassies137, 151governments’ role challenge135, 149-152history and contemporary state of136-143isolate-or-engage dilemma135new public diplomacy and136, 150, 152NGO involvement140-141P2P approach136, 140, 150-151, 152propaganda challenge135, 146-147rising-expectations challenge135, 148-149social media and139-140, 142-143, 149strategic relevance of public diplomacy135theory challenge143-145traditional foreign-ministry public diplomacy and136, 150, 152whole-of-government diplomacy and136, 149, 150, 152Huijgh, Ellen38, 193Hungary24, 40Hun Sen193Huntington, Samuel118Hutchinson, John121hybrid media system110-111, 112-113hybrid warfare16, 23-24hyper-empowered individuals42-43, 44iCivics80identity: American53beliefs, role in68cross-national identity politics98emotion and, role of105-109, 115-116, 118identity-affirmation70, 79identity mediation130, 132in-group70-71layered61local120national39, 119, 122-123, 144-145pan-Indian54social104-105state106-108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 115image, national27-28India40, 54, 102-103, 183-184, 189-191, 194, 196Indicorps54Indonesia14, 192-193, 195Indo-Pacific region, public diplomacy in4, 182-197ASEAN and183, 184, 192-195Australia18, 183, 184, 190, 192, 194, 196Cambodia193“free and open” narrative184, 190, 192India40, 54, 102-103, 183-184, 189-191, 194, 196Indonesia14, 192-193, 195Japan45-46, 170, 183-184, 187, 189-190, 194, 196Philippines40, 184, 193political leadership182-184, 186-197regional powers counterbalance China183, 184, 190-192, 196region defined183n1Singapore194-195Thailand195United States and190Xi Jinping172, 174, 175-176, 178, 183, 187-189, 195-196.China; China Model of public diplomacyinducements, role of7, 17, 194influence: continued influence effect76, 77-78Indo-Pacific183multi-polar61religious161-162targets of63theories of144information: deliberation of78disarmament32information-discernment education74, 80information revolution9-11, 14literacy74, 77overload86, 87secrecy of146, 156warfare17-20informational learned helplessness (ILH)72-74, 79-80information and communications technology (ICT)62-63, 103Institute of Deep Learning97intelligent assistants84, 87, 88interconnectivity125-126, 128-132Interim Haiti Recovery Commission54International Center for Religion and Diplomacy (ICRD)162International Mother Language Year (2015) 100international organizations, role of128International Republican Institute15internet, role of22, 62, 188Internet of Things9Iran75, 90, 98, 139, 141Iran Nuclear Agreement90Iraq11, 14, 57, 77, 154-155, 158Iraq War11, 14Ireland97, 98IREX74IrishCentral (website)53Irish diaspora53Iriye, Akira126, 128Islam11, 13, 67, 161, 163Islamic State (IS)19, 92, 155, 157-159, 162-163Israel32, 54, 91-93, 107, 139Israeli diaspora52-53, 91Italy18, 74Jabado, May163Jamaican diaspora56Japan45-46, 170, 183-184, 187, 189-190, 194, 196Jibiki, Koya45jihad, global32Jönsson, Christer85Jordan91Kabila, Laurent57Kampf, Zohar139Kazakhstan31, 34Kennan, George137Kennedy, John F.34KGB17Kim Jong-un139-140, 184Kinshasa, march to57Klynge, Casper96-97, 98Korea.North Korea (DPRK); South Korea (ROK)korowai111-112Kosovo30Laclau, Ernesto38language, role of3, 81, 121leadership8, 149.political leadership, public diplomacy and“Learn to Discern” media literacy programme74Leonard, Mark12Libya137listening, role of4, 24-25, 38, 53, 87, 130Liu Yandong170, 178Livingston, Steven113Loong, Lee Hsien194-195Los Angeles Diocese55Louis XIV120-121Ludwig, Jessica17, 147Lumpkin, Michael164machine learning87, 88Macri, Mauricio40Macron, Emmanuel20, 45-46Malaysia115, 193Malkovich, John34Maloney, Suzanne141Manchester School22Manor, Ilan23, 90Maori peoples111-112marginalized voices, enhancement of99-100market forces15Martinon, David96, 98material exchange54Matlock, Jack137McConnell, Fiona56, 57, 63McDonald, Kelly164McFaul, Michael40media: broadcasting, international13, 123, 124, 142, 158China, resource allocation for142counter-terrorism measures through164-165, 166credible outlets, decline of75emergent media132hybrid media system110-111, 112-113indigenous media32of Islamic State158literacy education74, 78, 80mass media123news media literacy (NML)78, 80press, role of the12.social mediaMelissen, Jan37, 38, 138, 179Melki, Jad163Mercer, Jonathan30messaging: corrective67, 68, 70-71, 77-78, 81, 114dominance109inoculation79, 80Metzger, Geneive Brown56MH17115Middle East Broadcasting Center165military, role of16, 154-155ministries of foreign affairs (MFAs)87, 89, 90-100, 136, 150, 152Baltic nation MFAs93British FCO92-93French MFA96Israeli MFA91-93Russian MFA92mis/information98Miskimmon, Alister163Mitchell, David34Modi, Narendra40, 102-103, 189-191, 196Moon Jae-in47, 184Moore’s Law9Moriyasu, Ken45Morozov, Evgeny22Morrison, Scott192, 196Mosul, Iraq154-155, 158motivated reasoning67-69Multicultural Network of Women Workers for Peace (MWPN)61-62multinational corporation (MNC) employers54Munich Conference30Murrow, Edward R.18Muslim ban62Myanmar184narratives: alternative77-78, 89role of48, 162-164, 184, 190, 196victim32-33Natalegawa, Marty195National Democratic Institute15National Endowment for Democracy15, 17, 24National Front (France)41nationalism38, 119, 120-122, 126, 128nation-branding27-29, 30-31, 37, 123-124, 188-189nation-state, rise of the120-122, 123Nauert, Heather43Nazarbayev, Nursultan31Netanyahu, Benjamin139The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom (Morozov)22Netherlands87-88networks, role of28, 126Neumann, Iver B.125New Jersey114The News Hero (social media game)80New Zealand111-112Nicolson, Harold43, 156, 186Nigeria90Nikkei Asian Review (magazine)459/11 attacks13, 55, 59, 123, 169-1701984 (Orwell)9Nixon, Richard138non-governmental organizations (NGOs), role of8, 15, 24, 140-141, 180non-state actors, role of3, 56, 87, 94-95, 98-100, 110, 126technological-based non-state actors (TBNSAs)95-97, 99, 100North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)12, 31North Korea (DPRK)94, 139-140, 149, 184Norway34Nye, Joseph40, 106, 123, 147-148, 153, 164Obama, Barack138, 149, 165Obama, Michelle90Obama administration13-14, 41, 44, 55, 60, 90Oglesby, Donna Marie130, 184O’Loughlin, Ben163100 Years (film)34online learning technology80-81Open Government Partnership96openness, role of4, 18, 19-20Orbán, Viktor24Orozco, Manuel58Orwell, George9Oslo, Norway34Otero, Maria58Ottoman Empire120Oxfam America59Packer, George159Page, Scott118Palestine32, 54, 91Paris climate accord (2015)130-131Paterson, Katie34Le Pen, Marine41, 45-46People’s War30people-to-people (P2P approach)28-29, 136, 140, 142, 150-152, 173, 175, 177-178personalism39, 42, 45-46persuasion, role of7-8Peterson, Pete146Petraeus, David155Philippines, the40, 184, 193Pierre-Louis, Jean55Pigman, Geoffrey120-121Pinheiro, Paulo Sérgio95Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania55Pizzagate17Poland30, 41policy-making, role of25-26, 108-109political homophily114political leadership, public diplomacy and182-197Indo-Pacific public diplomacy and182-184, 186-197leaders as public diplomats186leadership coalitions192leadership summits189, 193Polynesian islands128, 131populism4, 8, 38-50, 118, 126, 131anti-diplomatic impulses and38-40new populism24, 32-33public diplomacy challenge of43-48, 49-50rise of40-43Portland Communications11, 18Post-Facto (social media game)80power7hard power17, 147-148, 153hyper-empowered individuals42-43, 44sharp power4, 16-20, 23-24, 147-148, 153smart power153table of power98-99.soft power“Presenting Israel” campaign107propaganda11-12, 37, 91, 105, 107, 113, 135, 146-147.disinformationprotectionism44-45psychological operations, military (PSYOPS)16public diplomacy: as academic discipline143-144citizen-based2, 28-29, 47-48, 62, 110Cold War Model171culture and118-119, 126-127, 132definitions of1, 37, 136, 170, 179diaspora diplomacy and52, 57-61, 63disinformation, strategies for countering31-32, 66, 70-71, 73-74, 77-78, 79-81disintermediation dilemma42-43domestic citizens, focus on23-24, 26, 41, 47-50, 107, 123Domestic Public Relations Model171emotion and identity, role of105-109external/internal disconnect37-38, 39future of1-2, 24-25, 29-35, 37, 43-48, 49-50, 112-115holistic128-131, 132, 167indirect16investment in187lessons of4, 24, 35mediated141-142new approach2-3, 22-23, 136, 150, 152new public diplomacy approach2-3, 22-23, 136, 150, 152Non-state Model171people-to-people approach28-29, 136, 140, 142, 150-152, 173, 175, 177-178populism, challenge of43-48principles of25-29, 35soft power, role of10, 11-16transformation in governance practices39-40.China Model of public diplomacy; counter-terrorism; digital diplomacy; hostile nations, public diplomacy and; Indo-Pacific region, public diplomacy in; ministries of foreign affairs (MFAs); political leadership, public diplomacy and; terrorismPublic Diplomacy: Foundations for Global Engagement in the Digital Age (Cull)21“Public Diplomacy: Seven Lessons for its Future from its Past” (Cull)24Pugwash conferences138Putin, Vladimir24, 140Putnam, Robert89-90PyeongChang Winter Olympics47Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (“the Quad”) 190Rácz, András23Rashtrapati Bhawan103Reagan administration12, 15, 20, 34refugee diasporas62regime behaviour change (vs. regime change)136relational approach128-129, 132Religious Freedom Reports53-54reputational security29-31, 37Reputation and International Politics (Mercer)30Research, Information and Communication Unit (RICU)164Riad, Nermien61Rodriguez, Robert34Rogers, Ivan41Roman Empire8Roosevelt, Franklin D.34Roselle, Laura163Rouhani, Hassan139Rubin, Barry161Russian Federation2, 24, 75disinformation campaigns by11-12, 66, 70-72, 89, 92, 113-114international political interference16-20, 23, 29-30, 140, 148Russian Internet Research Agency75Russia’s Hybrid War in Ukraine: Breaking the Enemy’s Ability to Resist (Rácz)23Russia Today (RT)18, 142Sadat, Anwar139Samuelsen, Anders96Schmidt, Eric86, 94scientific exchange138, 178Second Life22Second World War (WWII)30, 33, 124Seib, Philip108Seko, Mobutu Sese57selfies, role of90, 103semantic meaning, new88sentiment analysis91September 11, 200113, 55, 59, 123, 169-170Serbia62Shambaugh, David18, 188shared identities/values approach70-71sharp power4, 16-20, 23-24, 147-148, 153Shi’a Muslims67Shirky, Clay22Shultz, George12signals versus noise, separation of87Sikh separatists103Silicon Valley diplomacy9, 84, 85, 94-99Singapore31, 191, 192, 194-195SinoInsider (magazine)4660 Minutes (television show)44Skype92Small Island and Developing States (SIDS)131smart power7, 148, 153Smith, Anthony D.121Smith, Huston161social identity, role of104-105social informatics (SI)84-85, 86-87, 89, 94Socialism175social media22, 35, 43counter-terrorism via157-158, 164, 166-167democratic values spread via149diasporans, use by55, 62as diplomatic sites125-126, 132emotional dynamics of79-80, 104-105, 108, 109-116fake accounts on18, 19, 93fake news on11, 71-72, 79-80filter bubbles91hostile nations, use by139-140, 142-143, 157-158public information on156rise of10-12, 14, 103use by diplomats90, 103-104victim narratives on32-33societisation1-2soft power3-4, 7-20, 44, 46, 106-108authoritarian governments, use by8, 16-20, 176counter-terrorism, use of164, 166credibility, role of11culture as119, 123-124, 132in digital age87-88as a force-multiplier8information revolution, role in10-11P2P approaches and152public diplomacy as key instrument144, 145sharp power, versus147-148strategic use of153by US civil society8, 16Soft Power 30 (Portland)11, 18South Korea (ROK)47, 170, 184Soviet Union12, 17, 30, 32, 137, 138Speck, Ulrich39sports exchange47, 138Sputnik (online news)18, 75Stalin, Joseph141state-building process119state identity106-108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 115Stevens, Christopher137StopFake (website)31St Patrick’s Day53Sudan54Sunni Muslims67Sunnyvale97Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)34Swartz, Brecken Chinn127Syria62, 92, 95Taiwan30-31, 67, 97Tamil Tigers63Tech Ambassador96tech-cities96technocognition66, 79-80technocracy38technological-based non-state actors (TBNSAs)95-97, 99, 100technologies, role of1, 4, 22, 66, 79-81, 125, 131techplomacy98Teen Vogue (magazine)114Tehran, Iran98telecommunications, role of62-63tele-presence92-93terrorism154-165creating narratives in162-165military tactics to fight154-155prevention155-156recruitment155, 157-165religious influence161-162socio-economic issues of158-160.counter-terrorismThailand195theory-driven formative and summative evaluation research81“30 Neighbors in 30 Days” project55Thucydides30Tiananmen Square protests139Tillerson, Rex43, 165townhall meetings, virtual92town twinning28Transfer of Knowledge through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN)54Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)45, 46Treaty of Westphalia (1648)120-121Trethewey, Angela164trolls, internet19, 23Trudeau, Justin44-45, 102-103Trump, Donald41-43, 45-46, 49, 139-140, 149, 189-190Trump, Ivanka47Trump administration11, 13, 14-15, 46, 62Trump campaign114Tsinovoi, Alexei107Tucker, Robert141Tunisia158-159Turkey87-88, 146Turnbull, Malcolm192Twitter: campaigns13credibility of tweets11diplomats, use by22, 44, 87-88, 90, 103, 139-140emotion, role of104-105, 109-112fake news via69, 75two-level game theory89-90, 91-92Tylor, Edward B.122ubuntu128Ukraine12, 23, 29-31, 69-70, 74, 91, 115Ullah, Haroon161-162United Front Work Department (China)189United Kingdom (UK)41, 48, 93, 97, 110, 187UK Independence Party (UKIP)41United Nations (UN)34, 60, 93, 95, 100, 139Development Programme (UNDP)54Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)100United States (US)11, 30, 34, 46-47, 97, 113Agency for Global Media71Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs47Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)18China relations151, 170Cold War17, 18, 32Congress90Constitution114Copts Association53-54counter-terrorism measures160, 163-164cultural exchange138, 141diasporas, US-based53, 60Embassy54Foreign Service56Indo-Pacific region and183, 190Korea and139-140“Made in USA” culture and entertainment47North Korea negotiations149Patent Trade Office59Peace Corps54Pentagon16Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs37, 43, 187State Department13, 43, 47, 52-54, 58, 80-81Vietnam relations146University of Southern California3“Unknown Russia” (Current Time)71Venezuela39, 40, 139, 141Venice Biennale30Vietnam170virtual reality (VR)86, 88, 91-92, 98-99visioning, role of33-35visuals, use of86-87, 92, 111-112, 113-114Voice of America (VOA)15, 27, 142Walker, Christopher17, 147Wang, Jian37, 171Webb, Alban31Wells, H.G.34Welsh, Jolyon24Westphalian perspectives4, 120-121, 122“We The North” campaign44wicked problems118-119, 125, 130, 132Widodo, Joko (Jokowi)192-193Wight, Martin145Wilson, Woodrow34, 37Wiseman, Geoffrey42Xi Jinping172, 174, 175-176, 178, 183, 187-189, 195-196Xinhua (news agency)18, 142YouTube11, 71, 164Yugoslavia32Zaire, former57Zhang, Juyan127