IndexAbel-Rémusat, Jean-Pierre 206Adam, Lucien 206Adelung, Johann Christoph 198aestheticism 6Alexander of Aphrodisias 35Alexander the Great 31, 89Algardi, Alessandro 95Althoff, Friedrich 142143Ambrosch, Julius 139Anaximander 126127anthropology 245, 252, 258anthropology, cultural 2223, 38, 243, 250, 252253, 260anthropology, historical 124125, 128133anthropology, social 250, 255, 260261anti-Semitism 71, 247Apelles 89Apollo 128Apollonian 127, 130archaeology 54, 86, 103107, 139, 143, 146archives 61, 78, 81Aristotle 35, 54, 65, 92, 97, 101104, 129, 137, 145, 202, 270Arminius 170Astarloa, Pablo Pedro de 206Atreus 126Augustine 29, 35Bach, Johann Sebastian 57Bachofen, Johann Jakob 148Bacon, Francis 199Baroque 61, 168Baron, Hans 158, 160, 174, 177181, 183, 185Barthes, Roland 242Bastian, Adolf 252Bauer, Bruno 20Baur, Ferdinand Christian 45, 55Bayreuth Circle 172Beiser, Frederick 21, 59Bekker, August Immanuel 137Benecke, Georg 110Benfey, Theodor 198, 200, 204, 209, 213Bentham, Jeremy 256Benz, Richard 170Bernays, Jacob 140Bianconi, Giovanni Lodovico 99Bickendorf, Gabriele 85Bildung 7, 38, 174175, 248, 260Bildungsbürgertum 157, 170171, 176, 179, 182bioethics 41biology 252Bismarck, Otto von 76, 140, 165, 173, 175, 184Bloomfield, Leonard 210Boas, Franz 22, 210, 252253, 261, 263Boeckh, August 2122, 139, 147, 153Boniface, St. 69Bonitz, Hermann 140Bonpland, Aimé 189, 215216, 222Borchardt, Rudolf 148Borgia, Cesare 163, 176Borgias 178Borst, Arno 196Bopp, Franz 192, 194197, 200201, 209botany 218, 254Bougainville, Louis-Antoine, Comte de 234Brandi, Karl 175Brandis, Christian August 22Brugmann, Karl 209Bruni, Leonardo 160, 177Bücheler, Franz 144Buck, August 179Burckhardt, Jacob 7, 1112, 55, 6870, 73, 8081, 86, 105106, 155, 157162, 164, 166169, 171175, 177179, 182183, 16Burdach, Konrad 172172, 182Buschmann, Eduard 205Calvinism 164capitalism 48, 157causality 14, 264266, 268276, 278279Caesar, Gaius Julius 7576Calder, William, iii 135, 138Calderón de la Barca, Pedro 125, 127Carlyle, Thomas 59Carnap, Rudolf 37Carracci, Annibale 95Cassirer, Ernst 173, 181Catholicism 47, 50, 53, 5556, 69, 162, 165, 172173, 237Cato the Younger 76Cavanilles, Antonio José 218Caylus, Comte de 86, 97101, 104Celenza, Christopher 160Chamisso, Adelbert von 8, 13, 214, 227241Champollion, Jean-François 206Charlemagne 185Charpentier, Jean- Pierre 161Chateaugiron, Robinet de 98Chisholm, Roderick M. 35Chomsky, Noam 23, 189, 204, 209210Cicero, Marcus Tullius 6, 90, 159Cicognara, Leopoldo 105civil society 43, 157colonialism 206207, 220, 228, 234, 238Columbus, Christopher 216217Condillac, Étienne Bonnot de 34conservatism 44, 56, 74conservative theology 41, 4547, 54Cook, James 234cosmopolitanism 13, 15, 29, 31, 77, 176, 185, 201, 206, 211Courtenay, Jan Baudouin de 210Creuzer, Friedrich Georg 137Croce, Benedetto 170cultural sciences 43, 5157culture 25, 30, 5157, 5556, 75, 112113, 119, 174, 214, 236, 238, 242, 246, 250251, 253, 258see also KulturCurtius, Ernst 140Cynics 30death 221224, 226227, 241242democracy, democratic 31, 35, 52, 71, 75, 89, 128, 151, 175, 237d’Agincourt, Séroux 105Dante Alighieri 150151, 224Darwin, Charles 200, 209Davidson, Donald 2324, 3738Delbrück, Berthold 204, 209Descartes, René 33Diels, Hermann 140, 143144Dilly, Heinrich 85Dilthey, Wilhelm 1923, 52, 111, 181Dionysian 126, 128131, 131, 164Dionysus 126, 128129Donatello 156Doren, Alfred 158, 181Dörpfeld, Wilhelm 146Dreyer, Henning 143Droysen, Johann Gustav 2122, 70, 7273, 75, 77, 7981dualism 29, 203Duncker, Max 7173, 77Duns Scotus 32Duponceau, Peter Stephen 206Dürer, Albrecht 168Durkheim, Émile 254, 260, 262Dutt, Carsten 112Ebert, Friedrich 175economics 5, 44, 181, 258, 270Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried 136elite 4344, 150, 170, 174, 183Engels, Friedrich 34, 166167Enlightenment 5, 21, 32, 61, 108, 172, 184185, 191, 218, 259Epicurus 26Erlebnis 111Ernesti, Johann August 33ethics 41, 49, 52, 54, 174, 247249, 256ethnography 4, 252ethnology 56, 132, 245, 251253, 255eugenics 153Euripides 131, 140Ferguson, W.K. 162Feuerbach, Ludwig 20Fichte, Johann Gottlieb 6365, 76, 170Finck, Franz Nikolaus 208Fischer, Kuno 19Fohrmann, Jürgen 110Fontane, Theodor 57Foucault, Michel 30, 209Fouillée, Alfred 262Frank, Manfred 37Frazer, James 261free will 35freedom 31, 35, 38, 4445, 71, 75, 79, 125, 136, 158, 164165, 167, 175, 244Frege, Gottlob 19, 36French Revolution 63, 191, 228, 234Freud, Sigmund 255Freytag, Gustav 7177, 134Friedländer, Paul 151152Friedrich Wilhelm iv 71Fulda, Ludwig 152Gabelentz, Georg von der 205207Gadamer, Hans-Georg 23, 118Galilei, Galileo 270Gallese, Vittorio 278Garin, Eugenio 180Gebhart, Émile 158Geertz, Clifford 53Geist 51, 113, 124, 174, 202, 244, 257Geisteswissenschaften 3, 2124, 5152, 55, 200201, 203, 207geography 4, 216, 221, 230, 252geology 4, 245, 254George, Stefan 149151George Circle 7, 12, 149150Gerhard, Friedrich Wilhelm Eduard 139Gervinus, Georg Gottfried 73, 77, 110Gessner, Conrad 198Gibbon, Edward 61Giesebrecht, Wilhelm von 77Gilbert, Felix 180181Ginzburg, Carlo 180Gladstone, William E. 22Goedecke, Karl 110Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 910, 15, 21, 41, 6367, 74, 76, 7879, 112113, 138, 150152, 155156, 174, 176, 185186Goetz, Walter 158, 181Goldsmith, Ulrich 150151Gothic 12, 162, 168, 176Gray, John 137Grimm, Jacob 110, 196197, 200201, 246Grimm, Wilhelm 246Grote, George 59Gruppe, Otto Friedrich 19Gundolf, Friedrich 149Guthrie, William 137Guyer, Paul 6Hadrian 94Hagen, Friedrich von der 178Hankins, James 177Hardin, Larry 23Harman, Gilbert 20Harnack, Adolf von 49, 147Hartmann, Eduard von 250Hasenclever, Walter 148Haskell, Francis 85Hatvany, Lajos (Ludwig Deutsch) 149Haupt, Moritz 140Häusser, Ludwig 71, 73, 77Haym, Rudolf 19Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 8, 10, 1923, 2732, 34, 44, 55, 65, 118, 128, 164, 167, 243, 249, 259Heidegger, Martin 23, 160Heinse, Wilhelm 157Helbig, Wolfgang 145Helm, Rudolf 143Heraclitus 34, 131Herbart, Johann Friedrich 4, 243, 249Herde, Peter 179Herder, Johann Gottfried 2129, 31, 33, 37, 86, 97, 101104, 107, 120121, 138, 176, 233, 246hermeneutics 1, 22, 33, 43, 49, 5356, 162, 249, 254Herodotus 92, 244Hervás, Lorenzo 190Hettner, Hermann 110Heyne, Christian Gottlob 104105, 137138Hildebrandt, Kurt 149150, 152Hindenburg, Paul von 175historicism 47, 1112, 1925, 3940, 53, 57, 61, 6364, 6670, 81, 87, 8990, 108, 243, 260history 1, 35, 78, 11, 2021, 2326, 2829, 39, 5354, 5882, 85, 92, 97, 101104, 108, 114117, 137, 143, 155, 170171, 180181, 196, 254, 259260history, ancient 9697, 109, 126, 143history, cultural 5454, 56, 59, 105, 126, 176, 181, 250, 259, 261history, intellectual 52, 181, 278history of art 23, 7, 11, 54, 57, 85109, 116117, 146, 155history of Christianity 47, 49, 54history of linguistics 13, 189, 194, 198history of literature 110, 114115, 117history of philosophy 1, 5, 11, 1921, 2325, 32, 39history of theology 1, 41, 4346, 54Hitler, Adolf 184Hitzig, Julius Eduard 227Hjelmslev, Louis 210Hoffmannsthal, Hugo von 148Holocaust 81Homer 22, 29, 33, 35, 129, 136137, 143, 149151Horatius 154human rights 56, 75humanism 6, 9, 12, 15, 45, 61, 105, 136, 157162, 164, 174, 176178, 180, 247248humanism, Third 153, 176Humboldt, Alexander von 89, 13, 15, 189, 191192, 198, 200, 204205, 209, 214226, 228237, 241243, 246Humboldt, Wilhelm von 13, 15, 2123, 38, 4445, 65, 135, 148, 176, 190, 198213, 215217, 232Hume, David 3435, 244Husserl, Edmund 23, 34Iacoboni, Marco 278Idealism 19, 32, 55, 6365, 67, 112114, 117, 120121, 124125, 133, 212, 243, 264Idéologues 203Il Fiammingo 95individualism 55, 157160, 164, 167, 171172, 174, 177, 179180, 183184, 186individuality 28, 129, 203204, 207, 245247, 249251, 253260, 275Islamwissenschaft 45Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich 64Jakobson, Roman 210Jaeger, Werner 141, 148, 153, 176Jäger, Friedrich 109Jahn, Otto 138140Jews, Jewish 31, 53, 5657, 181, 243244, 247248, 262Jones, William 191, 193194Judaism 247249jurisprudence 5, 14, 43Justi, Carl 107Juvenal 139Kaibel, Georg 140, 145Kant, Immanuel 3, 20, 23, 3132, 3435, 64, 114, 116, 132, 165, 174, 203, 247see also Kantianism, neo-KantianismKantianism 31, 55, 250see also Kant, neo-KantianismKantorowicz, Ernst 173, 181182Kekulé, Reinhard 140Kirchhoff, Adolf 140, 143Kobusch, Theo 3234Koselleck, Reinhart 108, 171Kotzebue, August von 231Kotzebue, Otto von 229, 231, 236Krieger, Leonard 175Kries, Johannes von 14, 266269, 271273, 275, 279Kripke, Saul 20Kristeller, Paul Oskar 160, 173, 181Krüger, Lorenz 23Krusenstern, Adam Johann von 231Kugler, Franz 86, 106Kuhlmann, Peter 134Kuhn, Thomas 38Kultur 51, 170, 174175see also cultureKulturkampf 55, 173Kulturprotestantismus 41, 47Lachmann, Karl 110, 136139La Condamine, Charles-Marie de 224Lamprecht, Karl 181, 260261Langbehn, Julius 169Laplace, Pierre Simon de 265267Lasson, Adolf 250251Lazarus, Moritz 13, 22, 205, 243257, 259262Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 32, 195196, 199200, 203, 207Leo, Friedrich 140, 142, 144Lepsius, Karl Richard 151, 211Lepsius, Reinhold 151Lepsius, Sabine 151Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim 21Lewis, David 20liberal theology 4041, 47, 55liberalism 45, 71, 73, 7578, 8182, 176, 178, 182, 184, 243244, 247248, 252, 259liberty – see freedomlinguistics 4, 78, 13, 2122, 3637, 51, 64, 118120, 189213, 235, 243, 246247, 252253, 255linguistics, anthropological 13, 198202linguistics, historical 13, 110, 194201, 204, 206213Lipps, Theodor 278literary studies 1, 3, 7, 1112, 57, 71, 110133, 136138, 172, 211, 213, 242, 247, 255literature 67, 6367, 71, 7476, 7779, 224225, 229, 231, 237, 242Locher, Hubert 85Locke, John 34, 199Ludwig i of Bavaria 169Lukasbrüdersee NazarenerLuther, Martin 68, 131, 163166, 172Lysippos 89, 91Macauly, Thomas B. 59Machiavelli, Niccolò 164, 166, 177Macht 175Malinowski, Bronislaw 22, 261Mann, Heinrich 155Mann, Thomas 6, 155156, 170, 175, 178, 182, 185186Maratti, Carlo 95Martí, José 234Martin, Alfred von 158, 181Marx, Karl 1921, 23, 166Medici 157, 178Medici, Lorenzo de’ 155medicine 33, 43, 144, 231, 256Medinilla y Pineda, Don Jose de 229Meinecke, Friedrich 21, 108, 181Meinhof, Carl 211mentalities 52, 54, 56, 59, 182, 257Menger, Carl 270271, 273, 279Meyer, Conrad Ferdinand 134Meyer, Johann Heinrich 105Michaelis, Johann David 136Michelangelo Buonarroti 90, 95, 156Michelet, Jules 161, 167Midas 126Mill, John Stuart 244Milton, John 224Momigliano, Arnaldo 85Mommsen, Marie 142Mommsen, Theodor 54, 7177, 79, 141143, 145147, 154Monod, Gabriel 60Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de 244Montanari, Franco 149Montúfar, Carlos 222Möser, Justus 21Mosse, George 165Müller, Karl Otfried 86, 107, 138Mutis, José Celestino 215, 218Myron 156Napoleon i 63, 135, 235236Napoleon iii 76narrative 59, 6667, 77, 8588, 90, 92, 94, 9697, 101, 109, 131, 240nation 196, 201, 205206, 235236, 243251, 254257, 259260, 262national character (national mind) 168, 186, 235, 244, 246248, 251, 257national state (nation-state) 77, 82, 157, 183, 258National Socialism 46, 81, 152152, 179, 181, 262nationalism 162, 169170, 172, 183184, 211, 235, 247, 262nationality (national identity) 162, 166, 176177, 235236, 248, 257Nationalprotestantismus 165, 167, 173, 176, 182183natural history 98, 192, 200, 209, 244245natural philosophy 13, 231natural poetry 118120natural sciences 45, 7, 13, 171, 185, 189, 200201, 207, 209, 211, 216, 220, 231233, 264, 266nature 64, 98, 107, 119, 210, 214, 218219, 230, 244245, 267Nazarener 169neo-Kantianism 23, 265, 278see also Kant, KantianismNeoplatonism 96neurosciences 266, 275, 279Niebuhr, Barthold Georg von 107Niethammer, Friedrich Immanuel 6Nietzsche, Friedrich 7, 1112, 15, 1923, 3032, 34, 110111, 124133, 138141, 148, 158, 160, 163164, 172, 174, 182183, 185nihilism 12, 131Nikolai i of Russia 228Nipperdey, Thomas 47, 182Nussbaum, Martha 23Oedipus 126optimism 7677, 82, 148, 251252, 259Origen 35Overbeck, Friedrich 168169Paciaudi, Paolo- Maria 100Panofsky, Erwin 181papyrology 144145Parmenides 29Pauw, Cornelius de 220Pericles 89Pernety, Antoine-Joseph 220Persius 139pessimism 125127, 130131, 252, 259Petrarch 159160, 164, 166, 177Pfeiffer, Rudolf 134Pfisterer, Ulrich 85Phidias 89, 91philology 4, 1112, 54, 61, 110112, 114115, 117120, 124, 125, 130, 195, 211213, 242, 246, philology, classical - 3 - 4, 7, 12, 21, 38. 64, 134154philosophy 1, 35, 1011, 1339, 45, 5455, 59, 6365, 67, 79, 92, 101, 104, 111112, 114, 121122, 124, 196, 202203, 237, 243244, 246, 250, 253, 255, 263, 265, 278philosophy of language 3637, 103, 202philosophy of science 261, 264, 266, 275, 279Pickering, John 206Pietism 45Pindar 124Plato 20, 29, 3336, 5455, 148150, 153Plautus 139play 44, 125, 130132Plessner, Helmuth 183Pliny the Younger 90Plotinus 96Pocock, J.G.A. 178Podro, Michael 85poetics 65, 74, 85, 87, 9294, 101, 102103, 112115, 117122, 133, 234poetry 10, 25, 56, 65, 74, 9092, 9798, 101104, 112, 114, 118, 120, 124, 137, 139, 145, 149150, 212Pope, Alexander 224Port Royal 34, 196positivism 7, 40, 53, 92, 148, 153, 264Pott, Friedrich August 205207Praxiteles 89, 91, 156Presocratics 20probability, theory of 14, 266269, 271, 275276, 279progress 7, 53, 115, 167, 171, 175, 184, 243246, 248, 251252, 257, 259Prometheus 126Prutz, Robert 110psychology 4, 13, 245, 253254, 256257, 259263, 274, 276, 279see also Völkerpsychologiepsychology, social 210, 249, 255Putnam, Hilary 34Pythagoras 29Quincy, Quatremère de 105Quine, Willard 20, 2324, 34, 37Quintilianus, Marcus Fabius 90Rabelais, François 168racism 176, 184, 191, 195, 252, 262Ranke, Leopold von 11, 15, 21, 6170, 73, 7780Raphael, Lutz 108Raphael Sanzio 90, 95, 168169rationalism 6, 44, 5152, 123, 157, 172, 175, 184rationality 28, 53, 56, 66, 80, 108, 277Raynal, Guillaume-Thomas 220Rebenich, Stefen 134, 153Reformation 45, 161168, 172, 174, 180Reinhardt, Karl 148, 151Renaissance 6, 55, 61, 90, 136, 191, 270Renaissance studies 4, 7, 1213, 90, 155186Renan, Ernest 262Rendtorff, Trutz 40republicanism 43, 76, 157, 175, 177178Revett, Nicholas 106Revolution of 1848 70, 73, 77rhyme 123124rhythm 114, 116, 119120Ricardo, David 270Rickert, Heinrich 52, 266, 274, 279Ricoeur, Paul 85, 109Ringer, Fritz 264Ritschl, Friedrich Wilhelm 111, 138139Ritter, August Heinrich 22Ritter, Gerhard 175Robert, Carl 140Robertson, William 220Rohde, Erwin 148Romanticism 19, 2123, 112113, 117, 121, 157, 168169, 176, 242243Rumohr, Carl Friedrich von 86, 107, 158Rusconi, Camillo 95Rüsen, Jörn 87, 92, 108Sacy, Silvestre de 206Sansovino, Jacopo 95Sapir, Edward 210Saussure, Ferdinand de 194, 200, 210211Savigny, Carl 21Saxl, Fritz 181Scaliger, Julius Caesar 9091Scepticism 29Schadewaldt, Wolfgang 141, 152Schelling, Friedrich 64, 76, 121122Scherer, Wilhelm 111Schiller, Friedrich 15, 67, 76, 114, 120121, 128, 132, 150151, 176Schlegel, August Wilhelm 7, 11, 2122, 98, 110124, 132133, 137Schlegel, Friedrich 19, 2122, 63, 98, 137, 153, 191196, 198199, 201, 207, 209Schleicher, August 197, 200, 208209Schleiermacher, Friedrich 19, 2122, 43Schlosser, Julius von 108Schnaase, Carl 86, 106Schneider, Helmut 134Schopenhauer, Arthur 125, 127Schwegler, Albert 5455Schwindt, Jürgen Paul 153Searle, John 2324science of language see linguisticssecularism, secularisation 31, 55, 70, 157158, 162, 164, 167, 171173, 177, 180, 184Servius Honoratus, Maurus 90Sforza 159Shakespeare, William 117Silenus 126, 130131Simmel, Georg 10, 251252, 263Sismondi, Jean Charles Leonard 158Skinner, Quentin 178social sciences 8, 210, 245, 249, 255, 260263, 278socialism 31sociology 4, 8, 14, 50, 243, 245, 252, 255, 261, 264279Socrates 35, 102, 131Sophocles 117Springer, Anton 86Staël, Germaine de 236Stark, Karl Bernhard 107state 4344, 71, 75, 81, 157, 173, 175, 258Statius 143Steinhausen, Georg 181Steinthal, Heymann 13, 22, 205208, 243257, 252262Stirner, Max 20Stoecker, Adolf 165Stoicism 2931, 35Strauss, David Friedrich 22, 45Strauss, Leo 12Stuart, James 106style 7, 8791, 9497, 99, 104107, 110, 117, 139Sybel, Heinrich von 7174, 77Symonds, John Addington 158Tacitus 77Taylor, Alfred E. 33Techmer, Friedrich 206Tepl, Johannes von 172Terracini, Benvenuto 213theology 1, 3, 5, 11, 30, 4058, 64see also conservative theology, liberal theologyThode, Henry 170Thomas, W.I. 262Thucydides 146, 244Tieck, Ludwig 157Tillich, Paul 42, 51totalitarianism 12, 55tradition 1, 4, 815, 29, 40, 49, 51, 53, 5758, 61, 263travelling 4, 8, 13, 70, 106, 139, 145146, 155156, 190, 214242Treitschke, Heinrich von 76, 79, 165167tragedy 64, 91, 125132, 139, 183Troeltsch, Ernst 52Tübingen School 45tyranny 35, 158159, 175, 182184Überweg, Friedrich 19Unger, Rudolf 19Usener, Hermann 140Utilitarianism 31Vahlen, Johannes 143Vasari, Giogrio 8687, 90Vater, Johann Severin 198Visconti 159Voigt, Georg 12, 159160Völkerpsychologie 4, 8, 1314, 22, 205, 243263Voß, Johann Heinrich 137Vossler, Karl 211213Wackenroder, Wilhelm Heinrich 168169Waetzoldt, Wilhelm 169Wagner, Richard 130131Waitz, Georg 7073, 77Walras, Léon 270Warburg, Aby 57, 179, 261Weber, Max 8, 14, 131, 164, 173, 175, 264266, 269279Wehler, Hans-Ulrich 81, 176, 181, 184Weimar classicism 15, 135Weimar, Klaus 110Weimar Republic 151, 158, 173, 178, 181, 184Welcker, Friedrich Gottlieb 138, 147Wellhausen, Julius 45Werfel, Franz 148Westermann, Diedrich 211Wettstein, Johann Jakob 33White, Hayden 8586Whorf, Benjamin Lee 211Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich von 3, 7, 12, 134135, 137154Wilcken, Ulrich 145Wilhelm i 140Wilhelm ii 140, 146, 175Winckelmann, Johann Joachim 3, 7, 11, 21, 85101, 103109, 138, 152Windelband, Wilhelm 265Winkler, Heinrich August 81, 180Wittgenstein, Ludwig 29, 34, 3637Wolf, Friedrich August 135137, 147, 153Wolff, Christian 20Wölfflin, Eduard 144world exploration see travellingWorringer, Wilhelm 9Wundt, Wilhelm 13, 22, 206, 243, 253263, 270272, 274Zabarella, Jacopo 270, 273Zeller, Eduard 22, 55