Survey data on the attitudes of Zambian voters correspond to the trends shown in actual election results. Ethnicity plays an important role in partisan preferences. As of 2017, both the PF and upnd appear to have a core ethnic support base comprising about 30 percent of the electorate each. The PF seems to retain the support of most of its core (Bemba-speaking) support base despite significant dissatisfaction with the PF government’s performance. The upnd seems to have failed to build support among dissatisfied voters outside of its core ethnic support base. Ethnicity appears to have become more important over time. Survey data do not reveal precisely how ethnicity ‘works’ politically.