NATIONS AND PHILOSOPHIES. REFLECTIONS ON TWARDOWSKI'S VIEWS

in Thinking about Provincialism in Thinking
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The adjective 'national' in the phrase 'national philosophy' has two meanings. Firstly, disregarding multiethnicity, it can refer to a philosophy cultivated in a country populated by a nation. In such a case, 'national' (e.g. 'Polish philosophy') is nearly synonymous with 'philosophy in a particular country' (e.g. 'philosophy in Poland'). Secondly, 'national philosophy' can refer to a philosophy that displays some characteristic feature of a nation, for instance, its religion or character. This meaning can be illustrated by the phrase 'Jewish philosophy'. This paper focuses on the first meaning in the context of the distinction between philosophical superpowers (national philosophies playing the central role in the development of philosophy) and philosophical provinces (philosophies of a secondary, though sometimes remarkable, importance). Poland is taken as an example. The paper discusses the views of Kazimierz Twardowski, the founding father of the Polish analytic school. He expressed interesting views concerning how philosophy of provinces should be done in order keep its originality

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