The study discusses the emergence and development of medieval Western European sovereign genealogical speculations, usually leading through Carolingians and Merovingians back to the Trojans, pagan gods and biblical patriarchs, and which was used also in the Czech lands under the rule of Charles IV. As the grandson of Henry VII of Luxembourg and Margaret of Brabant, Charles IV continued the genealogical traditions in his family tree. As the grandson of Bohemian kings, he also emphasised Přemyslid ancestral traditions, with Přemysl the Ploughman as the forefather of the family and Saint Wenceslas as his predecessor on the Bohemian throne.
The genealogy of Charles IV corresponded to his position as the Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia and tallied with his political ambitions. Even Charles’s eldest son Wenceslas, the Roman King and King of Bohemia, identified with it, while Charles’s French, and possibly also his Moravian nephews, accepted the legend of Melusine as family founding myth of the House of Luxembourg. In negotiations with the Czechs, Charles’s younger son Sigismond emphasized the Přemyslide tradition.