At present, a great deal of the scholarly research on Indonesia focuses on the processes of Islamisation. This paper will discuss a phenomenon that seems to point in a different direction, namely the contemporary reconfiguration of dukun/spiritual experts called paranormal. These mystics indicate a peculiar form of pluralism. They are an assemblage of tradition and modernity, locality and translocality, religion and mysticism, spirituality and business, and global esotericism and popular psychology. Most of them belong to the urban middle class, are highly professional, and make extensive use of modern mass media to advertise their supernatural skills. Yet, how do they position themselves in Indonesian and global cultural contexts? This paper identifies the ongoing ambivalence between cosmopolitan ideas and their rupture in polarising, orientalist, and occidentalist imaginaries. Finally, a new understanding of cosmopolitanism is suggested that expands the reference beyond the world of humans by also including a plurality of supernatural powers.
Acharya, Malasree Neepa (2016) “Cosmopolitanism,” in Noel B. Salazar and Kiran Jayaram (eds.) Keywords of mobility. Critical engagements. New York, Oxford: Berghahn, Pp. 33–54.
Alatas, Syed Farid (2006) Alternative discourses in Asian social sciences. Responses to Eurocentrism. New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London, Singapore: Sage Publications.
Anderson, Benedict R. (1990) “The idea of power in Javanese culture,” in Benedict Anderson (ed.) Language and power. Exploring political cultures in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Pp. 17–77.
Appiah, Kwame A. (2006) Cosmopolitanism. Ethics in a world of strangers. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company.
Beck, Ulrich (2010) A god of one’s own: Religion’s capacity for peace and potential for violence. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Bertrand, Romain (2002) Indonésie: la democratie invisible. Violence, magie et politique à Java. Paris: Karthala.
Bonnett, Alastair (2006) “Rethinking Asia. Multiplying modernity,” in Gerard Delanty (ed.) Europe and Asia beyond East and West. London & New York: Routledge, Pp. 269–283.
Bubandt, Nils Ole (2012) “A psychology of ghosts: The regime of the self and the reinvention of spirits in Indonesia and beyond.” Anthropological Forum 22(1): 1–23.
Carrier, James G. (1992) “Occidentalism: The world turned upside-down.” American Ethnologist 19(2): 195–212.
Chakrabarty, Dipesh (2012) “From civilization to globalization: The ‘West’ as a shifting signifier in Indian modernity.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 13(1): 138–152.
Cheah, Pheng (2005) “Cosmopolitanism.” Theory, Culture & Society 23(2–3): 486–496.
Endraswara, Suwardi (2011) Kebatinan Jawa dan Jagad Mistik Kejawen. Yogyakarta: Lembu.
Ferzacca, Steve (2001) Healing the modern in a central Javanese city. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.
Gaitanidis, Ioannis (2016) “Southeast Asia in Japan’s spiritual market.” Suvannabhumi. Multidisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 8(1): 95–119.
Geertz, Clifford (1960) The religion of Java. Glencoe: The Free Press.
Gillespie, Piers (2007) “Current issues in Indonesian Islam: Analysing the 2005 Council of Indonesian Ulama Fatwa no. 7 Opposing Pluralism, Liberalism and Secularism.” Journal of Islamic Studies 18(2): 202–240.
Hannerz, Ulf (1990) “Cosmopolitans and locals in world culture.” Theory, Culture and Society 7: 237–251.
Hefner, Robert W. (2011) “Where have all the abangan gone? Religionization and the decline of non-standard Islam in contemporary Indonesia,” in Michel Picard and Rémy Madinier (eds.) The politics of religion in Indonesia: Syncretism, orthodoxy, and religious contention in Java and Bali. London: Routledge, Pp. 71–91.
Hoesterey, James B. (2012) “Prophetic cosmopolitanism: Islam, pop psychology, and civic virtue in Indonesia.” City & Society 24(1): 38–61.
Hollinger, David A. (2002) “Not universalists, not pluralists: The new cosmopolitans find their own way,” in Steven Vertovec and Robin Cohen (eds.) Conceiving cosmopolitanism. Theory, context, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Pp. 227–239.
Knoblauch, Hubert (2009) Populäre Religion: Auf dem Weg in eine spirituelle Gesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.
Koentjaraningrat (1985) Javanese culture. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
McWilliam, Andrew (2009) “The spiritual commons: Some immaterial aspects of community economies in Eastern Indonesia.” The Australian Journal of Anthropology 20: 163–177.
Meyer, Birgit and Annelies Moors (2006) Religion, media, and the public sphere. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Moore, Henrietta (2011) Still life. Hopes, Desires and Satisfactions. Malden: Polity.
Pepinsky, Thomas B. (2014) “Pluralism and conflict in Indonesia,” in Michele Ford and Thomas Pepinsky (eds.) Beyond oligarchy: Wealth, power and contemporary Indonesian politics. Ihaca: Cornell University Press, Pp. 77–97.
Ramstedt, Martin (2011) “Colonial encounters between India and Indonesia.” South Asian History and Culture 2(4): 522–539.
Ratih Tyas Arini and Moh. Yasir Alimi¸Gunawan (2016) “The role of Dukun Suwuk and Dukun Prewangan in curing diseases in Kediri community.” Komunitas. International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture 8(2): 328–338.
Retsikas, Kostas (2008) “Knowledge from the body,” in Narmala Halstead, Eric Hirsch and Judith Okely (eds.) Knowing how to know: Fieldwork and the ethnographic present. Oxford: Berghahn Books, Pp. 110–129.
Ricklefs, Merle C. (2007) Polarising Javanese society: Islamic and other visions (c. 1830–1930). Leiden: KITLV Press.
Ricklefs, Merle C. (2012) Islamisation and its opponents in Java: A political, social, cultural and religious history, c. 1930 to Present. Singapore: NUS Press.
Robinson, Kathryn (2006) “Idioms of vernacular humanism: The West and the East.” Anthropological Forum, Special Issue 16(3): 241–255.
Robinson, Kathryn (2007) “Introduction: Asian and Pacific cosmopolitans: Self and subject in motion,” in Kathryn Robinson (ed.) Asian and Pacific cosmopolitans. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, Pp. 1–15.
Rudnyckyj, Daromir (2010) Spiritual economies. Islam, globalization, and the afterlife of development. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Said, Edward W. (1978) Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.
Saksono, Ign. Gatut (2007) Paranormal. Peran dan Tanggung Jawab Moralnya. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusatama.
Schlehe, Judith (1998) Ratu Kidul, die Meereskönigin des Südens. Geisterpolitik im javanischen Alltag. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Schlehe, Judith (2011) “Cultural Politics of Representation in Contemporary Indonesia.” European Journal of East Asian Studies 10(2): 149–167.
Schlehe, Judith (2012) “Moderne Paranormale als spirituelle UnternehmerInnen in Indonesien?” Asien. The German Journal of Contemporary Asia 123: 95–111.
Schlehe, Judith (2013) “Concepts of Asia, the West and the self in contemporary Indonesia. An anthropological account.” South East Asia Research 21(3): 389–407.
Schlehe, Judith (2014) “Translating traditions and transcendence: Popularized religiosity and the paranormals’ position in Indonesian society,” in Judith Schlehe and Evamaria Sandkühler (eds.) Religion, tradition and the popular. Transcultural views from Asia and Europe. Bielefeld: transcript, Pp. 185–201.
Siegel, James (2006) Naming the witch. Stanford: University Press.
Stange, Paul (1984) “The logic of Rasa in Java.” Indonesia 38: 113–134.
Sugiharto, Bambang (2008) “Javanese epistemology revisited.” Melintas. An International Journal of Philosophy and Religion 24(3): 369–384.
Suparlan, Parsudi (1991) The Javanese Dukun. Jakarta: Peka Publications.
Telle, Kari (2018) “Faith on Trial: Blasphemy and ‘Lawfare’ in Indonesia.” Ethnos 83(2): 371–391.
Trihartono, Agus (2012) “Dukun dan Politik di Indonesia.” Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia 12: 1–6.
van der Veer, Peter (2009) “Global breathing: Religious utopias in India and China,” in Thomas J. Csordas (ed.) Transnational transcendence. Essays on religion and globalization. Berkley: University of California Press, Pp. 263–278.
Vertovec, Steven and Robin Cohen (2002) “Introduction,” in Steven Vertovec and Robin Cohen (eds.) Conceiving cosmopolitanism. Theory, context, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Pp. 1–22.
Werbner, Pnina (2008) “Introduction: Towards a new cosmopolitan anthropology,” in Pnina Werbner (ed.) Anthropology and the new cosmopolitanism. Rooted, feminist and vernacular perspectives. Oxford, New York: Berg, Pp. 1–32.
Widiyanto, Asfa (2016) Religious authority and the prospects for religious pluralism in Indonesia. Wien, Zürich: Lit.
Woodward, Marc (2011) Java, Indonesia and Islam. Dordrecht: Springer.