The Amazonian toad Rhaebo guttatus is able to voluntarily squirt poison from the paratoid macroglands

In: Amphibia-Reptilia


Amphibian defence mechanisms commonly rely on cutaneous toxins produced in either isolated or clustered glands, such as toad parotoid macroglands. In contrast to the passive mechanism of poison liberation in other amphibians, we discovered that the Amazonian toad Rhaebo guttatus is unique because it can voluntarily squirt jets of poison from its parotoids.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 118 102 10
Full Text Views 110 104 1
PDF Downloads 13 9 2