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The Amazonian toad Rhaebo guttatus is able to voluntarily squirt poison from the paratoid macroglands

In: Amphibia-Reptilia
Authors:
Carlos Jared Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brasil 1500, CEP 05504900, São Paulo, Brazil;, Email: jared@butantan.gov.br

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Marta Maria Antoniazzi Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brasil 1500, CEP 05504900, São Paulo, Brazil

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Vanessa Kruth Verdade Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, Brazil

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Luís Felipe Toledo Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil

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Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Abstract

Amphibian defence mechanisms commonly rely on cutaneous toxins produced in either isolated or clustered glands, such as toad parotoid macroglands. In contrast to the passive mechanism of poison liberation in other amphibians, we discovered that the Amazonian toad Rhaebo guttatus is unique because it can voluntarily squirt jets of poison from its parotoids.

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