Revision of the extinct Pleistocene tortoise Testudo lunellensis Almera and Bofill, 1903 from Cova de Gràcia (Barcelona, Spain)

In: Amphibia-Reptilia
View More View Less
  • 1 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125 Torino, Italy
  • 2 Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Edifici ICP, Campus de la UAB s/n, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain
  • 3 FOSSILIA Serveis Paleontològics i Geològics, S.L. c/ Jaume I núm. 87, 1er 5a, 08470 Sant Celoni, Barcelona, Spain

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

$30.00

Testudo lunellensis Almera and Bofill, from the Middle Pleistocene of Cova de Gràcia (Park Güell, Barcelona, Spain) is a valid species belonging to the clade of the extant Testudo hermanni – a diagnostic feature being the narrowed vertebral scutes. Thanks to still unpublished material, T. lunellensis is diagnosed for the first time and its shell morphology described in detail. This species is uniquely characterized, among others, by tall peripheral bones and by a peculiar shape of the anterior lobe of the plastron, somewhat recalling the species referred to Testudo s.s. (the clade containing the extant species Testudo graeca, Testudo kleinmanni and Testudo marginata). Given that the purported valid species from Lunel-Viel (Middle Pleistocene, France) is still unnamed and undescribed, T. lunellensis from Cova de Gràcia is currently the stratigraphically youngest extinct Testudo species. The co-occurrence in T. lunellensis of characters typical of both T. hermanni and Testudo s.s. further testifies the phenotypic plasticity of tortoises and the mosaic distribution of morphological characters, which hinders a clear-cut assessment of the relationships of extant tortoises when based exclusively on morphology. Further analyses of the phylogeny of Testudo should consider fossil and extant taxa together, as well as both morphological and genetic characters.

  • Agustí J., Moyà-Solà S. (1992): Mammalian dispersal events in the Spanish Pleistocene. Cour. Forsch. Inst. Senck. 153: 69- 77.

  • Almera J., Bofill A. (1903): Consideraciones sobre los restos fósiles cuaternarios del la caverna de Gracia (Barcelona). Mem. Real Acad. Cienc. Art. 4 ( 33): 95- 112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amiranashvili N.G. (2000): Differences in shell morphology of Testudo graeca and Testudo hermanni, based on material from Bulgaria. Amphibia-Reptilia 21: 67- 81.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Auffenberg W. (1974): Checklist of fossil land tortoises (Testudinidae). Bull. Florida State Mus.: Biol. Sci. 18 ( 3): 121- 251.

  • Bataller J.R. (1956): Contribución al conocimiento de los vertebrados terciarios de España. Cursillos y Conferencias del Instituto “Lucas Mallada” 3: 11- 28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Batsch A.J.G.C. (1788): Versuch einer Anleitung, zur Kenntniß und Geschichte der Thiere und Mineralien . Jena, Akademische Buchhandlung.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergounioux F.M. (1935): Contribution à l’étude paléontologique des Chéloniens. Chéloniens fossiles du Bassin d’Aquitaine. Mém. Soc. Géol. France 25: 1- 216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergounioux F.M. (1958): Les reptiles fossiles du Tertiaire de la Catalogne. Estud. Geol. 14: 129- 219.

  • Bour R., Ohler A. (2008): Chersine Merrem, 1820 and Chersina Gray, 1831: a nomenclatural survey. Zootaxa 1752: 66- 68.

  • Bronn H.G. (1831): Testudo antiqua, eine im Süsswasser-Gypse von Hohenhöwen untergegangene Art. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Naturae Curosiorum 15: 203- 216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheylan M. (1981): Biologie et écologie de la Tortue d’Hermann (Testudo hermanni Gmelin 1789). Contribution de l’espéce à la connaissance des climats quaternaires de la France. Mém. Trav. Inst. E. P. H. E. Montpellier 13: 1- 404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Conrad J.L., Ast J.C., Montanari S., Norell M.A. (2010): A combined evidence phylogenetic analysis of Anguimorpha (Reptilia: Squamata). Cladistics 26: 1- 48.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delfino M., Chesi F., Fritz U. (2009): Shell morphology of the Egyptian tortoise, Testudo kleinmanni Lortet, 1883, the osteologically least-known Testudo species. Zool. Stud. 48 ( 6): 850- 860.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Depéret C. (1906): Los vertebrados del Oligoceno inferior de Tàrrega (Prov. de Lerida). Mem. Real Acad. Cienc. Art. 5 ( 21): 1- 31.

  • Fritz U., Bininda-Emonds O.R.P. (2007): When genes meet nomenclature: tortoise phylogeny and the shifting generic concepts of Testudo and Geochelone. Zoology 110: 298- 307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fritz U., Kraus O. (2008): Comments on “Chersine Merrem, 1820 and Chersina Gray, 1831: a nomenclatural survey by Bour & Ohler, Zootaxa, 1752: 66-68”. Zootaxa 1893: 65- 68.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fritz U., Hundsdörfer A.K., Siroky P., Auer M., Kami H., Lehman J., Mazaneva L.F., Türkozan O., Wink M. (2007): Phenotipic plasticity leads to incongruence between morphology-based taxonomy and genetic differentiation in western Palaearctic tortoises (Testudo graeca complex; Testudines, Testudinidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 28: 97- 121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gervais P. (1859): Zoologie et paléontologie françaises , 2e édition. Paris, Arthus Bertrand.

  • Glaessner M.F. (1933): Die Tertiärschildkröten Niederösterreichs. Neues Jb. Miner. 69: 353- 387.

  • Gmelin J.F. (1789): Regnum animal. In: Caroli a Linne Systema Naturae Per Regna Tri Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis , p.  1033- 1516. Beer G.E., Ed., Leipzig.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gómez-Alba Ruiz J. (1997): Catálogo razonado de los vertebrados fósiles de España del Museo de Geología de Barcelona 1882-1982. Treb. Mus. Geol. Barcelona 6: 1- 296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray J.E. (1844): Catalogue of the Tortoises, Crocodiles, and Amphisbaenians in the Collection of the British Museum . London, British Museum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hervet S. (2000): Tortues du Quaternaire de France: critères de détermination, répartitions chronologique et géographique. Mésogéé 58: 3- 47.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez Fuentes E., Martín De Jesús S. (1991): Ejemplares-tipo de quelonios fósiles españoles. Rev. Españ. Paleont. 6 ( 1): 98- 106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Lapparent de Broin F., Bour R., Perälä J. (2006a): Morphological definition of Eurotestudo (Testudinidae, Chelonii): first part. Ann. Paléont. 92: 255- 304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Lapparent de Broin F., Bour R., Perälä J. (2006b): Morphological definition of Eurotestudo (Testudinidae, Chelonii): second part. Ann. Paléont. 92: 325- 357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Lapparent de Broin F., Bour R., Parham J.F., Perälä J. (2006): Eurotestudo, a new genus for the species Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 (Chelonii, Testudinidae). C. R. Palevol 5: 803- 811.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Linnaeus C. (1758): Systema Naturae , 10th Edition. Stockholm, Salvius.

  • Lortet L. (1887): Observations sur les tortues terrestres et paludines du bassin de la Méditerranée. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Lyon 4: 1- 26.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merrem B. (1820): Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum . Marburg, Krieger, 191 pp.

  • Morales Pérez J.V., Serra A.S. (2009): The Quaternary fossil record of the genus Testudo in the Iberian Peninsula. Archaeological implications and diachronic distribution in the western Mediterranean. J. Archaeol. Sci. 36: 1152- 1162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pallas P.S. (1814): Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica. Tome III. Animalia Monocardia Seu Frigidi Sanguinis Imperii Rosso-Asiatici . Petropoli, Imperial Academy of Sciences.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schoepff J.D. (1793): Historia Testudinum Iconibus Illustrata . Erlangen, Palm.

  • Wussow W. (1916): Meine Erfahrungen mit Testudo horsfieldi. Wochenschrift für Aquarien und Terrarienkunde 13: 169- 172.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 100 43 7
Full Text Views 58 1 0
PDF Downloads 5 0 0