Responses to nitrate pollution, warming and density in common frog tadpoles (Rana temporaria)

in Amphibia-Reptilia
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Amphibians face a variety of anthropogenic environmental perturbations that could act alone or in combination to influence population size. We investigated interactive effects of warming conditions, a moderate pulse of nitrogen pollution, and conspecific density on larvae of the common frog, Rana temporaria. The 16-day experiment had a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design implemented in 80-l outdoor mesocosms. High density and warm temperature both resulted in reduced activity and visibility; tadpoles grew and developed more quickly at low density and high temperature. The high-nitrogen treatment did not influence behavior, growth, or development rate. We attribute this to several realistic features of our study, including a pulsed treatment application and natural denitrification within the mesocosms. There was only a single interaction among the three factors: higher temperature exacerbated density-dependence in growth rate. These results illustrate that climate warming may benefit temperate amphibians, although the benefits may be counteracted by enhanced larval crowding.

Responses to nitrate pollution, warming and density in common frog tadpoles (Rana temporaria)

in Amphibia-Reptilia
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Figures
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    Life history responses of R. temporaria tadpoles after exposure for 16 days to variation in nitrogen concentration, temperature, and density in outdoor mesocosms. Symbols are treatment means ± 1 SE (n=6). Black lines and circles: ambient temperature; gray lines and triangles: warm. Open symbols and dashed lines: low-nitrogen, filled symbols and solid lines: high-nitrogen.

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    Behavioral responses of R. temporaria tadpoles to variation in nitrogen concentration, temperature, and density. Data are averaged across the two observation occasions because interactions involving date were generally unimportant (table 2). Symbols are means ± 1 SE (n=6). Black lines and circles: ambient temperature; gray lines and triangles: warm. Open symbols and dashed lines: low-nitrogen, filled symbols and solid lines: high-nitrogen.

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