Discovery of a new species of Anolis lizards from Brazil and its implications for the historical biogeography of montane Atlantic Forest endemics

In: Amphibia-Reptilia
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  • 1 Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA
  • 2 Departamento de Vertebrados, Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
  • 3 Biology Department, City College of New York and Graduate Center, New York, NY, USA
  • 4 Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
  • 5 Departamento de Ecologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Abstract

Recent biological discoveries have changed our understanding of the distribution and evolution of neotropical biotas. In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, the discovery of closely related species isolated on distant mountains has led to the hypothesis that the ancestors of montane species occupied and dispersed through lowland regions during colder periods. This process may explain the distribution of an undescribed Anolis lizard species that we recently discovered at a montane site in the Serra dos Órgãos National Park, a popular tourist destination close to the city of Rio de Janeiro. To investigate whether this species is closely related to other Atlantic Forest montane anoles, we implement phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimation based on molecular data. We infer the new species nested within the Dactyloa clade of Anolis, forming a clade with A. nasofrontalis and A. pseudotigrinus, two species restricted to montane sites about 400 km northeast of Serra dos Órgãos. The new species diverged from its sister A. nasofrontalis around 5.24 mya, suggesting a cold-adapted lowland ancestor during the early Pliocene. Based on the phylogenetic results, we emend the definitions of the series taxa within Dactyloa, recognizing a clade containing the new species and several of its relatives as the nasofrontalis series. Lastly, we provide morphological data supporting the recognition of the new species and give it a formal scientific name. Future studies are necessary to assess how park visitors, pollutants, and shrinking montane habitats due to climate change will affect this previously overlooked anole species.

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