Individual consistency in migratory behaviour of a pelagic seabird

in Behaviour
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Help

 

Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?

Connect

Many animals migrate between breeding and wintering areas; however, whether each animal behaves consistently in space and time between consecutive years is less well understood. Furthermore, previous breeding state (successful or failed) is often not considered when attempting to understand consistent individual differences in behaviour that are likely to impact upon the subsequent behaviour. Between 2006 and 2010, we used geolocators to track the migratory movements of a pelagic seabird, the streaked shearwater Calonectris leucomelas, with individuals (N=46) being followed for two years or more, including 23 birds that had chicks in two seasons and 23 birds in just one season. All individuals, except for one bird, migrated to the same broad wintering areas, and their migratory route as well as the centre of wintering distribution did not change in relation to the previous breeding outcomes. Migration schedules (dates of departure from the breeding colony, southward and northward migrations, and first return to the colony) did not differ significantly between years for individuals that had chicks during both years, while failed individuals left the breeding colony and appeared to start the southward migration at an earlier date than the previous successful year. Nonetheless, the timing of the southward migration was consistent within individuals, including both males and females, over successive years regardless of the previous breeding outcome, and also the timing of first return back to the colony for females that had chicks in the both previous years and eggs in the both following season. This may imply the existence of individual-specific broad time schedules, possibly a circannual rhythm, though ecological conditions might affect the exact timing of the actual departure event. Our results present evidence for high levels of individually consistent behaviour for this pelagic seabird outside the breeding season.

Sections
References
  • AlerstamT.HakeM.KjellénN. (2006). Temporal and spatial patterns of repeated migratory journeys by ospreys. — Anim. Behav. 71: 555-566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ArimaH.SugawaH. (2004). Correlation between the pitch of calls and external measurements of Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas breeding on Kanmuri Island. — Jpn. J. Ornithol. 53: 40-44 (in Japanese with English abstract).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AustinD.BowenW.D.McMillanJ.I. (2004). Intraspecific variation in movement patterns: modeling individual behaviour in a large marine predator. — Oikos 105: 15-30.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AustinG.E.RehfischM.M. (2005). Shifting nonbreeding distributions of migratory fauna in relation to climatic change. — Global Change Biol. 11: 31-38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BattleyP.F. (2006). Consistent annual schedules in a migratory shorebird. — Biol. Lett. 2: 517-520.

  • BauerS.EnsB.J.KlaassenM. (2010). Many routes lead to Rome: potential causes for the multi-route migration system of Red Knots, Calidris canutus islandica. — Ecology 91: 1822-1831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BellA.M.HankisonS.J.LaskowskiK.L. (2009). The repeatability of behaviour: a meta-analysis. — Anim. Behav. 77: 771-783.

  • BogdanovaM.I.DaundF.NewellM.PhillipsR.A.HarrisM.P.WanlessS. (2011). Seasonal interactions in the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla: links between breeding performance and winter distribution. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 278: 2412-2418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BolnickD.I.SvanbäckR.FordyceJ.A.YangL.H.DavisJ.M.HulseyC.D.ForisterM.L. (2003). The ecology of individuals: incidence and implications of individual specialization. — Am. Nat. 161: 1-28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BradshawC.J.A.HindellM.A.SumnerM.D.MichaelK.J. (2004). Loyalty pays: potential life history consequences of fidelity to marine foraging regions by southern elephant seals. — Anim. Behav. 68: 1349-1360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BradshawW.E.HolzapfelC.M. (2007). Evolution of animal photoperiodism. — Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 38: 1-25.

  • BroderickA.C.CoyneM.S.FullerW.J.GlenF.GodleyB.J. (2007). Fidelity and over-wintering of sea turtles. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 274: 1533-1538.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CatryP.EncarnacãoV.AraújoA.FearonP.FearonA.ArmelinM.DelaloyeP. (2004). Are long-distance migrant passerines faithful to their stopover sites?J. Avian Biol. 35: 170-181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CatryP.DiasM.P.PhillipsR.A.GranadeiroJ.P. (2013). Carry-over effects from breeding modulate the annual cycle of a long-distance migrant. An experimental demonstration. — Ecology 94: 1230-1235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DiasM.P.GranadeiroJ.P.PhillipsR.A.AlonsoH.CatryP. (2011). Breaking the routine: individual Cory’s shearwaters shift winter destinations between hemispheres and across ocean basins. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 278: 1786-1793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DingemanseN.J.RéaleD. (2005). Natural selection and animal personality. — Behaviour 142: 1159-1184.

  • GhalamborC.K.McKayJ.K.CarrollS.P.ReznickD.N. (2007). Adaptive versus non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity and the potential for contemporary adaptation in new environments. — Funct. Ecol. 21: 394-407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GoymannW.HelmB.JensenW.SchwablI.MooreI.T. (2012). A tropical bird can use the equatorial change in sunrise and suanset times to synchronize its circannual clock. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 279: 3527-3534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GuilfordT.FreemanR.BoyleD.DeanB.KirkH.PhillipsR.PerrinsC. (2011). A dispersive migration in the Atlantic puffin and its implications for migratory navigation. — PLoS ONE 6(7): e21336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GunnarssonT.G.GillJ.A.SigurbjörnssonT.SutherlandW.J. (2004). Pair bonds: arrival synchrony in migratory birds. — Nature 431: 646.

  • GwinnerE. (1996). Circadian and circannual programmes in avian migration. — J. Exp. Biol. 199: 39-48.

  • HarrisonX.A.BlountJ.D.IngerR.NorrisD.R.BearhopS. (2010). Carry-over effects as drivers of fitness differences in animals. — J. Anim. Ecol. 80: 4-18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HillR.D. (1994). Theory of geolocation by light levels. — In: Elephant seals: population ecology behaviour and physiology ( Le BoeufB.J.LawsR.M. eds). University of California PressBerkeley, CA p.  227-236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JorgensenS.J.ReebC.A.ChappleT.K.AndersonS.PerleC.Van SommeranS.R.Fritz-CopeC.BrownA.C.KlimleyA.P.BlockB.A. (2010). Philopatry and migration of Pacific white sharks. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 277: 679-688.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KokkoH. (1999). Competition for early arrival in migratory birds. — J. Anim. Ecol. 68: 940-950.

  • Le BoeufB.J.CrockerD.E.CostaD.P.BlackwellS.B.WebbP.M.HouserD.S. (2000). Foraging ecology of northern elephant seals. — Ecol. Monogr. 70: 353-382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LonghurstA.R.PaulyD. (1998). Ecology of tropical oceans. — Academic PressLondon.

  • MøllerA.P. (2001). Heritability of arrival date in a migratory bird. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 268: 203-206.

  • NewtonI. (2008). The migration ecology of birds. — Academic PressLondon.

  • OkaN. (2004). The distribution of streaked shearwater (Calonectris leucomelas) colonies, with special attention to population size, area of sea where located and surface water temperature. — J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 35: 164-188 (in Japanese with English abstract).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OkaN.SuginomeH.JidaN.MaruyamaN. (2002). Chick growth and fledgling performance of streaked shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas on Mikura Island for two breeding seasons. — J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 34: 39-59.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ParmesanC. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. — Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 37: 637-669.

  • PhillipsR.A.SilkJ.R.D.CroxallJ.P.AfanasyevV.BriggsD.R. (2004). Accuracy of geolocation estimates for flying seabirds. — Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 266: 265-272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PhillipsR.A.SilkJ.R.D.CroxallJ.P.AfanasyevV.BennettV.J. (2005). Summer distribution and migration of nonbreeding albatrosses: individual consistencies and implications for conservation. — Ecology 86: 2386-2396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PhillipsR.A.BearhopS.McgillR.A.R.DawsonD.A. (2009). Stable isotopes reveal individual variation in migration strategies and habitat preferences in a suite of seabirds during the nonbreeding period. — Oecologia 160: 795-806.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • QuillfeldtP.VoigtC.C.MaselloJ.F. (2010). Plasticity versus repeatability in seabird migratory behaviour. — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 64: 1157-1164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ReedT.E.WaplesR.S.SchindlerD.E.HardJ.J.KinnisonM.T. (2010). Phenotypic plasticity and population viability: the importance of environmental predictability. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 277: 3391-3400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchofieldG.HobsonV.J.FossetteS.LilleyM.K.S.KatselidisK.A.HaysG.C. (2010). Fidelity to foraging sites, consistency of migration routes and habitat modulation of home range by sea turtle. — Diversity. Distrib. 16: 840-853.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherrill-MixS.A.JamesM.C.MyersR.A. (2008). Migration cues and timing in leatherback sea turtles. — Behav. Ecol. 19: 231-236.

  • StanleyC.Q.MacPhersonM.FraserK.C.McKinnonE.A.StutchburyB.J.M. (2012). Repeat tracking of individual songbirds reveals consistent migration timing but flexibility in route. — PLoS ONE 7(7) e40688.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TakahashiA.OchiD.WatanukiY.DeguchiT.OkaN.AfanasyevV.FoxJ.W.TrathanP.N. (2008). Post-breeding movement and activities of two streaked shearwaters in the north-western Pacific. — Ornithol. Sci. 7: 29-35.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VardanisY.KlaassenR.H.StrandbergR.AlerstamT. (2011). Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing. — Biol. Lett. 7: 502-505.

  • WaltherG.R.PostE.ConveyP.MenzelA.ParmesanC.BeebeeT.J.C.FromentinJ.M.Hoegh-GuldbergO.BairleinF. (2002). Ecological responses to recent climate change. — Nature 416: 389-395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YamamotoT.TakahashiA.KatsumataN.SatoK.TrathanP.N. (2010). At-sea distribution and behavior of streaked shearwaters during the non-breeding period. — Auk 127: 871-881.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YamamotoT.TakahashiA.OkaN.IidaT.KatsumataN.SatoK.TrathanP.N. (2011). Foraging areas of streaked shearwaters in relation to seasonal changes in the marine environment of the Northwestern Pacific: inter-colony and sex-related differences. — Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 424: 191-204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YamamotoT.TakahashiA.OkaN.ShiraiM.YamamotoM.KatsumataN.SatoK.WatanabeS.TrathanP.N. (2012). Inter-colony differences in the incubation pattern of streaked shearwaters in relation to the local marine environment. — Waterbirds 35: 248-259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZarJ.H. (1999). Biostatistical analysis4th edn.Prentice HallUpper Saddle River, NJ.

Figures
  • View in gallery

    Wintering distribution of streaked shearwaters (95% kernel density maps for each wintering area: the seas off northern New Guinea, Arafura Sea, and South China Sea). Stars indicate the colony location (Sangan, Awa and Mikura Islands).

  • View in gallery

    Example migration tracks for individual streaked shearwaters in successive years. Stars indicate the breeding colony (Sangan, Awa, and Mikura Islands). Red lines represent the migration pathway in the first year, blue lines in the second year, and green line in the third year. Panels (a, c, d, e) show examples of individuals that were faithful to their wintering areas for two successive years, or (b) for three successive years. Birds migrated to (b, e) the seas off northern New Guinea, (a) the South China Sea and (c, d) the Arafura Sea. In addition, birds from Awa Island exhibited two different migratory routes: (c) a route through the Pacific Ocean and (d) through the Sea of Japan. Panel (f) shows the migration track of the only bird that changed its wintering destination in the successive year. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1568539x.

  • View in gallery

    Repeatability for timings in the migration schedule between two years: (a) departure from the breeding colony, (b) southward migration, (c) northward migration and (d) first return at the breeding colony. White thick and thin circles represent males and females that had chicks in both previous seasons (BB), while black and grey circles represent males and females with no chick in the second previous season (BF), respectively. Statistical results for the repeatability (r) are shown.

Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 124 118 13
Full Text Views 219 219 3
PDF Downloads 16 16 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0