Institutional Historical Memory and History in Post-Soviet Belarus

In: Journal of Belarusian Studies
View More View Less
  • 1 Charles University

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€29.95$34.95

Abstract

Belarusian institutional historical memory (as defined by Richard Ned Lebow) and the interpretation of Belarusian national history have experienced radical shifts in the past several decades. The first shift (1990–1994) was characterized by radical rejection of the interpretational and methodological patterns of the Soviet period, resulting in the creation of a new concept of Belarusian national history and historical narrative.

The second shift in the existing historical narrative and institutional memory followed rapidly. It came with the transformation from a parliamentary republic into a parliamentary-presidential (1994) and then presidential republic (1996). The second wave demonstrated a clear shift towards a methodological, theoretical approach and terminological framework typical of the historiography of the Soviet period. These changes were in response to the growing demands for ideological control of institutionalized historical research supported by the government in the same decade.

One of the characteristic features of recent Belarusian state-sponsored historiography (Lyč, Chigrinov, Marcuĺ, Novik and others) is the linking of post-Soviet national initiatives to Nazi occupation and collaboration in World War II. Another typical feature is simplifying historical explanations and often using undisguised pejorative terminology.

The last shift in institutional historical memory also resulted in further re-interpretations of many symbolic centres and milestones of Belarusian history (for example, the period of the first years of post-Soviet independence, the introduction of new national symbols (Pahonia coat of arms and white-red-white flag) and the interwar nationality policy of Belarusization of the 1920s.)

  • Chigrinov, P. G., 2007. Ocherki istorii Belarusi. Minsk: Vyšejšaja škola.

  • Ganzer, Ch., 2019. Razvitije narrativa o « geroicheskoi oborone » Brestskoj kreposti (1940-je – pervaja polovina 1950-ch godov), in A. A. Kavalienia ed., Bielaruś i Hiermanija: historyja i sučasnasć. Minsk: MDLU.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goujon, A., 2010. Memorial Narratives of WWII Partisans and Genocide in Belarus, East European Politics and Societies, Vol. 24, 2010(1), pp. 625.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Havelka, M., 2006. Dějiny a smysl. Praha: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny.

  • Historyja Bielaruskaj SSR u 5-ci tamach, 1972–1975. T. 1–5. Minsk: Navuka i technika.

  • Ivangorodskiy, K., 2015. Biloruska istoriografiya syogodni: mizh neoradyanskim ta nacionalnim diskursom, in V. V. Masnenko ed., Obraz Bilorusi v istoriografiyi ta istorichniy pamyati ukrayinciv. Cherkasi: Cherkaskyi nacionalniy universitet imeni Bogdana Chmelnickogo, pp. 3163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeshin, S. Z., 1970. Razvitije kuľtury v BSSR za gody Sovietskoi vlasti. Minsk: Vyšejšaja škola.

  • Kasciuk, M., ed. 2006. Historyja Bielarusi. U 6-ci tamach. Tom 5. Bielaruś u 1917–1945hh. Minsk: Ekoperspektiva.

  • Kasciuk, M. P., Ihnacienka, I. M., and Vyšynsky, U. I., 1995. Narysy historyji Bielarusi. U 2-ch častkach. Častka 1. Minsk: Bielaruś.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kasciuk, M. P., Petrykaŭ, P. C. and Tokaraŭ, M. U., 1993. Instytut bielaruskaj kuĺtury. Minsk: Navuka i technika.

  • Koroľ, A. S., 1990. Belorussizatsia: 20–30-je gg. in R. P. Platonov, ed., Stranicy istorii Kompartii Belorussii: suzhdenia, argumenty, fakty. Minsk: Universitetskoye, pp. 136155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karoĺ, A. S., 1993a. Bielarusizacyja, in: Encyklapiedyja historyji Bielarusi. U 6-ci tamach. Tom 1. Minsk: Bielaruskaja encyklapiedyja imia P. Broŭki, pp. 348350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karoĺ, A. S., 1993b. Bielarusizacyja – palityka nacyjanaĺnaha adradžennia, in L. Lojka, ed., Kryžovy šliach, Minsk: Zhoda, pp. 118164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, M. P., ed., 1985. Velikaja Okťabrskaja Socialisticheskaja revoljucija i stanovlenije sovietskoj kuľtury 1917–1927. Moskva: AN SSSR, Institut Istorii.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kosman М., 1979. Historia Białorusi. Wrocław: Ossolineum.

  • Lebow, R. N., 2008. The future of memory, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 617(1), pp. 99102.

  • Lewis, S., 2017. The Partisan Republic: Colonial Myths and Memory Wars in Belarus, in J. Fedor and M. Kangaspuro eds., War and Memory in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 371396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lewis, S., 2018. The Jagiellonians in Belarus: a Gradual Release of Memory, in N. Nowakowska ed., Remembering the Jagiellonians, London: Routledge, pp. 162182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lewis, S., 2019. Belarus – Alternative Visions. Nation, Memory and Cosmopolitanism. New York, London: Routledge.

  • Lindner, R., 1999. Historiker und Herrschaft. Nationsbildung und Geschichtspolitik in Wiessrussland im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, München: R. Oldenbourg Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyč, L., 1995a. Bielarusizacyja 20-ch hadoŭ. Maladość, 11(513), pp. 187211.

  • Lyč, L., 1995b. Bielarusizacyja 30-ch hadoŭ. Maladość, 12(514), pp. 197207.

  • Lyč, L., 1997. Bielarusizacyja jak daminanta nacyjanaĺnaj palityki (lipień 1924 – siaredzina 30-ch hh.), in A. M. Macko ed., Nacyjanaĺnaja palityka i mižnacyjanaĺnyja adnosiny na Bielarusi ŭ XX stahoddzi. Minsk: Bielaruski dziaržaŭny universitet imia M. Tanka, pp. 2237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyč, L. and Navicky, U., 1996. Historyja kuĺtury Bielarusi. Minsk: Ekapierspektyva.

  • Lyč, L., 2006. Bielarusizacyja jak haloŭnaje zviano dziaržaŭnaj nacyjanaĺnaj palityki, in M. Kasciuk, ed., Historyja Bielarusi. U 6-ci tamach. Tom 5. Bielarus u 1917–1945hh. Minsk: Ekoperspektiva, pp. 216226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markava, A., 2016. Šliach da savieckaj nacyji. Palityka bielarusizacyji, 1924–1929. Minsk: BHA.

  • Marková, A., 2012. Sovětská bělorusizace jako cesta k národu: iluze nebo realita? Praha: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny.

  • Marples, D., 2003. History and politics in post-Soviet Belarus. The foundations, in E. A. Korosteleva and C. Lawson eds., Contemporary Belarus: between democracy and dictatorship. London: Routledge, pp. 3953.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marples, D., 2012. History, Memory, and the Second World War in Belarus. Australian Journal of Politics and History, 58(3), pp. 437448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marples, D., 2014. “Our glorious past”: Lukashenka’s Belarus and the Great Patriotic War. Stuttgart: Verlag.

  • Masnenko, V. V., ed., 2016. Prinadi i pastki susidkoy pamiati: recepcyja istorichnogo prostoru „Ukraina – Bilorus“, Cherkasi: Cherkaskyi nacionalniy universitet imeni Bogdana Chmelnickogo.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Novik, J. K. and Marcuĺ, H. S., 1998. Historyja Bielarusi. Minsk: Universitetskaje.

  • Novik, J. K. and Marcuĺ, H. S., 2000. Historyja Bielarusi. 2nd ed. Minsk: Vyšejšaja škola.

  • Novik, J. K. and Marcuĺ, H. S., 2003. Historyja Bielarusi. 3nd ed. Minsk: Vyšejšaja škola.

  • Novik, J. K. and Marcuĺ, H. S., 2007. Historyja Bielarusi. 4rd ed. Minsk: Vyšejšaja škola.

  • Ostrovskaja, T., 2010. Genealogija istoricheskoi pamjati belorusov v kontekste obrazovatel’nykh praktik. BISS SA, 2010(1), [online]. Available at: https://belinstitute.com/images/doc-pdf/sa012010ru.pdf [Accessed 3 November 2019].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Partnoŭ, A., 2000. Savietyzacyja histaryčnaj navuki ŭ Ukrainie i Bielarusi. Bielaruski histaryčny ahliad, 7(2), pp. 476488.

  • Portnov, A., 2011. Post-Soviet Ukraine and Belarus Dealing with “The Great Patriotic War”, in N. Hayoz ed., 20 Years after the Collapse of Communism. Expectations, Achievements and Disillusions of 1989. Bern: Peter Lang, pp. 369381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Radzik, R., 2016. Rosyjski imperialism wspólnotowy, Lublin: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej.

  • Radzik, R., 2017. Dźvie interpretacyji historyji: pamiž savieckaścju i nacyjanalnym bačanniem. Bielaruski histaryčny ahliad, 24(46–47), pp. 131160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rudling, P. A., 2017. “Unhappy Is the Person Who Has No Motherland”: National Ideology and History Writing in Lukashenka’s Belarus, in J. Fedor and M. Kangaspuro eds., War and Memory in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 71105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sahanovič, H., 2001. Dziesiać hadoŭ bielaruskai histaryjahrafii (1991–2000). Bielaruski histaryčny ahliad, 8(14–15), pp. 215229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sahanovič, H., 2008. „Zapad“ v oficiaľnoj belaruskoj istoriografii: stereotipy Chuzhogo, in G. V. Kasjanov ed., Obraz Inshogo v susednich istoriyach: mifi, stereotipi, naukovi interpretacii. Kiyv: NAN Ukrainy, Institut Istorii Ukrainy, pp. 6789.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sahanovich, H., 2014. Changing Myths about Belarusian History, in K. Kolb ed., Belarus on the Forefront of Eurasia: between Moscow and Kyiv. Warsaw: ELIPSA, pp. 4253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sahanowicz, Н., 2009. Losy białoruskiej historiograii: od sowietyzacji do zachodniorusizmu nowego typu. Studia Białorutenistyczne, 3(3), pp. 103144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silivanchik, P., 1961. Dejateľnosť kommunisticheskoi partii Belorussii po osushchestvleniju kuľturnoi revoljucii v respublike (1919–1937 gg.). Minsk: Izdateľstvo Belorusskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smalianchuk, A., 2013. Bielaruskaja postsavieckaja histaryjahrafija: pamiž resavietyzacyjaj i novaj karparatyŭnaj etykaj. Arche, 2013(2), pp. 255263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stalin, J., 1934. Marksizm i nacyjanaĺna-kalanijaĺnaje pytannie. Zbornik vybranych artykulaŭ i pramoŭ. Minsk: Partyjnaje vydaviectva.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tokť, S., 2014. Instituty istoricheskoi nauki v Belarusi: analiz postsovietskich transformacij. Chast 5. Metodologija. Zaklyuchenyie. Historians, [online]. Available at: http://www.historians.in.ua/index.php/en/institutsiji-istorichnoji-nauki-v-ukrajini/1249-cerhei-tokts-ynstytuty-ystorycheskoy-nauky-v-belarusy-analyz-postsovetskykh-transformatsyy-chast-5-metodolohyia-zakliuchenye [Accessed 25 August 2019].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waligórska, M., 2018. Remembering the Holocaust on the fault lines of East and West-European memorial cultures: the new memorial complex in Trastsianets, Belarus. Holocaust Studies. A Journal of Culture and History, 2018(24), pp. 125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 370 289 30
Full Text Views 3 3 0
PDF Views & Downloads 4 4 0