The Chinese Ideophone Database (CHIDEOD)

In: Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale
View More View Less
  • 1 National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2 The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€29.95$34.95

Abstract

This article introduces the Chinese Ideophone Database (CHIDEOD), an open-source dataset, which collects 4948 unique onomatopoeia and ideophones (mimetics, expressives) of Mandarin, as well as Middle Chinese and Old Chinese. These are analyzed according to a wide range of variables, e.g., description, frequency. Apart from an overview of these variables, we provide a tutorial that shows how the database can be accessed in different formats (.rds, .xlsx, .csv, R package and online app interface), and how the database can be used to explore skewed tonal distribution across Mandarin ideophones. Since CHIDEOD is a data repository, potential future research applications are discussed.

  • Akita, Kimi. 2009. A grammar of sound-symbolic words in Japanese: theoretical approaches to iconic and lexical properties of mimetics (日本語音象徴語文法:擬音・擬態語の類像的・語彙的特性への理論的アプローチ). Kobe: Kobe University PhD dissertation.

  • Akita, Kimi. 2016. A multimedia encyclopedia of Japanese mimetics: A frame-semantic approach to L2 sound-symbolic words. In Kaori Kabata & Kiyoko Toratani (eds.), Cognitive-functional approaches to the study of Japanese as a second language (Studies on Language Acquisition volume 46), 139–167. Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.

  • Akita, Kimi, Mutsumi Imai, Noburo Saji, Katerina Kantartzis & Sotaro Kita. 2013. Mimetic vowel harmony. In Bjarke Frellesvig & Peter Sells (eds.), Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Vol. 20, 115–129. Stanford: Stanford Univ Center for the Study.

  • Akita, Kimi, Jingyi Zhang & Katsuo Tamaoka. 2020. Systematic side of sound symbolism: The case of suffixed ideophones in Japanese. In KLS selected papers. Nagoya: Kansai Linguistic Society.

  • Allan, Kathryn. 2012. Using OED data as evidence for researching semantic change. In Kathryn Allan & Justyna A. Robinson (eds.), Current methods in historical semantics (Topics in English Linguistics 73), 17–39. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

  • Baxter, William Hubbard. 1992. A handbook of Old Chinese phonology (Trends in Linguistics 64). Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

  • Baxter, William Hubbard & Laurent Sagart. 2014. Old Chinese: A new reconstruction. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Baxter, William Hubbard & Laurent Sagart. 2015. Baxter-Sagart Old Chinese reconstruction (v. 13 october 2015). http://ocbaxtersagart.lsait.lsa.umich.edu/BaxterSagartOC2015-10-13.xlsx.

  • Bybee, Joan L. 2001. Phonology and language use (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics). Cambridge, [England]; New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Chan, Marjorie K.M. 1996. Some thoughts on the typology of sound symbolism and the Chinese language. In Chin-chuan Cheng, Jerome Lee Packard, James Yoon & Yu-ling You (eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics. Vol. 2., 1–15. Los Angeles: GSIL Publications.

  • Chen, I-Hsuan, Qingqing Zhao, Yunfei Long, Qin Lu & Chu-Ren Huang. 2019. Mandarin Chinese modality exclusivity norms. (Ed.) Zhiqiang Cai. PLOS ONE 14(2). e0211336. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0211336.

  • Childs, G. Tucker. 1988. The phonology of Kisi ideophones. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 10(2). 165–190.

  • Childs, G. Tucker. 1994. African ideophones. In Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols & John J. Ohala (eds.), Sound symbolism, 178–204. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press.

  • CKIP group & Academia Sinica. 2013. Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Chinese (ASBC 4.0) (Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn Xiàndài Hànyǔ biāojì yǔliàokù 中央研究院現代漢語標記語料庫). https://ckip.iis.sinica.edu.tw/CKIP/engversion/20corpus.htm.

  • Clark, Herbert H. 1997. Dogmas of understanding. Discourse Processes 23(3). 567–598.

  • Dingemanse, Mark. 2012. Advances in the cross-linguistic study of ideophones. Language and Linguistics Compass 6(10). 654–672.

  • Dingemanse, Mark. 2013. Ideophones and gesture in everyday speech. Gesture 13(2). 143–165. https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.13.2.02din.

  • Dingemanse, Mark. 2015. Ideophones and reduplication: Depiction, description, and the interpretation of repeated talk in discourse. Studies in Language 39(4). 946–970. https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.39.4.05din.

  • Dingemanse, Mark. 2017. On the margins of language: Ideophones, interjections and dependencies in linguistic theory. In N.J. Enfield (ed.), Dependencies in language: On the causal ontology of linguistic systems (Studies in Diversity Linguistics 14), 195–203. Berlin: Language Science Press. https://doi.org/10.5281/ZENODO.573773 (18 January, 2020).

  • Dingemanse, Mark. 2019. “Ideophone” as a comparative concept. In Kimi Akita & Prashant Pardeshi (eds.), Ideophones, mimetics and expressives (Iconicity in Language and Literature, ILL 16), 13–33. Amsterdam: Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub. Co.

  • Dingemanse, Mark & Kimi Akita. 2016. An inverse relation between expressiveness and grammatical integration: On the morphosyntactic typology of ideophones, with special reference to Japanese. Journal of Linguistics 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002222671600030X.

  • Dingemanse, Mark, Damián E. Blasi, Gary Lupyan, Morten H. Christiansen & Padraic Monaghan. 2015. Arbitrariness, iconicity and systematicity in Language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19(10). 603–615.

  • Dingemanse, Mark & Asifa Majid. 2012. The semantic structure of sensory vocabulary in an African language. In Naomi Miyake, David Peebles & Richard P. Cooper (eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society 2012 (CogSci 2012): Building bridges across cognitive sciences around the world: Sapporo, Japan, 1–4 August 2012, 300–305. Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc.

  • Glynn, Dylan. 2014. Correspondence analysis: Exploring data and identifying patterns. In Dylan Glynn & Justyna A. Robinson (eds.), Corpus methods for semantics: Quantitative studies in polysemy and synonymy (Human Cognitive Processing volume 43), 307–341. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

  • Gōng, Liángyù 龚良玉 (ed.). 1991. Xiàngshēngcí cídiǎn 象声词词典 [Dictionary of onomatopoeia]. Guìyáng: Guìzhōu jiàoyù chūbǎnshè.

  • Haiman, John. 2011. Cambodian: Khmer (London Oriental and African Language Library v. 16). Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub. Co.

  • Hatton, Sarah Ann. 2016. The onomatopoeic ideophone-gesture relationship in Pastaza Quichua. Provo: Brigham Young University Master thesis.

  • Hinton, Leanne, Johanna Nichols & John J. Ohala (eds.). 1994. Sound symbolism. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge UP.

  • Hsieh, Feng-Fan. 2017. Reduplication. In Rint Sybesma, Wolfgang Behr, Yueguo Gu, Zev Handel, C.-T. James Huang & James Myers (eds.), Encyclopedia of Chinese language and linguistics, vol. III, 548–555. Leiden: Brill.

  • Hsu Chen-Pang 徐振邦 (ed.). 2013. Lianmianci da cidian 聯綿詞大詞典 [Great dictionary of binomes]. Beijing: Commercial Press.

  • Huang, Shi-Zhe, Jing Jin & Dingxu Shi. 2016. Adjectives and adjective phrases. In Chu-Ren Huang & Dingxu Shi (eds.), A reference grammar of Chinese, 276–296. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Hurch, Bernhard (ed.). 2005. Studies on reduplication (Empirical Approaches to Language Typology 28). Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

  • Imai, Mutsumi & Sotaro Kita. 2014. The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 369(1651). 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0298.

  • Imai, Mutsumi, Sotaro Kita, Miho Nagumo & Hiroyuki Okada. 2008. Sound symbolism facilitates early verb learning. Cognition 109(1). 54–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2008.07.015.

  • Iwasaki, Noriko. 2017. Use of mimetics in Motion event descriptions by English and Korean learners of L2 Japanese: Does language typology make a difference? In Noriko Iwasaki, Peter Sells & Kimi Akita (eds.), The grammar of Japanese mimetics: perspectives from structure, acquisition and translation (Routledge Studies in East Asian Linguistics), 193–218. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Jacques, Guillaume. 2013. Ideophones in Japhug (Rgyalrong). Anthropological Linguistics 55(3). 256–287.

  • Kita, Sotaro (1997) Two-dimensional semantic analysis of Japanese mimetics. Linguistics 35 (2). pp. 379–415. doi:10.1515/ling.1997.35.2.379

  • Köhler, Wolfgang. 1929. Gestalt psychology. New York: Liveright.

  • Kroll, Paul W. 2015. A student’s dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese (Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 4 China 30). Leiden: Brill.

  • Kroll, Paul W. 2017. A student’s dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese: revised edition (Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 4 China 30). Leiden; Boston, MA: Brill.

  • Künstler, Mieczysław Jerzy. 1967. Les formations adverbiales à quasi-suffixe en chinois arachaique et dans la langue de l’ époque Han (Prace Orientalistyczne 17). Warszawa: Paṅstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.

  • Lahaussois, Aimée. 2017. Ideophones in Khaling Rai. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 40(2). 179–201. https://doi.orghal-01895513.

  • Laing, Catherine. 2019. A role for onomatopoeia in early language: Evidence from phonological development. Language and Cognition 11(02). 173–187. https://doi.org10.1017/langcog.2018.23.

  • Laing, Catherine E. 2017. A perceptual advantage for onomatopoeia in early word learning: Evidence from eye-tracking. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 161. 32–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.03.017.

  • Langacker, Ronald W. 2008. Cognitive grammar: a basic introduction. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

  • LaPolla, Randy J. 1994. An experimental investigation into phonetic symbolism as it relates to Mandarin Chinese. In Sound symbolism, 130–147. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press.

  • Li, Jian. 2013. The rise of disyllables in Old Chinese: The role of lianmian words. New York, N.Y.: The City University of New York PhD dissertation.

  • Lǐ, Jìng’ér 李镜儿. 2007. Xiàndài Hànyǔ níshēngcí yánjiǔ 现代汉语拟声词研究 (Onomatopoeics in Modern Chinese). Shànghǎi: Xuélín chūbǎnshè.

  • List, Johann-Mattis. 2018. SinoPy: A Python library for quantitative tasks in Chinese historical linguistics. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://github.com/lingpy/sinopy.

  • Lockwood, Gwilym & Mark Dingemanse. 2015a. Iconicity in the lab: a review of behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging research into sound-symbolism. Frontiers in Psychology 6(1246). 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01246.

  • Lockwood, Gwilym & Mark Dingemanse. 2015b. Corrigendum: Iconicity in the lab: a review of behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging research into sound-symbolism. Frontiers in Psychology 6(1624). 1–2. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01624.

  • Lu, Chiarung 呂佳蓉. 2006. Giongo, gitaigo no hiyuteki kakuchō no shosō: ninchi gengogaku to ruikeiron no kanten kara 擬音語・擬態語の比喩的拡張の諸相—認知言語学と類型論の観点から [Figurative extensions of mimetics: A Cognitive Linguistic and typological study]. Kyōto: Kyōto University PhD dissertation.

  • Luó, Zhúfēng 罗竹风 (ed.). 1993. Hànyǔ dà cídiǎn 漢語大詞典 (Comprehensive Dictionary of Chinese). 13 vols. Shànghǎi: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House.

  • Massaro, Dominic W. & Marcus Perlman. 2017. Quantifying iconicity’s contribution during language acquisition: Implications for vocabulary learning. Frontiers in Communication 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2017.00004.

  • McLean, Bonnie. 2019. One form, many meanings: Iconicity in phonological and semantic development. Canberra: The Australian National University Honours thesis.

  • Meng, Chenxi. 2012. A description of ideophonic words in Mandarin Chinese. Leiden: Leiden University Research Master in Linguistics.

  • Mihas, Elena. 2013. Composite ideophone-gesture utterances in the Ashéninka Perené ‘community of practice’, an Amazonian Arawak society from Central-Eastern Peru. Gesture 13(1). 28–62. https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.13.1.02mih.

  • Mok, Waiching Enid. 2001. Chinese sound symbolism: A phonological perspective. Hawai‘i: University of Hawai‘i PhD dissertation.

  • NINJAL. 2016. Lago Word Profiler for the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (NINJAL-LWP for BCCWJ). Database. http://nlb.ninjal.ac.jp/search/ (25 March, 2019).

  • Norman, Jerry. 1988. Chinese (Cambridge Language Surveys). Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]; New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Nuckolls, Janis B. 2000. Spoken in the spirit of gesture: Translating sound symbolism in a Pastaza Quechua narrative. In Joel Sherzer & Kay Sammons (eds.), Translating native Latin American verbal art, 233–251. Washington, DC: Berlin: Smithsonian Press.

  • Nuckolls, Janis B. 2019. The sensori-semantic clustering of ideophonic meaning in Pastaza Quichua. In Kimi Akita & Prashant Pardeshi (eds.), Ideophones, mimetics and expressives (Iconicity in Language and Literature, ILL 16), 167–198. Amsterdam: Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub. Co.

  • Nuckolls, Janis B., Joseph A. Stanley, Elizabeth Nielsen & Roseanna Hopper. 2016. The systematic stretching and contracting of ideophonic phonology in Pastaza Quichua. International Journal of American linguistics 82(1). 95–116.

  • Nuckolls, Janis B. & Tod D. Swanson. 2019. Quechua Real Words: An audiovisual ANTI-dictioanry of expressive Quechua ideophones. http://quechuarealwords-dev.byu.edu/index.php (12 March, 2019).

  • Nuckolls, Janis B., Tod D. Swanson, Diana Shelton, Alexander Rice & Sarah Hatton. 2017. Lexicography in-your-face: The active semantics of Pastaza Quichua ideophones. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique 62(02). 154–172. https://doi.org/10.1017/cnj.2017.9.

  • Ohala, John J. 1994. The frequency code underlies the sound-symbolic use of voice pitch. In Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols & John J. Ohala (eds.), Sound symbolism, 325–347. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press.

  • O’Neill, Timothy. 2016. A Student’s Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese. Tang Studies 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/07375034.2016.1234997.

  • Paul, Waltraud. 2006. Zhu Dexi’s two classes of adjectives revisited. In Christoph Anderl & Halvor Eifring (eds.), Studies in Chinese language and culture: Festschrift in honour of Cristoph Harbsmeier on the occasion of his 60th birthday 303–315. Oslo: Hermes Academic Publishing.

  • Perlman, Marcus, Hannah Little, Bill Thompson & Robin L. Thompson. 2018. Iconicity in signed and spoken vocabulary: A comparison between American Sign Language, British Sign Language, English, and Spanish. Frontiers in Psychology 9. 1433. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01433.

  • Perry, Lynn K., Marcus Perlman & Gary Lupyan. 2015. Iconicity in English and Spanish and its relation to lexical category and age of acquisition. (Ed.) Johan J. Bolhuis. PLOS ONE 10(9). e0137147. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137147.

  • R Core Team. 2019. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/.

  • Ramachandran, Vilayanur S & Edward M. Hubbard. 2001. Synaesthesia: A window into perception, thought and language. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8(12). 3–34.

  • Sagart, Laurent. 1999. The roots of old Chinese (Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science Series 4, Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 184). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

  • Slobin, Dan I. 2004. The many ways to search for a frog. In Sven Strömqvist & Ludo Verhoeven (eds.), Relating events in narrative, volume 2: Typological and contextual perspectives, 219–257. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

  • Smith, Jonathan. 2015. Sound Symbolism in the reduplicative vocabulary of the Shijing. Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture 2(2). 258–285. https://doi.org/10.1215/23290048-3324236.

  • Sun, Ching Chu, Peter Hendrix, Jianqiang Ma & Rolf Harald Baayen. 2018. Chinese lexical database (CLD): A large-scale lexical database for simplified Mandarin Chinese. Behavior Research Methods 50(6). 2606–2629. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-1038-3.

  • Sun, Jingtao. 1999. Reduplication in Old Chinese. Vancouver: University of British Columbia PhD dissertation.

  • Thompson, Arthur Lewis. 2018. Are tones in the expressive lexicon iconic? Evidence from three Chinese languages. PLOS ONE 13(12). e0204270. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204270.

  • Thompson, Arthur Lewis, Kimi Akita & Youngah Do. 2020. Iconicity ratings across the Japanese lexicon: A comparative study with English. Linguistics Vanguard 6(1). 20190088. https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2019-0088.

  • Thompson, Arthur Lewis & Youngah Do. 2019a. Defining iconicity: An articulation-based methodology for explaining the phonological structure of ideophones. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 4(1). 72. https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.872.

  • Thompson, Arthur Lewis & Youngah Do. 2019b. Unconventional spoken iconicity follows a conventional structure: evidence from demonstrations. Speech Communication 113: 36–46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2019.08.002

  • Tsou, Benjamin K. 2017. Yuèyǔ sìzìgé guànyòng yǔ: Chuánchéng yǔ chuàngxīn 粵語四字格慣用語:傳承與創新 [Quadrasyllabic expressions in Cantonese: Inheritance and innovation]. In Benjamin K. Tsou & Cuilan Tang (eds.), Yuèyǔ yánjiū: Zhōngguó nánfāng yǔyán sì yīnjié guànyòng yánjiū 粵語研究:中國南方語言四音節慣用研究 [Yue dialect research: Studies on quadrasyllabic expressions in South Chinese languages], 109–124. Macau: Macau Yue Dialects Association.

  • Tummers, Jose, Kris Heylen & Dirk Geeraerts. 2005. Usage-based approaches in Cognitive Linguistics: A technical state of the art. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 1(2). https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt.2005.1.2.225.

  • Van Hoey, Thomas. 2015. Ideophones in Middle Chinese: A typological study of a Tang dynasty poetic corpus. Leuven: KU Leuven Master thesis.

  • Van Hoey, Thomas. 2016a. Ideophones in Old Chinese: the case of the Shijing 詩經. In ISACG 9 [International Symposium on Ancient Chinese Grammar]. Berlin: Humboldt University.

  • Van Hoey, Thomas. 2016b. Ideophones in Premodern Chinese: Revisiting Dingemanse’s implicational hierarchy (poster). In NINJAL (ed.), Mimetics in Japanese and other languages in the world (日本語と世界諸言語のオノマトペ). Tachikawa: NINJAL.

  • Van Hoey, Thomas. 2018. Does the thunder roll? Mandarin Chinese meteorological expressions and their iconicity. Cognitive Semantics 4(2). 230–259.

  • Van Hoey, Thomas. 2019. Defining Chinese ideophones: A family of constructions. Oral presentation presented at the International Workshop on Mimetics (Ideophones, Expressives) III: Crucibles of Mimetics, Nanzan University.

  • Van Hoey, Thomas. 2020. Prototypicality and salience of Chinese ideophones: A cognitive and corpus linguistic approach 中文擬聲(態)詞的原型與顯著特徵:以認知與語料庫語言學方法探討. Taipei: National Taiwan University PhD dissertation.

  • Van Hoey, Thomas & Iju Hsu. 2020. Chinese ideophones in advertisements and social media: Motivated by multimodal metaphors. Presented at the RaAM (Researching and Applying Metaphor) 13 (virtual): Metaphorical creativity in a multilingual world. 18–21 June 2020, Hamar: Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences (INN).

  • Van Hoey, Thomas & Chiarung Lu. 2019. Lexical variation of ideophones in Chinese classics: Their implications in embodiment and migration. In Janice Fon (ed.), Dimensions of diffusion and diversity (Cognitive Linguistics Research 63), 195–226. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.

  • Wáng, Wànrén 王万仁 (ed.). 1987. Xiàngshēngcí lì shì 象声词例释 [Examples and explanations of onomatopoeia]. Nánníng: Guǎngxī jiàoyù chūbǎnshè: Guǎngxī xīnhuá shūdiàn fāxíng.

  • Wang, Zhijun. 2014. The head of the Chinese adjectives and ABB reduplication. US-China Foreign Language 12(5). 349–359.

  • Wickham, Hadley. 2017. tidyverse: Easily install and load the “Tidyverse” (v. 1.2.1). https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=tidyverse.

  • Winter, Bodo. 2019. Sensory Linguistics: Language, perception and metaphor (Converging Evidence in Language and Communication Research 20). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.20.

  • Xíng, Fúyì 邢福义. 2004. Níyīncí nèibù de yízhìxìng 拟音词内部的一致性 (Internal consistency of onomatopes). Zhōngguó yǔwén 中国语文 5(302). 417–429.

  • Xue, Shiqi. 2003. Chinese lexicography past and present. In R.R.K. Hartmann (ed.), Lexicography: critical concepts, 158–173. London; New York: Routledge.

  • Yáng, Shùsēn 杨树森. 2006. Lùn xiàngshēngcí yǔ tàncí de chàyìxìng 论象声词与叹词的差异性 (On the difference between onomatopoeias and exclamations). Zhōngguó yǔwén 中国语文 3(312). 206–215.

  • Yu, Lx. 2016. pinyin. https://github.com/lxyu/pinyin.

  • Zhāng, Shèngyù 張盛裕. 2016. Cháoyáng fāngyán yánjiū 潮陽方言研究 [Research on the Chaoyang dialect]. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press.

  • Zhào, Àiwǔ 赵爱武. 2008. Jìn 20 nián Hànyǔ xiàngshēngcí yánjiū zōngshù 近20年汉语象声词研究综述 (Chinese onomatopoeia study in recent 20 years: summary). Wǔhàn dàxué xuébào 武汉大学学报 (rénwén kēxué bǎn 人文科学版) 61(2). 180–185.

  • Zhū, Déxī 朱德熙 & Shūxiāng 吕叔湘 Lǚ. 1951. Yǔfǎ xiūcí jiǎnghuà 语法修辞讲话. Beijing: Kāimíng shūdiàn 開明書店.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 295 295 51
Full Text Views 8 8 1
PDF Views & Downloads 9 9 2