The Russian Federation is the fourth largest producer of greenhouse gas emissions in the world. The article is a study of how these emissions are monitored in Russia. In the framework of the polluter-pays principle (ppp), the current Russian legislation on pollutants provides for payment only for methane emissions. No payments are established for any of the other greenhouse gases. The authors conclude that, at present, Russian legislation does not regulate action against climate change, although many political and legal documents are being adopted aimed at adapting to the effects of climate change. A draft statute “On State Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Absorption and on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation” is analysed. Despite the fact that this draft law is strongly opposed by the affected industries, the authors conclude that the adoption of this law and the creation of a targeted national climate fund will contribute to the implementation of the ppp in Russia for the purpose of combating climate change.
1 Russia Profile
A significant part of the territory of the Russian Federation belongs to a region of significant (observed and predicted) climatic change, and the consequences of this change have a tangible and increasing impact on the country’s socio-economic development, living conditions, and human health, as well as on the state of the economy. The Russian Federation’s 2019 Adaptation Plan mentions the known negative consequences of climate change (increased risk to public health; increased frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts in some regions; extreme rainfall, floods, and soil waterlogging, which are dangerous for agriculture; increased fire hazard in forest areas; permafrost degradation in the northern regions with damage to buildings and communications; disturbance of ecological balance, including the displacement of certain biological species; spread of infectious and parasitic diseases; and increase in the consumption of electricity for air conditioning in the warm season). As for the “possible positive consequences”, there is the possibility of a reduction in energy consumption for heating; changes in the amount of ice, and, accordingly, improvement in the conditions of transportation of goods in the Arctic seas, facilitating access to the continental shelf of the Russian Federation in the Arctic Ocean; improvement in the structure and expansion of the plant-growing zone, as well as an increase in the efficiency of animal husbandry (if a number of additional conditions are met); and an increase in the productivity of boreal forests. 1
For Russia, the issue of climate change is especially relevant because Russia’s economy is ranked fourth in the world for the highest CO2 emissions. In 2018, China led (27.8 per cent of the world total) and the United States (15.2 per cent) came second. They were followed by India (7.3 per cent), the Russian Federation (4.6 per cent), and Japan (3.4 per cent). 2
The Russian economy’s two top greenhouse gases are CO2 (63.1 per cent) and methane (32.4 per cent). 3 Seventy-five per cent of Russia’s emissions are attributable to four sectors: electricity generation, oil-and-gas production, transport, and metallurgy. In all sectors except transport, emissions have been decreasing. The main drivers of change in Russia’s emissions are, as expected, general trends in the development of the economy, changes in the structure of gdp, shifts in the fuel balance, and increased energy efficiency. The country’s overall energy balance is on the “clean” side: it is dominated by natural gas, nuclear energy, and hydropower.
Climate monitoring is ongoing in Russia. The Hydrometeorological Research Center of the Russian Federation (Hydrometcenter) has been preparing an annual report on climatic characteristics in the Russian Federation since 2005. 4 The Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology publishes an annual report On the State and Protection of the Environment in the Russian Federation; it contains a section on the climate. 5 Monthly surface-air temperature data are taken from a network of 702 weather stations in Russia, the cis, and Baltic countries, of which 577 are located in Russia itself. 6
The Russian Federation’s temperature trend is rising faster than the global average. Global average annual temperature change for the period 1976 to 2017 was +0.18°C/10 years, while for the Russian Federation it was +0.45°C/10 years. The temperature in the North Polar Region has grown most rapidly, especially in the last three decades: at a number of meteorological stations on the coast of Russia’s Arctic sea, the increase in average annual temperature during this period exceeded 1.0°C/10 years. 7 The year 2017 was the fourth warmest in the Russian Federation since 1936. 8
Continuous monitoring of CO2 and methane emissions in the northern latitudes of the Russian Federation is carried out by the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) and in the central region of the European territory of the Russian Federation at five meteorological stations. 9 Two other stations are located in the European part of Russia, in Obninsk and in the Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Biosphere Reserve, and there are three stations in the Arctic. 10 In 2018, the average annual concentration of CO2 in surface air at Obninsk station increased by 2 ppm compared to 2017 and amounted to 427 ppm. In the same year, the increase in methane concentration slowed down significantly, compared to a period of a significant increase (2014–17). 11
2 Environmental Law and Institutions in Russia
The polluter-pays principle, contained both in international documents and in domestic legislation can be traced to the oecd Council’s “recommendation” on Guiding Principles Concerning International Economic Aspects of Environmental Policies, of 26 May 1972, that it form the basis for future environmental policy of economically developed countries. 12 The ppp stipulates that the polluter should pay the costs of government measures aimed at pollution prevention and control. In 1992, the ppp was enshrined in the Rio Declaration, as Principle 16: “National authorities should endeavor to promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment.” In one Russian scholar’s view, the introduction of charges for the management of natural resources should stimulate careful use of them, and “the fiscal component should be of a targeted nature according to which the money paid is to be invested in the reproduction and restoration of the used natural resource”. 13 Most scholars agree that this principle is not customary international law, but is regional in nature. 14
The meaning of the ppp in environmental legislation of Russia has been slightly modified from the original at the level of enforcement. Instead of charging the polluting enterprises with the costs of preventive measures and the costs of combating the negative impact of industry on the environment, Russian legislation reduces this principle to: “you must pay for the right to pollute”.
In accordance with Article 16(1) of the Federal Law “On Environmental Protection”, a payment is charged for negative environmental impact, which, by virtue of Article 1 of the same law, is understood as the impact of economic and other activities, the consequences of which lead to negative changes in the quality of the environment.
Legal entities and individual entrepreneurs engaged in activities in the Russian Federation and in the country’s continental shelf and exclusive economic zone (both commercial and non-commercial) are required to pay fees where their activities have a negative impact on the environment in the form of pollutant emissions into the air by stationary sources, discharges of pollutants into water bodies, and storage or burial of production and consumption waste (waste disposal). Since 1 January 2016, the types of negative environmental impact subject to taxation has been reduced and closed. Now, payments are to be levied for negative environmental impacts caused only by those substances that are indicated in the government’s list of pollutants. 15
In 2002, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation interpreted the nature of the fees to be paid for negative environmental impact as a form of compensation for economic damage from economic activity, as well as reimbursement of government expenses for environmental protection and restoration. 16 Thus there was an attempt to expand the understanding of the ppp and to include the charges for restoration of the environment in it. However, in practice, the principle has not been implemented in this way. The obligation of polluters to take measures to prevent negative environmental impact is very poorly regulated in Russian environmental legislation. Due to the practical impossibility of inclusion of the cost of preventive measures into the payment for negative environmental impacts, the prevention of environmental harm is not treated as part of the ppp in Russian legal practice.
Earlier, a Soviet Union law of 1991 17 had established a system of extra-budgetary environmental funds, including federal, regional, and local environmental funds, 70 per cent of which consisted of payments for environmental pollution from users of natural resources. These environmental funds were spent on enhancement of the environment, health care of the population, implementation of measures and programs on environmental protection, regeneration of natural resources, scientific research, introduction of environmentally friendly technologies, construction of treatment facilities, payments to citizens for compensation for harm caused to health by pollution and other adverse environmental impacts, environmental education, and other goals related to protection of the environment. 18
Thus, from 1991 to 2001, the situation in the country was highly favorable to the environmentally sound implementation of the ppp due to the availability of the environmental funds. However, in 2001, the Federal Environmental Fund of the Russian Federation was liquidated. 19 This was followed by the absorption of the funds into budgets at various government levels, and financing of environmental projects began to be carried out mainly within the framework of general budget items, which complicated the planning of environmental activities and reduced its efficiency. In fact, because, historically, environmental issues had not been considered a priority in the country, the environmental funds that existed in one form or another were used up to a large extent for cases of catastrophic environmental destruction.
The principle of general (aggregate) coverage of budget expenditures established in Article 35 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation entails that budget expenditures may not be linked to certain budget revenues and sources of budget-deficit financing. Thus, use of the entire amount of payments collected by the Russian Federation for negative environmental impact need not be used to restore the environment from the consequences of economic or other activities. Fees for negative environmental impact, which used to be strictly compensatory in nature, are now fiscal fees that are included in the total budget expenditure regardless of environmental goals. 20 According to one interpretation of the ppp, the fee for negative environmental impact should have as its primary purpose the implementation of measures to reduce the effects of pollution on the environment, but this is not currently the case in Russia.
The problem of inappropriate and inefficient use of funds collected as payment for negative environmental impacts by the budgetary system of the Russian Federation has been noticed not only in academic circles but also at the state level. In the Strategy for Environmental Safety of the Russian Federation for the Period until 2025, the misuse or inefficient use of funds is classified as an internal environmental safety challenge, while the creation and development of a system of environmental funds is identified as a priority area. 21 The plan states that by 5 April 2020 a report should be prepared to the government of the Russian Federation on “working out the issue related to the creation and development of a system of environmental funds”. 22
The polluter-pays principle is reflected in various areas of international environmental cooperation, including in the context of combating climate change. 23 Here, we will consider how the ppp is implemented in Russia in this context. But first, we should indicate that, on the whole, not all scholars agree that the ppp is a part of climate law: the unfccc, the Kyoto Protocol, and the Paris Agreement do not explicitly mention this principle. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that the ppp is, at least de facto, an element of climate law.
Article 8 of the Draft Global Pact for the Environment is dedicated to the ppp. It states that “parties shall ensure that prevention, mitigation and remediation costs for pollution, and other environmental disruptions and degradation are, to the greatest possible extent, borne by their originator”. 24 Moreover, in the preamble to the Pact, the urgent nature of the fight against climate change is emphasized and reference is made to the goals of the unfccc and the Paris Agreement. According some scholars, there has been a gradual incorporation of the ppp into climate law. 25 As Zahar has argued:
The emergence of the polluter-pays principle in international climate law is a case of progressive development of the law. The most that could be said about it at present is that it has emerged independently in domestic and regional international practice and has been elevated (through incorporation) into international treaty law—in particular, by the Paris Agreement. 26
It is clear that the application of the ppp has several advantages in resource mobilization over domestic budgetary approaches: public opposition can be strong to allocating a big chunk of environmental aid from domestic resources; the ppp satisfies the criterion of “new and additional” for mitigation and adaptation finance; there is predictability; and, above all, prevention of harm through adequate mitigation is much cheaper than reactive or planned adaptation. 27 Moreover, if the Paris Agreement is viewed through the prism of the ppp, it represents a kind of international taxation system which finances the global response to climate change. 28
It therefore seems important to carry out an analysis of how the polluter-pays principle is implemented in different countries, in order to collect and disseminate that which, legally, is the “best practice”. We will limit ourselves to a consideration of the current situation and prospects in this area in Russia.
3 Climate-specific Regulation in Russian Law
The Russian Federation has ratified the unfccc and the Kyoto Protocol, and in September 2019 it ratified the Paris Agreement. 29
According to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation ‘On the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions’ (2013) and the plan of measures for its implementation (2014), a commitment was taken “to ensure by 2020 the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to a level not exceeding 75 per cent of the volume of those emissions in 1990”. 30 The next step, for the post-2020 period up to 2030, is currently under discussion and another decree is in preparation.
Regarding the application of the ppp in Russia to the mitigation of climate change, there are some obstacles in the country’s environmental legislation, which may be summarized as follows.
First, mitigation issues are addressed mainly in “doctrines” and strategies, including the Climate Doctrine of the Russian Federation, issued by Order of the President of the Russian Federation on 17 December 2009, establishing mandatory periodic progress reports; 31 and the Strategy of Activities in the Field of Hydrometeorology and Related Areas for the period up to 2030, which takes into account aspects of climate change, issued by Order of the Government of the Russian Federation on 3 September 2010. 32 The main act of environmental legislation (federal law no. 7-FZ of 10 January 2002, ‘On Environmental Protection’) does not contain any provisions on the mitigation of climate change. Mitigation is governed by statutes in the field of hydrometeorology (including federal law no. 113-FZ of 19 July 1998, ‘On the Hydrometeorological Service’; and Order of the Government of the Russian Federation no. 716-r of 22 April 2015, ‘On approval of a concept for the formation of a monitoring, reporting, and verification system for greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian Federation’).
In connection with Russia’s accession to the Paris Agreement, the first regulatory step was the adoption by the government of the Russian Federation of ‘The National Plan of Action for the First Stage of Adaptation to Climate Change for the Period until 2022’, of 25 December 2019. 33 Section 2 of the Plan specifies that it provides for
the state system of political, legislative, regulatory, economic, and social measures which are implemented by federal executive bodies and executive bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and which are aimed at reducing the vulnerability of the national security system of the country, of economic entities and citizens as a result of changes in the planetary climate, climate in the Russian Federation, in neighboring states, in the adjacent waters of the oceans, as well as taking advantage of the opportunities arising from these changes.
According to the Plan, federal executive bodies are to approve industry-specific plans for adaptation to climate change. The following activities, among others, are expected to be implemented: development of a standard certificate for climate safety of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation; development of guidelines for assessing climate risks and ranking adaptation measures according to their priority; preparation of proposals for the creation of new or improved economic and financial instruments and insurance mechanisms, taking into account public and private financing that contributes to an increase in the effectiveness of adaptation measures to climate change; and preparation of an assessment report (the third) on climate change and its consequences for the country, including assessments of vulnerability and adaptation scenarios.
In addition, Russia plans to adopt a federal law on state regulation of greenhouse gas emissions (which will be discussed below) and a long-term development strategy with low-level greenhouse gas emissions through to 2050. (The Ministry of Economic Development prepared a draft of the latter in March 2020. It provides for two main scenarios of low-carbon development: a basic one and an intensive one.)
A second, perhaps minor, obstacle is that, as indicated above, continuous monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions is carried out in Russia’s northern latitudes and in the central region of the European territory; 34 in other words, not throughout the country. Third, and more importantly, except for methane, greenhouse gases are not classified as pollutants in Russia. 35 Accordingly, no fee for negative impacts applies to them. In other words, the ppp applies only to methane.
4 Future of Climate Change Regulation in Russia
For several years now, Russia has been discussing the need to introduce greenhouse gas emission fees. In 2019, the Ministry of Economic Development prepared a draft federal law ‘On State Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Absorption and on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation. 36 The draft law envisages amendments, including to environmental legislation. In particular, it proposes to supplement the federal law of 2002 ‘On Environmental Protection’ with a clause stating: “Matters arising in the field of state regulation of greenhouse gas emissions are governed by the legislation on state regulation of greenhouse gas emissions.” In general, the draft law appears intent on becoming the basis for a new branch of legislation on the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, it seeks independence of that branch from environmental legislation. The only exception is the inclusion of issues on adaptation to climate change in environmental legislation.
According to the draft law, greenhouse gas emissions are to be regulated by state authorities by taking into account and systematizing information on such emissions, planning and setting emission targets, and incentivizing government entities and businesses to implement measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions (or increasing absorption of them). Methods of state regulation include the establishment of requirements aimed at supporting mitigation activities, as well as restrictions on economic and other activities that produce greenhouse gas emissions. The draft law provides for the issuance of permits for direct greenhouse gas emissions to regulated organizations. These are limited to industrial sites, meaning that the draft law does not affect emissions from transport, among other sources.
The draft law provides for the establishment of a greenhouse gas emission fee. The payers of the fee are the regulated organizations (business entities) that own the plants that are the source of direct greenhouse gas emissions. The fee is to be paid if a regulated organization exceeds the amount of greenhouse gas emissions stated on the permit, unless the excess is offset by emission-reduction units obtained in the market prior to the expiry of the permit. The draft law allocates the funds generated from the emission fee to a fund for the implementation of projects aimed at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, including sink activities and the development of resource-saving and energy-saving technologies. Thus it may turn out that the ppp will come to be applied in a modified form (not for the pollution as such, but for exceeding emission limits) and will contribute to the accumulation of a Russian climate fund.
Yet carbon regulation in Russia has many opponents. Any kind of carbon pricing will increase the price burden on the entire economy. The Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs has sharply criticized the draft law. According to Maxim Dovgyallo, executive secretary of the Union’s Mining and Industrial Complex Commission, “The idea of introducing a ‘carbon fee’ is perceived by the business community as a bad idea. Why? Unfortunately, in our country we clearly understand that the introduction of a carbon fee will be tantamount to a carbon tax mechanism. The goal is just to take our money”. 37 At the same time, the business community does not see any possibility of creating and operating the climate fund, primarily for institutional reasons, because the formation of such fund would require fundamental changes to budgetary legislation. 37 In the absence of such a fund, the carbon fee would flow into consolidated revenue and lead to its expenditure on unrelated budgetary items. Most likely, traditional economic sectors—metallurgical production, mechanical engineering, and the military-industrial complex—would benefit, further reducing their competitiveness.
In implementing the provisions of the climate treaties, Russia has adopted mainly strategic policies having to do with adaptation to the consequences of climate change. The issue of liability for greenhouse gas emissions has not yet been legally resolved. A fee has been set only for methane emissions. Since 2019, a draft mitigation law has been under discussion. It would play a key role in the accomplishment of climate-policy objectives. The draft law is aimed at formalizing the regulation of public arrangements on mitigation actions. It provides for the introduction of a number of measures, including quotas for greenhouse gas emissions, emission permits for certain industrial entities, and a charge for emissions exceeding permitted volumes. But the prospects of the draft law remain unclear.
‘Национальный план мероприятий первого этапа адаптации к изменениям климата на период до 2022 года’, утвержден Распоряжением Правительства Российской Федерации от 25 декабря 2019 г. № 3183-р (‘The National Plan of Action for the First Stage of Adaptation to Climate Change for the Period until 2022’, approved by Order of the Government of the Russian Federation, No. 3183-r of 25 December 2019), <http://static.government.ru/media/files/OTrFMr1Z1sORh5NIx4gLUsdgGHyWIAqy.pdf>.
Бюллетень о текущих тенденциях российской экономики ‘Экология и экономика: динамика загрязнения атмосферы страны в преддверии ратификации Парижского соглашения’, Выпуск № 52, август 2019. С.5. (Bulletin on current trends in the Russian economy ‘Ecology and economics: Dynamics of the country’s atmospheric pollution in anticipation of the ratification of the Paris Agreement’, Issue No. 52, August 2019, p. 5.), <https://ac.gov.ru/archive/files/publication/a/23713.pdf>.
Государственный доклад ‘О состоянии и об охране окружающей среды Российской Федерации в 2017 Году’ (Минприроды России; НПП ‘Кадастр’, 2018), С.23. (State report ‘On the State and Protection of the Environment in the Russian Federation in 2017’, Ministry of the Environment of the Russian Federation, Research and Production Enterprise ‘Kadastr’, 2018, p. 23), <www.mnr.gov.ru/docs/o_sostoyanii_i_ob_okhrane_okruzhayushchey_sredy_rossiyskoy_federatsii/gosudarstvennyy_doklad_o_sostoyanii_i_ob_okhrane_okruzhayushchey_sredy_rossiyskoy_federatsii_v_2017_>.
fsbi Website, “Institute for Global Climate and Ecology named after academician Yu. A. Izrael”, <http://climatechange.igce.ru, archive Т3288>.
A report on climate features on the territory of the Russian Federation in 2018 (Moscow, 2019), p.6, <http://climatechange.igce.ru/index.php?option=com_docman&Itemid=73&gid=27&lang=ru>.
Op. cit., supra note 5.
Op. cit., supra note 7, p. 66.
See the articles in Climate Law, vol. 10, issue 1 (2020), for details on the history of the ppp.
Sergey A. Bogolyubov, ‘Роль правового регулирования экономического механизма охраны окружающей среды’ (‘The role of legal regulation of the economic mechanism of environmental protection’), in Государство и бизнес в системе правовых координат (2014), С. 189 (State and business in the system of legal coordinates (2014), p. 189).
See Priscilla Schwartz, ‘Principle 16: The Polluter-Pays Principle’, in The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development: A Commentary, edited by Jorge E. Viñuales (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), 436, and the articles referred to in supra n. 12.
Распоряжение Правительства РФ от 08.07.2015 N 1316-р (ред. от 10.05.2019) ‘Об утверждении перечня загрязняющих веществ, в отношении которых применяются меры государственного регулирования в области охраны окружающей среды’ (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation, No. 1316-r (revision of 5 May 2019) dated 8 July 2015, ‘On approval of the list of pollutants with regard to which measures of state regulation in the field of environmental protection are applied’), Собрание законодательства РФ, 20.07.2015, N 29 (часть ii), ст. 4524 (Collection of the legislation of the Russian Federation, 20 July 2015, No. 29 (Part ii), Art. 4524).
Определение Конституционного Суда Российской Федерации от 10.12.2002 № 284-О, Собрание законодательства РФ, 30.12.2002, № 52 (2 ч.), ст. 5290 (Ruling of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, No. 284-O of 10 December 2002, Collection of the legislation of the Russian Federation, 30 December 2002, No. 52 (Part ii), Art. 5290).
Закон РСФСР N 2060-I ‘Об охране окружающей природной среды’ от 19.12.91 г. (rsfsr Law No. 2060-I of 19 December 1991 ‘On Environmental Protection’), <https://zakonbase.ru/content/part/88909>.
Ibid., Art. 21, para. 4.
Постановление Правительства РФ от 11.10.2001 N 721 ‘О ликвидации Федерального экологического фонда Российской Федерации’ (Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation, No. 721, of 11 October 2001 ‘On Liquidation of the Federal Environmental Fund of the Russian Federation’), Собрание законодательства РФ, 22.10.2001, N 43, ст. 4116 (Collection of the legislation of the Russian Federation of 22 October 2001, No. 43, Art. 4116).
Natalia Khludneva, ‘Дефекты правового регулирования охраны окружающей среды: монография’ (Defects of Legal Regulation of Environmental Protection: Monograph) (Moscow, infra-m, 2014).
План мероприятий по реализации стратегии экологической безопасности Российской Федерации на период до 2025 года, утвержден распоряжением Правительства Российской Федерации от 29 мая 2019 г. N 1124-р (The Action Plan for the Implementation of the Environmental Safety Strategy of the Russian Federation for the Period until 2025, approved by Order of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1124-r of 29 May 2019, subparagraph “m” para. 20 and subparagraph “n” para. 26, respectively).
Ibid., para. 31.
Schwartz, supra n. 14, 438–41.
Draft Global Pact for the Environment, <https://globalpactenvironment.org/uploads/EN.pdf>.
E.g. Mizan R. Khan, ‘Polluter-Pays-Principle: The Cardinal Instrument for Addressing Climate Change’, 4 Laws (2015), 638–53.
Alexander Zahar, ‘Ascendancy of the Polluter-Pays Principle in Climate Change Law’, National Taipei University Law Review (2020, forthcoming).
Steve Vanderheiden, ‘Globalizing Responsibility for Climate Change’, 25 Ethics and International Affairs (2011), 66–84; and Khan, supra n. 25.
Zahar, supra n. 26.
See Plan for the Implementation of a Package of Measures Aimed at Improvement of the Government Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Preparation for the Ratification of the Paris Agreement, approved by Order of the Government of the Russian Federation, No. 2344-p, 3 November 2016. In December 2017, the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia submitted a report to the Government of the Russian Federation with an assessment of the socio-economic consequences of the ratification of the Paris Agreement: <http://ac.gov.ru/files/content/9605/doklad-ps-18-07-16-final-pub-pdf.pdf>. In accordance with the results of this assessment, which took into account a comprehensive forecast of the social and economic development of the Russian Federation, and was based on the provisions of the current legislation of the Russian Federation, as well as the adopted strategic planning documents of the Russian Federation, ratification of the Paris Agreement by the Russian Federation was found not to carry risks for industrial development. At the same time, the Paris Agreement was said to be a serious challenge for the economy of the Russian Federation. This challenge is driven by the global trend of the transition of most developed and the largest developing countries to the path of low-carbon development under the influence of the Paris Agreement.
Указ Президента РФ от 30.09.2013 N 752 ‘О сокращении выбросов парниковых газов’, Российская Газета, N 223, 04.10.2013 (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, No. 752, of 30 September 2013, ‘On the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions’, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, No. 223, 4 October 2013).
No. 861-rp. And see Доклад о ходе выполнения в 2018 году комплексного плана реализации Климатической доктрины Российской Федерации на период до 2020 года (Report on the Progress in 2018 of the Comprehensive Plan for the Implementation of the Climate Doctrine of the Russian Federation for the Period until 2020), <http://mnr.gov.ru/docs/o_vypolnenii_kompleksnogo_plana_realizatsii_klimaticheskoy_doktriny/doklad_o_khode_vypolneniya_v_2018_godu_kompleksnogo_plana_realizatsii_klimaticheskoy_doktriny_rossiy/> (the 2019 report was expected to be published in March 2020).
No. 1458-r. And see Энергетическая стратегия России на период до 2030 года (2009) (Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030 (2009)); Программа развития угольной промышленности на период до 2030 года (2014) (Coal Industry Development Program for the Period until 2030 (2014)); Стратегия развития автомобильной промышленности Российской Федерации на период до 2020 года (2010) (Automotive Industry Development Strategy of the Russian Federation for the Period until 2020 (2010)).
Распоряжение Правительства РФ от 25.12.2019 N 3183-р ‘Об утверждении национального плана мероприятий первого этапа адаптации к изменениям климата на период до 2022 года’ (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation, No. 3183-r, of 25 December 2019, ‘On Approval of the National Plan of Action for the First Stage of Adaptation to Climate Change for the Period until 2022’), Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (Official Internet portal of legal information), <www.pravo.gov.ru>.
Op. cit., supra n. 5.
Op. cit., supra n. 15.
Проект Федерального закона ‘О государственном регулировании выбросов и поглощений парниковых газов и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации’ (подготовлен Минэкономразвития России) (не внесен в ГД ФС РФ) (Draft Federal Law ‘On state regulation of greenhouse gas emissions and absorption and on amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation’ (prepared by the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia) (not submitted to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation), <http://regulation.gov.ru>.
Olga Podosenova, ‘Углеродный налог: поедем на телеге или в автомобиле?’ (‘Carbon tax: Shall we go in a cart or by car?’), <https://bellona.ru/2019/06/27/uglerod-russia>.
Углеродный налог в России: реальность и перспективы, Отчет об открытой дискуссии Российского партнерства за сохранение климата, 5 августа 2019 года (Carbon tax in Russia: Reality and perspectives, Report on the open discussion of the Russian Partnership for Climate Conservation, 5 August 2019) <http://kislorod.life/komitet_amr/uglerodnyy_nalog_v_rossii_realnost_i_perspektivy/>.