The Effect of Gender Quotas in the First Decade of the Twenty-first Century: A Global Comparison

In: Comparative Sociology

The goal of this study is to examine to what extent gender quotas have contributed to recent increases in women’s representation in parliaments. The results show that the effect of quotas on women’s representation in parliaments increased over time during the first decade of the twenty-first century, and that in the mid and late parts of the decade quotas are an important determinant of women’s representation in parliaments. However, the results from this study demonstrate that several countries that use gender quotas still have low levels of female representation in parliaments, which indicates that the designs of the quotas are important.

  • BaldezL. Elected bodies: The gender quota law for legislative candidates in Mexico Legislative studies quarterly 2004 29 2 231 258

  • BeerC. Democracy and gender equality Studies in Comparative International Development 2009 44 3 212 227

  • CaulM. Women’s Representation in Parliament The Role of Political Parties Party politics 1999 5 1 79 98

  • CaulM. Political parties and the adoption of candidate gender quotas: A cross–national analysis Journal of Politics 2001 63 4 1214 1229

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DahlerupD. DahlerupD. Introduction Women, quotas and politics 2006 London & New York Routledge 3 31

  • DahlerupD.FreidenvallL. Quotas as a ‘fast track’ to equal representation for women: Why Scandinavia is no longer the model International Feminist Journal of Politics 2005 7 1 26 48

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DevlinC.ElgieR. The effect of increased women’s representation in parliament: The case of Rwanda Parliamentary Affairs 2008 61 2 237 254

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FoxJ. Regression diagnostics 1991 Thousand Oaks SAGE Publications

  • GrayM. M.KittilsonM. C.SandholtzW. Women and globalization: A study of 180 countries, 1975–2000 International Organization 2006 60 2 293 333

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HögströmJ. Women’s Representation in National Politics in the World’s Democratic Countries: A Research Note Journal of Women, Politics & Policy 2012 33 3 263 279 doi: 10.1080/1554477X.2012.694779

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HögströmJ. Quality of Democracy Around the Globe: A Comparative Study 2013 Östersund, Sweden Mid Sweden University (Doctoral Thesis)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HtunM. Is gender like ethnicity? The political representation of identity groups Perspectives on Politics 2004 2 3 439 458

  • HughesM. M. Armed Conflict, International Linkages, and Women’s Parliamentary Representation in Developing Nations Social Problems 2009 56 1 174 204 doi: 10.1525/sp.2009.56.1.174

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HughesM. M.PaxtonP. Familiar theories from a new perspective: The implications of a longitudinal approach to women in politics research Politics & Gender 2007 3 3 370 378

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HughesM. M.PaxtonP. Continuous change, episodes, and critical periods: a framework for understanding women’s political representation over time Politics & Gender 2008 4 2 233 264

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • InglehartR.NorrisP. Rising tide: Gender equality and cultural change around the world 2003 Cambridge University Press

  • JonesM. P. Gender quotas, electoral laws, and the election of women: Evidence from the Latin American vanguard Comparative Political Studies 2009 42 1 56 81

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KenworthyL.MalamiM. Gender inequality in political representation: A worldwide comparative analysis Social Forces 1999 78 1 235 268

  • KrookM. L. Quotas for women in politics: Gender and candidate selection reform worldwide 2009 Oxford and New York Oxford University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KrookM. L. Women’s representation in parliament: a qualitative comparative analysis Political Studies 2010 58 5 886 908

  • KunovichS.PaxtonP. Pathways to Power: The Role of Political Parties in Women’s National Political Representation1 American Journal of Sociology 2005 111 2 505 552

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MatlandR. E. Institutional variables affecting female representation in national legislatures: the case of Norway The Journal of Politics 1993 55 3 737 755

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MatlandR. E. Women’s representation in national legislatures: Developed and developing countries Legislative studies quarterly 1998 109 125

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MatlandR. E. DahlerupD. Electoral quotas: Frequency and effectiveness Women, Quotas, and Politics 2006 New York Routledge 275 292

  • MatlandR. E.StudlarD. T. The contagion of women candidates in single-member district and proportional representation electoral systems: Canada and Norway The Journal of Politics 1996 58 3 707 733

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McAllisterI.StudlarD. T. Electoral systems and women’s representation: a long‐term perspective Representation 2002 39 1 3 14

  • McConnaughyC. M. Seeing gender over the short and long haul Politics & Gender 2007 3 3 378 386

  • MeierP. The Mutual Contagion Effect of Legal and Party Quotas A Belgian Perspective Party politics 2004 10 5 583 600

  • NorrisP.InglehartR. Cultural obstacles to equal representation Journal of democracy 2001 12 3 126 140

  • PaxtonP. Women in national legislatures: A cross-national analysis Social Science Research 1997 26 4 442 464

  • PaxtonP.HughesM. M. The Increasing Effectiveness of National Gender Quotas, 1990–2010 Legislative studies quarterly 2015 40 3 331 362

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PaxtonP.HughesM. M.PainterM. A. Growth in women’s political representation: A longitudinal exploration of democracy, electoral system and gender quotas European Journal of Political Research 2010 49 1 25 52 doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6765.2009.01886.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PaxtonP.KunovichS. Women’s political representation: The importance of ideology Social Forces 2003 82 1 87 113

  • PaxtonP.KunovichS.HughesM. M. Gender in politics Annu. Rev. Sociol 2007 33 263 284

  • ReynoldsA. Women in the Legislatures and Executives of the World: Knocking at the Highest Glass Ceiling World Politics 1999 51 4 547 572 doi: 10.2307/25054094

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RitterG. Gender and politics over time Politics & Gender 2007 3 3 386 397

  • RosenJ. The Effects of Political Institutions on Women’s Political Representation: A Comparative Analysis of 168 Countries from 1992 to 2010 Political Research Quarterly 2013 66 2 306 321 doi: 10.1177/1065912912449698

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RosenbluthF.SalmondR.ThiesM. F. Welfare works: explaining female legislative representation Politics & Gender 2006 2 2 165 192

  • RuedinD. The representation of women in national parliaments: A cross-national comparison European Sociological Review 2012 28 1 96 109

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RuleW. Why women don’t run: The critical contextual factors in women’s legislative recruitment The Western Political Quarterly 1981 34 1 60 77

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RuleW. Electoral systems, contextual factors and women’s opportunity for election to parliament in twenty-three democracies Political Research Quarterly 1987 40 3 477 498

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwindt‐BayerL. A. Making quotas work: The effect of gender quota laws on the election of women Legislative studies quarterly 2009 34 1 5 28

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SiaroffA. Women’s representation in legislatures and cabinets in industrial democracies International Political Science Review/Revue internationale de science politique 2000 197 215

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StockemerD. Women’s parliamentary representation: are women more highly represented in (consolidated) democracies than in non-democracies? Contemporary Politics 2009 15 4 429 443

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StudlarD. T.McAllisterI. Does a critical mass exist? A comparative analysis of women’s legislative representation since 1950 European Journal of Political Research 2002 41 2 233 253

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TrippA. M. Historical Perspectives in Comparative Politics and Gender Studies Politics & Gender 2007 3 3 397 408

  • TrippA. M.KangA. The global impact of quotas on the fast track to increased female legislative representation Comparative Political Studies 2008 41 3 338 361

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VergeT. Gendering representation in Spain: Opportunities and limits of gender quotas Journal of Women, Politics & Policy 2010 31 2 166 190

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YoonM. Y. Democratization and women’s legislative representation in Sub-Saharan Africa Democratization 2001 8 2 169 190

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 222 173 6
Full Text Views 221 28 0
PDF Downloads 25 17 0