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Mitochondrial evidence supports a Nearctic origin for the spreading limicolous earthworm Sparganophilus tamesis Benham, 1892 (Clitellata, Sparganophilidae)

In: Contributions to Zoology
Authors:
Emilia Rota Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences University of Siena Via P.A. Mattioli 4 IT-53100 Siena Italy
E:mail: rota@unisi.it

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Svante Martinsson Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg Box 463 SE-405 30 Göteborg Sweden

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Marco Bartoli Department of Life Sciences University of Parma Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A IT-43124 Parma Italy

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Anneke Beylich IFAB Institute for Applied Soil Biology Tornberg 24a 22337 Hamburg Germany

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Ulfert Graefe IFAB Institute for Applied Soil Biology Tornberg 24a 22337 Hamburg Germany

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Alex Laini Department of Life Sciences University of Parma Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A IT-43124 Parma Italy

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Mark J. Wetzel Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS) Prairie Research Institute at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Forbes Natural History Bldg. 1816 South Oak St. Champaign Illinois 61820 USA

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Christer Erséus Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg Box 463 SE-405 30 Göteborg Sweden

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Open Access

We analysed samples of Sparganophilus taken at the corners of its distribution area in Europe (UK, Germany and Italy). No mitochondrial genetic divergence within and amongst them was found, neither in COI nor in 16S. Further, the COI haplotype was also identical to two sequences from Ontario, Canada in the Barcoding of Life Data System (BOLD) database. Our European COI and 16S sequences showed only minimal differentiation (only 1 or 2 substitutions) from specimens newly collected in Illinois and Washington states (USA), as well as from a COI haplotype from Tennessee (USA) in BOLD. An additional COI haplotype from Illinois (found in BOLD) is 2.1% different from the other haplotypes but clearly belongs to the same lineage of Sparganophilus . This geographically broad but genetically compact group fits the morphological diagnosis of S. tamesis Benham, 1892 as revised by Jamieson (1971) and is seen as evidence that all European populations 1) belong to the same species, 2) derive from a recent introduction, 3) are conspecific with the most widespread species of Sparganophilus in North America, and that 4) S. tamesis is a senior synonym of S. eiseni Smith, 1895. The single European haplotype does not refute the possibility of its spread from a single introduced source population.

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