Minority Perception of Police Legitimacy in Finland: The Patterns and Predictors

in European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice
No Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


Across the world, minorities are often perceived as social problems in policy formulations and processes in many societies. This perspective gets support from the notion that minorities engage in deviant and criminal behaviour. However, in Finland fewer scholarly attentions have explored the extent of minority attitudes and experiences as they relate to social problems in societies. The aim of this study is to explore procedural justice and its understanding thereof by minorities and racial groups in Finland in complying with police orders. Data for this study was collected between April 2013 and July 2015 from (N = 650) respondents from three major cities (Helsinki, Tampere and Turku) using minority experiences of racial profiling, encounters and unfair policing as variables that increase minority distrust in procedural justice in Finland. The result suggests that ethnicity influences minority views of procedural justice in the country. The implication of this finding is that there is a need for more exploration of the relationship between the police and minorities in Finland.

Minority Perception of Police Legitimacy in Finland: The Patterns and Predictors

in European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice



Bayley D. H. & Mendelson H. (1968) Minorities and the police New York: The Free Press.

Bottom A. & Tankebe J. (2012) Beyond procedural justice: a dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 102: 119–170.

Bottom A. (2002) Morality crime compliance and public policy in A Bottom & M. Tonry (Eds.) Ideology crime and Criminal Justice: A symposium in honour of Sir Leon Radzinowitz Cullompton uk: Willan: 22–51.

Black J. (2008) Constructing and contesting legitimacy and accountability in polycentric regulatory regimesRegulation and Governance 2: 137154.

Bradford B. & Jackson J. (2010) Different things to different people? The meaning and measurement of trust and confidence in policing across diverse social groups in London Social Science Research Network Working paper: 341–248 www.Papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm.

Braithwaite V. Murphy K. & Reinhart M. (2007) Taxation threat, motivational postures and responsive regulationLaw and Policy 29: 137158.

Brandl S. G. Frank J. Worden R. E. & Bynum T. S. (1994) Global and specific attitudes toward the police: Disentangling the relationshipJustice Quarterly11: 119134.

Brasher D. E. Adkins M. & Meyers R. A. (1994) argumentation in computer-mediated decision making in L. Frey (Ed.) Communication in context: Studies of naturalistic groups Hillsdale nj: Erlbaum: 262–283.

Brossmann J. B. Brossmann B. G. Wager H. Jr (1995) Toward a theory of minimally rational argument: Analysis of episode – specific effects of argument structures communication monograph 62: 189–212.

Brunson R. K. & Miller J. (2006) Young black men and urban policing in the United StatesBritish Journal of Criminology 46: 613640.

Chan J. (1997) Changing police culture: Policing in a multicultural societyCambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Canary D. J. Brossmann B. G. & Seibold D. R. (1987) Argument structure in decision-making groupsSouthern Speech Communication journal 53: 1827.

Colbert D. L. Paternoster R. & Bushway S. /2001) Do attorneys really matter? The empirical and legal case for the right of counsel at bail Cardoza Law Review 23: 1719–1793.

Delsol R. & Shiner M. (2006) Regulating stop and search: A challenge for police and community relations in England and Wales Critical Criminology 14: 241263.

Egharevba S. (2017) Preferences don’t have to be personal: Explaining police perception within a cross cultural perspective in Finland (in Egharevba, S. (Ed.). Police brutality, Racial Profiling and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice, pp. 38–59 igi Publishers, USA.

Egharevba S. (2014) Determinants of migrant perceptions of the police: The attributes of race trust and legitimacy Justice Policy Journal Vol. 11 no. 1 Spring 2014.

Egharevba S . & Crentsil P . (2013) Migrants perception of the police: Should it be a cause for concern in Finland? European Journal of Criminology Vol. 40 no 4.

Egharevba S. & White J. (2007 ) Are Finnish police racist? A critical analysis of police Cadets attitude towards African immigrant in Finland International Journal of Police Science and Management ijpsm Vol. 9 (1) pp. 14–35. (2007)

Egharevba S. (2006) African immigrant’s perception of police in Finland: Is it based on the discourse of race or culture? International Journal of the Sociology of law Vol. 34 no. 1. (2006b)

Egharevba S. & Hannikainen L. (2005) Exploring police relations with the immigrant minority in the context of racism and Discrimination: A view from Turku, Finland, in G. Chandana (ed.) Racial discrimination: A jurisprudential study Icfai University Press

Egharevba S. (2005) An Investigation into the experiences of African immigrant with the police in Finland International Journal of Police Science and Management Vol. 7 (1) ijpsm pp. 44–61. (2005)

Eith C. & Durose M R. (2011) Contacts between police and the public 2008Washington, dc: us Department of Justice office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Engel R. (2005) Citizens’ perceptions of distributive and procedural injustice during traffic stops with policeJournal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 42: 445481.

Engel R. S. Tillyer R. Klahm C. F. iv Frank J. (2012) From the officers’ perspective: A multilevel examination of citizens’ demeanor during traffic stopsJustice Quarterly29 (5) 650683.

Fabrigar. L. R. Wegener D. T. MacCallum R. C. & Strahan E. J. (1999) Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in Psychological researchPsychological Methods4 (3) 272299.

Fagan J. (2002) Race, legitimacy and criminal law. Souls4: 6972.

Fausset R & Huffstutter P. J. (2009) Black males’ fear of racial profiling very real, regardless of class www.latimes.com/2009/jul/25/nation/na-racial-profiling 25.

Fortes M. (1983) Rules and the Emergence of Society. London, United Kingdom: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.

Giddens A. (1984) The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structurationBerkeley: University of California Press.

Greenwald A. G. & Banaji M. R. (1995) Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem and stereotypesPsychological Review 102 (1) 427.

Hawdon J. (2008) Legitimacy, trust, social capital and policing styles: A theoretical statementPolice Quarterly11 (12) 182201.

Hertogh M. (2015) What moves Joe driver? How perceptions of legitimacy shape regulatory compliance among Dutch traffic offenders International journal of Law Crime and Justice 43: 214234.

Horowitz D. (2000) Ethnic groups in conflict (2nd Ed.) Berkeley: University of California Press.

Huo Y. Smith J. Tyler H. J. T. R. and Lind E. A. (1996) Superordinate identification, subgroup identification and justice concerns: Is separatism the problem? Is assimilation the answer? Psychological Science7: 4045.

Jackson J. & Sunshine J. (2007) Public confidence in policing: A neo-Durkeimain perspectiveBritish Journal of Criminology 47: 214233.

Kaariainen T. (2008) Why do the Finns trust in the police? Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime prevention 9: 141159.

Kochel T. R. (2014) Views by saint louis’ county residents regarding the police and public responses to the shooting of Michael Brown in FergusonMissouri on August 92014 www.http//opensiuc.lib.siu.edu7ccj_report721.

Lind E. A. & Tyler T. R. (1988) The social psychology of procedural justiceNew York: Plenum Press.

MacCoun R. J. (2005) Voice, control and belonging: The double-edged sword of procedural fairnessAnnual Review of Law and Science 1: 171201.

Major B. Quinton W. J. & McCoy S. K. (2002) Antecedent and consequences of attributions to discrimination. Theoretical and empirical advances In M. P. Zanna (Ed.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Vol. 34 pp. 251–330 New York: Academic Press.

Mastrofski S. D. Snipes J. B. & Supina A. E. (1996) Compliance on demand: The publics’ response to specific police requestsJournal of Research in Crime and Delinquency33 (3) 269305.

Meyers R. A. Brasher D. E. Winston L. & Grob I. (1997) Sex differences and group argument: A theoretical framework and empirical investigationCommunication Studies48: 1941.

Meyers D. E. (2012) Anticipated and perceive intergroup relations as predictors of immigrants’ identification patterns A follow upEuropean Psychologist Vol. 17 (12) 120130.

Murphy k. (2005) regulating more effectively: The relationship between procedural justice, legitimacy and tax non-complianceJournal of Law and Society 32: 356589.

Murphy K. & Cherney A. (2012) Fostering cooperation with the police: How do ethnic minorities in Australia respond to procedural justice-based policing? Australia and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 44 (2) 235257.

Nemeth C. (1986) Differential contributions of majority and minority influencePsychological Review93: 2532.

Parmar A. (2011) Stop and search in London: Counter-terrorist or counter- productive? Policing and Society 21: 369382.

Pickering S. McCulloch J. & Wright-Neville D. (2008) Counter-terrorism policing: Community cohesion and securityNew York: Springer.

Reiner R. (2000) The politic of the policeOxford University Press.

Reisig M. D. Tankebe J. & Mesko G. (2014) procedural justice, police legitimacy and public cooperation with the police among young Slovene adultsJournal of Criminal justice and Security 14: 147164.

Reisig M. D. & Parks R. (2000) Experiences, quality of life and neighbourhood context: A hierarchical analysis of satisfaction with policePolice Quarterly 17: 607630.

Reiss A. (1971) The police and the publicNew Haven, ct: Yale University Press

Saarikkomaki E. & Kivivuori I. (2013) Young people as objects of police control in a Nordic context: Who are the socially visible targets. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research 19: 351368.

Sherman L. (1993) Trust and confidence in the criminal justice systemNational Institute of Justice journal 248: 2331.

Sidanious J. & Pratto F. (1999) Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppressionNew York: Cambridge University Press.

Skogan W. & Frydl (2004) (Eds.) Fairness and effectiveness in policy: The evidence, National Research Council of National academics Washington dc.

Skogan W. Hartnett S. (1997) Community policingChicago style New York: Oxford University Press.

Skogan W. (2006) Asymmetry in the impact of encounters with policePolicing and Society 16: 99126.

Skolnick J. H. (1994) Justice without trial: Law enforcement in democratic society 3ed (ed.) New York: Macmillan Press.

Sunshine J. & Tyler T. r. (2003) The role of procedural justice and legitimacy in shaping public support for policingLaw and Society Review37: 513547.

Thornton A & Freedman D . (1979) Changes in the sex role attitudes of women 1962–1977: Evidence from a panel study American Sociological Review44 (5) 831842.

Tankebe J. (2014). Police legitimacy. In Reisig M. D. & Kane R. J. (Eds.) The Oxford handbook of police and policing (pp. 238259). New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Toulmin S. E. (1958) The uses of argument Cambridge: ukCambridge University Press

Tyler T. R. (2006) Psychological perspectives on legitimacy and legitimationAnnual Review of Psychology 57 (1) 375400.

Tyler T. R. (2010) Legitimacy in correctionsCriminology and Public Policy 9: 127134.

Tyler T. R. Schulhofer S. & Huq A. (2010) Legitimacy and deterrence effect in counter-terrorism policing: A study of Muslim AmericansLaw and Society Review44: 365402.

Tyler R. & Fagan J. (2006b) Legitimacy and cooperation: Why people help the police fight crime in their communities Columbia Law School working Paper No. 06–99.

Tyler S & Huo J . (2002) Trust in the law New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Tyler T. R. Boekmann R. Smith H. and Huo J. (1997) Social justice in a diverse societyBoulder: Westview Press.

Tyler T. R. (1989) The psychology of procedural justice: A test of group-value model Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 375–400.

Volpato C. Maass A. Mucchi-Faina A. & Vitti E. (1990) Minority influence and social categorizationEuropean Journal of Social Psychology 20: 119132.

Weber M. (1979) Economy and societyBerkeley: University of California Press: 3579.

White A. & Gill M. (2013) The transformation of policing: From ratios to rationalitiesBritish Journal of Criminology 53: 7493.

Winfree T. L. & Griffiths C. T. (1971) Adolescent attitude toward the police In Theodore F. (ed.) Junenile delinquency: Little brother grows up. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications11191124.

Wolfe S. E. Nix J. Kaminski R. & Rojek J. (2016) Is the effect of procedural justice on police legitimacy invariant? Testing the generality of procedural justice and competing antecedents of legitimacy Criminology32: 253282.



Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 80 80 9
Full Text Views 39 39 15
PDF Downloads 10 10 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0