Rights to Weapons: Rights as a Resource in Workplace Conflicts in Late Socialist Bulgaria

In: East Central Europe

Social rights are essentially rights to the betterment of life. And because of this, they lack any internal principle of limitation. Socialist governments recognized social rights as the core of human rights and therefore as legal rights, the implementation of which was a matter of obligation rather than policy. However, since the governments commanded limited resources, they had to limit the implementation of social rights. The article describes the ad hoc limitations on the implementation of social rights, developed by the Bulgarian Communist Party, which brought forth their transformation into instruments of government, and their appropriation by different forms of counter-conduct.

  • Ashwin Sarah . 1999. Russian Workers: The Anatomy of Patience. Manchester: Manchester UP.

  • Bren Paulina , Neuburger Mary (eds.) 2012. Communism Unwrapped: Consumption in Cold War Eastern Europe. Oxford: Oxford UP.

  • Brunbauer Ulf . 2007. “ Die sozialistische Lebensweise .” Ideologie, Gesellschaft, Familie und Politik in Bulgarien, 1944–1989. Wien: Böhlau.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Central Committee. 1959. Protokol ot Plenum na CK na bkp, 08–09.05.1963. [Document] cda, f1B, op. 5, a.e. 362 [Minutes from the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, 08–09.05.1963].

  • Central Committee. 1963. Protokol ot plenum na CK na bkp, 08–09.05.1963. [Document] cda, f1B, op. 5, a.e. 574 [Minutes from the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, 08–09.05.1963].

  • Central Committee. 1965. Protokol ot Plenum na CK na bkp, 03–04.12.1965 [Document] cda, f1B, op. 34, a.e. 21 [Minutes from the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, 03–04.12.1965].

  • Central Committee. 1966. Protokol no.214 ot 02.07.1966 [manuscript] cda, f1B, op. 6, a.e. 6326 [Protocol No214 of the Meeting of Politburo, 02.07.1966).

  • Central Committee. 1971. Protokol ot plenum na CK na bkp, 26.03.1971. [Document] cda, f1B, op. 58, a.e. 49 [Minutes from the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, 26.03.1971].

  • Central Committee. 1972a. Protokol ot plenum na CK na bkp, 11–13.12.1972. [Document] cda, f1B, op. 58, a.e. 71 [Minutes from the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, 11–13.12.1972. Vol. 1].

  • Central Committee. 1972b. Protokol ot plenum na CK na bkp, 11–13.12.1972. [Document] cda, f1B, op. 58, a.e. 74 [Minutes from the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, 11–13.12.1972. Vol. 4.].

  • Constitution. 1971. Konstitucia na NR Balgaria Accessed on 22.02.2016, http://www.parliament.bg/bg/19 [Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria].

  • Daskalov Roumen . 2005. Balgarskoto obshtestvo 1878–1939. T. 2. Sofia: Gutenberg [The Bulgarian Society 1878–1939. Vol. 2.].

  • Desev Nikolay . 1980. Socialnite prava na choveka: Mezhdunarodni debati [The Social Rights of Humanity: International Debates] Sofia: Profizdat.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • dgi. 2012. “Dvizhenie Grazhdanska Iniciativa: Politicheska platforma” [“Movement for Civil Initiative. The Political Platform of the Union of Democratic Forces.”] Accessed on 22.02.2016, http://www.omda.bg/page.php?tittle=%D0%9F%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0_%D0%BF%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%84%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%B0_%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%94%D0%93%D0%98&IDMenu=209&IDArticle=1650.

    • Export Citation
  • Dichev Ivaylo . 2003. “Usiadaneto na nomadskia komunizam” [“The Settling Down of the Nomadic Communism”] Sociologicheski problemi 3–4: 33–63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dimitrov Martin . 2018. Politicheskata logika na socialisticheskoto potreblenie. [The Political Logic of Socialist Consumption] Sofia: Ciela.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Druzhestvo. 1988. “Druzhestvo za zashtita na pravata na choveka: uchreditelni dokumenti” [Founding Documents of the Association for the Defense of Human Rights] Acessed on 22.02.2016, http://balkan1.blog.bg/politika/2013/01/17/dzpch-v-nrb-drujestvo-za-pravata-na-choveka.1043196.

  • Edmundson Mark . 2004. Introduction to Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Elenkov Ivan . 2008. Kulturniat front. [The Culture Front] Sofia: Ciela.

  • Ewald Françoiz . Insurance and Risk. In: Burchell G. , Gordon C. , Miller P. (eds.) 1991. The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 197–210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foucault Michel . 2010. The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978–1979. New York: Picador.

  • Foucault Michel . 2007. Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1977–1978. Basingstoke: Pallgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foucault Michel . 1997a. The Risks of the Security. In: Foucault M. 1997. The Essential Works of Foucault, 1954–1984. Vol. 3. Power. New York: The New Press, 365–381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foucault Michel . 1997b. Society Must be Defended: Lectures at the College de France 1975–1976. London: Picador.

  • Foucault Michel . 1997c. “The Subject and the Power” Faubion James (ed.) The Essential Works of Foucault 1954–1984 Vol. 3. New York: New Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foucault Michel . 1986. “Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias” Diacritics 16.1: 22–27.

  • Hohfeld Wesley . 1913. Some Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in Judicial Reasoning. Yale Law Journal, 16: 552–556.

  • Ivanov Martin . 2011. “Socialist Welfare State and the “Consensus of Hypocrisy” Sociological Problems 1–2: 235–56.

  • Ivanov Martin . 2008. Reformatorstvo bez reformi: Politicheskata ikonomia na balgarskia komunizam 1963–1989. [Reforming without Reforms] Sofia: iibm.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ivanova Maya . 2018. Turizam pod nadzor: Balkanturist—nachaloto na mezhdunarodnia i masov turizam v Balgaria. [Tourism under Surveillance: Balkantourist—the Beginning of the International and Mass Tourism in Bulgaria] Sofia: Ciela.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kenney Padraic . 1997. Rebuilding Poland: orkers and Communists, 1945–1950. Ithaca: Cornell UP.

  • Lilov Alexander .1977. Realniat socializam—konkretna istoricheska materializacia na nauchnia socializam. [The Real Socialism—Particular Historical Materialization of Scientific Socialism] Sofia: Partizdat.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markovits Inga . 1989. “Law and Glasnost’: Some Thoughts about the Future of Judicial Review under Socialism” Law & Society Review 23, 2: 399–448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall Thomas . 1965. “The Right to Welfare” The Sociological Review 13.3: 261–272.

  • Marshall Thomas . 1950. Citizenship and Social Class. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

  • Marx Karl . 1843. On the Jewish Question. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1844/jewish-question/index.htm, visited on 22.02.2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mauss Marcel . 1954. The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies. Glencoe: The Free Press.

  • Mineva Mila . 2003. “Razkazi i obrazi na socialisticheskoto potreblenie.” [“Stories and Images of Socialist Consumption”] Sociologicheski problemi 1–2: 143–65.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ohchr. 2008. Frequently Asked Questions on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Geneva: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petkov Trayko . 1974. Doklad za disciplinata, saznatelnostta i otgovornostta v rabotata na rakovoditelite, sluzhitelite i rabotnicite [Report of the Ministry of Transport and Communications on the Discipline, Conscientiousness, and Responsibility of the Management, the Administrative Staff, and the Workers at the Workplace] [Document] cda, f705, op.1, a.e. 11, l.1–33.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Politburo. 1969. Protokol no.325 ot zasedanie na Politbjuro na CK na bkp ot 14.08.1969 [Document] cda, f. 1B, op. 35, a.e. 801 [Minutes №325 from the Meeting of the Poliburo of the Bulgarian Communist Party, 14.08.1969].

  • Politburo. 1983. Protokol no.75 ot zasedanie na Politbjuro na CK na bkp ot 25.01.1983 [Document] cda, f. 1B, op. 65, a.e. 1750 [Minutes №75 from the Meeting of the Poliburo of the Bulgarian Communist Party, 25.01.1983].

  • sds. 1990. “Predizborna platforma na sds .” [“Electoral Platform of the Union of Democratic Forces. 1990”] Accessed on 22.02.2016, http://www.omda.bg/page.php?tittle=%D0%9F%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B1%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%BF%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%84%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%B0_%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%A1%D0%94%D0%A1_-_1990&IDMenu=209&IDArticle=1631.

    • Export Citation
  • Starshel. 1986. Protokoli ot zasedania na parvichna partijna organizacia pri v-k “Starshel” [Document] cda, f. 340, op. 1, a.e. 27 [Minutes from the Meetings of the Primary Party Organization].

  • Starshel. 1984. Protokoli ot zasedania na parvichna partijna organizacia pri v-k “Starshel” [Document] cda, f. 340, op. 1, a.e. 26 [Minutes from the Meetings of the Primary Party Organization].

  • Starshel. 1983. Protokoli ot zasedania na parvichna partijna organizacia pri v-k “Starshel” [Document] cda, f. 340, op. 1, a.e. 25 [Minutes from the Meetings of the Primary Party Organization].

  • UN. 1948. 183rd Plenary Meeting, held on Friday, 10 December 1948: 10/12/1948. Accessed on 22.02.2016, http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/PV.183.

  • UN Committee in Bulgaria. 1963. Dokladi do Ministerstvo na vanshnite raboti i Mezhdunarodnata federacia na druzhestvata na oon [Reports to the Ministry of the Interior and the World Federation of UN Committees] [Document] cda, f. 386, op. 2, a.e. 11.

  • Varov Boris .1971. Prava na rabotnicite i sluzheshtite pri usloviata na novia ikonomicheski mehanizam. [The Rights of the Workers and the Service Staff in the context of the new economic mechanism] Sofia: Profizdat.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vazvanie. 1990. “Vazvanie kam milionite bezpartijni v Balgaria.” [“Appeal to the Millions that do not Belong to Any Party”] Accessed on 22.06.2016, http://www.omda.bg/page.php?tittle=%D0%92%D1%8A%D0%B7%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%BA%D1%8A%D0%BC_%D0%B1%D0%B5%D0%B7%D0%BF%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%B9%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5_-_1990_%D0%B3.&IDMenu=209&IDArticle=1659.

    • Export Citation
  • Yanev Yanko , Tsonev Vatjo . 1952. Osnovni prava i zadalzhenia na grazhdanite na nrb . [ Fundamental Rights and Obligations of the Citizens of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria ] Sofia: bkp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolterstorff N. , Cuneo T. . 2012. Understanding Liberal Democracy: Essays in Political Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Yakimova Milena . 2017. Socialna kritika i praktika: Teoreticheski dilemi i prakticheski mehanizmi. [Social Critique and Praxis: Theoretical Dilemmas and Practocal Mechanisms] Sofia: Iztok-Zapad.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 47 47 47
Full Text Views 5 5 5
PDF Downloads 5 5 5