Introductory Formulae and Jesus’s Teaching in James

In: Evangelical Quarterly: An International Review of Bible and Theology
Thomas J. Parker Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam The Netherlands Amsterdam
The Queen’s Foundation UK Birmingham
Church in the Peak UK Chesterfield

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While many scholars note the presence and influence of Jesus’s teaching in James, this study seeks to focus on whether there are any recurrent words or phrases that may introduce, indicate, or ‘demark’ the presence of Jesus’s teaching within James. This study analyses the presence of the words ‘hear’ and ‘listen’, ἀδελφός language, and the phrases ἄγε νῦν and ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί and their potential connection with Jesus’s teaching found within the epistle of James. As a result, this study notes the correlation between the use of these phrases and the subsequent presence of Jesus’s teaching, which suggests the potential for these phrases to ‘demark’ or introduce the presence of the words of Jesus in James’s epistle. Consequently, this study suggests that these key words and phrases function in the introduction to Jesus’s teaching within James, highlighting the upcoming presence of a Jesus saying to the audience.


While many scholars note the presence and influence of Jesus’s teaching in James, this study seeks to focus on whether there are any recurrent words or phrases that may introduce, indicate, or ‘demark’ the presence of Jesus’s teaching within James. This study analyses the presence of the words ‘hear’ and ‘listen’, ἀδελφός language, and the phrases ἄγε νῦν and ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί and their potential connection with Jesus’s teaching found within the epistle of James. As a result, this study notes the correlation between the use of these phrases and the subsequent presence of Jesus’s teaching, which suggests the potential for these phrases to ‘demark’ or introduce the presence of the words of Jesus in James’s epistle. Consequently, this study suggests that these key words and phrases function in the introduction to Jesus’s teaching within James, highlighting the upcoming presence of a Jesus saying to the audience.

1 Introduction

It is often noted that the letter of James seems to lack an explicit passion narrative.1 Yet, there still remains a strong consensus amongst scholars that we are able to find resonances of the words of Jesus, especially words evocative of aspects of the ‘Sermon on the Mount’ and ‘Sermon on the Plain’, within the epistle of James.2 While James may not have had access to the Gospel texts directly,3 we seem to find regular examples within James of sayings that are likely to be evocative of Jesus.4 These ‘Jesus sayings’5 are found, for example, in the presence of ‘rich’ and ‘kingdom’ motifs in Jas. 2:5 and the similar sayings in Matt. 5:3 and Luke 6:20,6 concepts brought together only in these three texts within the New Testament,7 suggesting a connection between the texts. We might also note the connection between Jas. 5:12 and Matt. 5:33–37, especially the encouragements regarding oaths and answering ‘yes’ and ‘no’.8 Because of the high level of similarity between Jas. 5:12 and Matt. 5:33–37, some scholars consider Jas. 5:12 to be James’s strongest link to Jesus’s teaching, especially the Matthean traditions.9 Other scholars note significant connections between Jas. 1:2, 5:10 and Luke 6:22–2310 as well as Jas. 1:5 and Luke 11:9,11 which seem to share no parallel in Matthew. As a result, we might note a degree of complexity in the drawing upon of Jesus’s teaching within James and their potential source. There are some examples of particularly Matthean sources, some specifically Lukan sources, as well as the potential for so-called ‘Q’ material.12 On the one hand, we don’t seem to find direct citations of Gospel texts within James, but we do find a variety of occurrences of phrases that seem evocative of Jesus. Paul Foster suggests a number of the strongest syntactical connections between James and Jesus’s teaching in the Gospels, detailed in the table below alongside some other pertinent suggestions for finding resonances of Jesus’s teaching within James.13

Jas. 1:5

If any of you lack wisdom, that one should ask God, who gives to all sincerely and without reproach, and it will be given to that one.

Matt. 7:7

Ask, and it will be given to you.

Luke 11:9

Ask, and it will be given you.

Jas. 1:17

Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights.

Matt. 7:11

Your Father in heaven gives good gifts to those who ask him.

Luke 11:13

How much more will the Father of heaven give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him.

Jas. 1:19–20

Know this, my beloved brothers and sisters, let every person be quick to listen, slow to speak, slow to anger.

Matt. 5:22a

Whoever is angry with a brother or sister is liable to be judged.

Jas. 1:22

But be doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving yourselves.

Matt. 7:21

Not all who say to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter into the kingdom of heaven, but rather the one who does the will of my Father in heaven.

Matt. 7:24

Therefore, all who hear these words of mine and does them …

Luke 6:47

All who come to me and hear my words and do them, I will show you what they are like

Jas. 2:5

Listen, my beloved brothers and sisters. Has not God chosen the poor in the world to be rich in faith and inherit the kingdom that he has promised to the ones who love him?

Matt. 5:3

Blessed are the poor in spirit, because the kingdom of heaven is theirs.

Luke 6:20b

Blessed are you who are poor,

for the kingdom of God is yours.

Jas. 2:13

For judgment without mercy will be shown to anyone who has shown no mercy, but mercy triumphs over judgment.

Matt. 5:7

Blessed are the merciful, because they will be shown mercy.

Jas. 3:12

Is it possible, my brothers and sisters, for a fig tree to produce olives or a vine to produce figs? Neither can salty water produce fresh water.

Matt. 7:16b

They do not gather grapes from thorn bushes, or figs from thistles.

Luke 6:44b

They do not gather figs from thorns, neither are grapes harvested from a thorn bush.

Jas. 3:18

And fruit consisting of righteousness is sown in peace for those who practice peace.

Matt. 5:9

Blessed are the peacemakers.

Jas. 4:4

Adulterers. Do you not know that friendship with the world means hostility with God? Therefore, whoever wishes to be a friend with the world becomes an enemy of God.

Matt. 6:24

No one is able to serve two masters; for they will either hate the one and love the other or be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money.

Jas. 4:8

Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Purify your hands, sinners, and purify your hearts, doubters.

Matt. 5:8

Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God.

Jas. 4:9

Lament and mourn and weep. Let your laughter be turned into mourning and your joy into gloominess.

Luke 6:25

Woe to you who laugh now,

for you will grieve and weep.

Jas. 4:13–14

Come now, the one who says, ‘Today or tomorrow we will travel to such and such a city and stay there a year, do business and make money.’ Yet you do not know what tomorrow will be like. What is your life? For you are a vapor that appears for a short time and then disappears.

Matt. 6:34

Therefore, do not be anxious about tomorrow, for tomorrow is anxious for itself. Today’s evils are sufficient for itself.

Jas. 5:12

Now above everything, my brothers and sisters, do not swear, not by heaven nor by earth nor by another oath, but let your ‘yes’ be yes and your ‘no’ be no, so that you may not fall under judgement.

Matt. 5:34–37

But I say to you, do not swear at all, not by heaven, because it is the throne of God … let your word be ‘Yes, Yes’ or ‘No, No’; any more than this is from the evil one.

Even a brief study of the above texts will highlight the fact that we are unlikely to be dealing with verbatim quotations of Gospel texts in James. There are a variety of rationales offered for how and why James draws upon Jesus’s teaching in this way. Some suggest James presents a paraphrastic and performative approach to the words of Jesus.14 Others suggest that James is more ‘inspired’ and influenced by Jesus.15 Others still suggest that James is drawing explicitly upon Jesus’s teaching as a source of authority, and that the audience would have recognised the presence of the words of Jesus and understood it as authoritative.16 However, what we can regularly note in the above table is that we often find a degree of syntactical similarity and connection between the texts, perhaps one or two words in common, as well as a thematic parallel between the sayings of Jesus and their presentation within James. If, however, we take as a presupposition the view of the majority of scholars in finding the presence of Jesus’s teaching within the letter of James, to one degree or another, we might consider whether there are any ways in which James might ‘introduce’ or ‘demark’ the presence of a saying inspired, influenced, or evocative of Jesus.17 If, as per the above scholarly suggestions, these texts in James are inspired and influenced by Jesus’s teaching,18 with James implicitly alluding to Jesus as a known authority source,19 we might seriously consider whether James offers any indication or introduction to words and phrases that are intended to evoke Jesus’s teaching.20 Therefore, what this study aims to consider is whether, when we review the passages that have some scholarly consensus regarding their similarity and connection to extant Jesus sayings found within the Gospels, we find any potential for introductory words, phrases, or structures that may ‘demark’ or ‘introduce’ the words of Jesus.21 If we are able to find certain key words and phrases that are used consistently in the immediate introduction of a ‘Jesus saying’ within James we might reasonably extrapolate that there is potential for these words and phrases to function within James as key demarcation phrases encouraging the hearer to pay attention to the upcoming words and their association with Jesus. Consequently, if we find some patterns of introductory phrases connected with these Jesus sayings, they may indicate for us potential ways in which James demarks the presence of a Jesus saying. Consequently, we will briefly consider how James uses and introduces the Old Testament, before discussing the use of Jesus’s teaching within the epistle.

2 James, Jesus, and the Old Testament

It is salient for us, therefore, to briefly note the presence and introduction of the Old Testament within James. For example, the use of Lev. 19 within James is salient because in Jas. 2:8 there is a direct citation of Lev. 19:18b LXX alongside the introductory discussion of the ‘royal law’ which seems to clearly introduce and demark an Old Testament citation.22 Specifically, we might note that Jas. 2:8 says, ‘however, if you carry out the royal law according to scripture, “love your neighbour as yourself” you are doing well.’ This is significant in a number of ways. First, we have a clear citation of Lev. 19:18 in Jas. 2:8, and therefore a clear drawing upon the Old Testament.23 At the same time, scholars such as Carson suggest that the phrase ‘royal law’ could equally be translated as the ‘law pertaining to the king’24 which could imply and evoke a connection between Lev. 19:18 and Jesus.25 In so doing, Carson suggests that this introductory phrase within Jas. 2:8 could function evocatively of Jesus and Jesus’s own connection with Lev. 19:18.26 Thus, we might find here in Jas. 2:8 an example of an introductory formulae that seems to, at least in some way, conjure up and evoke connections with the teaching of Jesus, as well as the Old Testament.27 Specifically, we find in Jas. 2:8 the potential for an introductory phrase to an Old Testament citation to function as an implicit evocation of Jesus.28 At the same time, Johnson notes the proliferation of Lev. 19 allusions within James such as Lev. 19:13 in Jas. 5:4 and Lev. 19:16 in Jas. 4:11 and a number of other places29 that do not seem to have a regular introductory phrase30 but are still present.

We might also note the potential for a similar, though less defined, occurrence within Jas. 2:11. As Moo notes, Jas. 2:11 draws upon two of the Ten Commandments that Jesus also drew upon, with James also seeming to draw the deeper and wider ranging permeations of the command suggested by Jesus into the discussion regarding favouritism in the Church.31 What is more, the concept of the commands being ‘spoken’ may conjure up Old Testament motifs of the giving of the Decalogue, but also may evoke oral traditions in which Jesus was the speaker and teacher of these texts and their implications. Consequently, there is potential in Jas. 2:11 for the use of the Old Testament there to bring to mind Jesus’s own discussion of these Old Testament texts. At the same time, we seem to find more standard introductory formulae to scriptural citations in places such as Jas. 2:25 and 4:6, as well as the drawing upon Old Testament allusions and character motifs throughout the epistle.32 Importantly, we can note a variety of ways in which James introduces and demarks the Old Testament, including ways that could function to evoke Jesus’s teaching. Therefore, we might consider whether there are ways that James introduces Jesus’s teaching within the letter, or in any way demarks or highlights the potential presence of Jesus’s teaching, perhaps with the use of key words that point the audience towards Jesus. We have seen how in Jas. 2:8 and 2:11 some find potential for Jesus’s association to OT texts to be evoked through simple words and phrases such as βασιλικός and λεγω. Importantly, James does not seem to explicitly evoke Jesus in either of these examples, but we do find potential for introductory formulae to evoke Jesus’s teaching. This study will now consider whether key words or phrases may function, perhaps in a similar manner, to demark or introduce the impact, influence, and interaction with Jesus within James.

3 Αδελφός Language and Jesus’s Teaching

What we might consider, therefore, is whether James in any way marks out or introduces the sayings of Jesus within the epistle. Dale Allison rightly notes that James does not introduce any of these potential Jesus sayings with the phrase ‘Jesus says’.33 Yet Allison also notes that if the letter of James is intended for the ‘Jewish diaspora’ inclusive of both Jewish Christians and others besides, then there may be an intended aspect of not wanting to directly connect Jesus’s sayings to Jesus.34 In that sense, we might consider whether James is drawing on Jesus’s teaching and not directly attributing them to him for this, or other similar reasons. If that were the case, however, it stands to be quite reasonable that James might seek to use introductory formulae, phrases, or words of significance that might ‘tip the cap’ towards the source and inspiration of these sayings. What we might consider, therefore, is whether there are any themes or common motifs that precede the presence of Jesus sayings in James that may function in an introductory manner. If we are able to note a pattern of key words or phrases connected with the presence of Jesus’s teaching, then we might be able to begin to trace how the words of Jesus may be introduced or demarked within James. Therefore, we will consider several potential key words and phrases found within the context of Jesus’s teaching within James and their occurrence elsewhere within James. Further, this identification of potential introductory phrases will then be compared to the use of those syntactical elements elsewhere within James to assess whether there is a correlation between these words and phrases that may, in turn, suggest some potential introductory formulae or demarcation of Jesus sayings in James.

First, we might note the presence of ‘hearing’ and ‘listening’ language within the letter of James. Even though a variety of Greek words are used, we can find the theme of ‘listening’ in 1:19, 1:22, 1:23, and 2:5. As we noted prior, each of these verses find at least some resonances with Jesus’s teaching and are regularly suggested by scholars to be examples of Jesus’s teachings being drawn upon by James.35 What might be significant, therefore, is whether concepts of ‘listening’ and ‘hearing’ may in some way demark, introduce, or highlight Jesus’s teaching. Certainly, there is a sense in which the teaching of Jesus was originally ‘heard’, and the encouragement to ‘hear’ and ‘listen’ may function as a potential key word to alert the audience to the voice of Jesus. Additionally, it should not be overlooked that Jesus often began teaching with a command to listen (Matt. 15:10; 21:33; Mark 4:3; 7:14; Luke 9:44; also Matt. 17:5). Thus, it is salient that the phrases in 1:19, 1:22, 1:23, and 2:5 seem to have strong parallels to Jesus’s words in Matt. 5:22a, Matt. 7:21, Luke 6:47, Matt. 5:3, and Luke 6:20b.36 When considering these synoptic texts we can note that Matt. 5:22a, Matt. 7:32, and Luke 6:20 all have Jesus explicitly noted as speaking in the verse, and Luke 6:47 also has listening motifs. On the one hand, this may be expected, but there may also be a sense in which the words in Jas. 1:19, 22, 23, and 2:5 function particularly to evoke Jesus’s oral teaching.37 Thus we can note a correlation between the presence of the words ἀκούω and ἀκροατής in James and the presence of Jesus’s teaching. One might posit, then, the potential for people to associate ἀκούω and ἀκροατής with Jesus so that when those words are heard, Jesus is evoked. The fact that the use of these words is followed by phrases evocative of Jesus’s teaching within James provide a strong correlational which may indicate a connection between these words and Jesus within the Jacobean community. Consequently, we might suggest that admonitions to ‘hear’ or ‘listen’ could alert the reader to the presence of Jesus’s teaching, with the word functioning to highlight and demark to the audience the upcoming Jesus saying.

Second, we might note the beginning of Jas. 2:5 and the phrase that introduces the Jesus saying. While we may reasonably suggest the presence of a phrase akin to Matt. 5:3 in Jas. 2:5, we might also note the introductory phrase of 2:5 states ἀκούσατε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί. As noted prior, we have ‘listening’ language within this phrase, and as a result we might note that the presence of ἀκούω may alert the Jacobean audience to the upcoming words of Jesus. Furthermore, the phrase ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί in 2:5 is placed alongside an imperative, in this instance ‘to listen’.38 When we look through the book of James for a similar pattern, we might also note the introductory phrases in Jas. 1:16 and 1:19 which also have an imperative followed by ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί.39 Specifically we find:

Jas.1:16—μὴ πλανᾶσθε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί.

Jas. 1:19—Ἴστε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί. ἔστω δὲ πᾶς ἄνθρωπος ταχὺς εἰς τὸ ἀκοῦσαι, βραδὺς εἰς τὸ λαλῆσαι, βραδὺς εἰς ὀργήν.

Jas. 2:5—ἀκούσατε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί. οὐχ ὁ θεὸς ἐξελέξατο τοὺς πτωχοὺς τῷ κόσμῳ πλουσίους ἐν πίστει καὶ κληρονόμους τῆς βασιλείας ἧς ἐπηγγείλατο τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν αὐτόν.

What is significant for our discussion is that this phrase ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί appears only in Jas. 1:16, 1:19 and 2:5, each time is immediately after an imperative, and each time precedes an example of Jesus’s teaching. Again, we have this correlation effect in which we might note a regular phrase used only in the introduction of Jesus’s teaching. As a result of this correlation, we might reasonably suggest the potential for the phrase ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί to function as a demarcation of an upcoming Jesus saying for the audience. We might consider the presence of ἀδελφος language, especially intensified in the form of ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί along with an imperative, forms a consistent pattern of preceding a Jesus saying within James. Indeed, we might consider whether this does constitute an explicit introductory formula for Jesus material within James. Certainly, the pattern of the phrase ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί alongside an imperative precedes a Jesus saying in each occurrence within James. Consequently, we might note the strong correlation of this phrase with words and phrases evocative of Jesus’s teaching within James. While it is true that correlation does not prove causality, what we can at least suggest is a pattern of imperative and the phrase ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί occurs within James in the introduction of Jesus’s teaching.

Moreover, we might consider the use of ἀδελφος language elsewhere in James. For example, we might note the presence of ἀδελφοί in 2:5, 3:10–12 and 5:12, which again immediately precedes strong examples of Jesus’s teaching in 2:5, 3:10, 3:12 and 5:12 creating a striking pattern. At the same time, we might also note the presence of ἀδελφοί language in Jas. 1:2, 2:1, 2:14, 2:15, 3:1, 4:11, and 5:19, some of which may resonate with Jesus’s teaching (1:2;40 3:1;41 4:11;42 5:1943) and some of which do not seem to evoke Jesus as convincingly (2:1; 2:14–15). In a sense, we might note that Jas. 2:1 may not evoke a teaching tradition, but clearly Jesus is present in the phrase τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τῆς δόξης, and consequently the use of ἀδελφοί in Jas. 2:1 is still associated with Jesus.44 Therefore, we note a fairly consistent pattern (90 %) in which the use of ἀδελφοί is strongly associated with Jesus or Jesus’s teaching. We might posit that Jas. 2:14–15 simply contains Jesus sayings not known to us, or are functioning in a broader way to evoke key themes linked to Jesus. At the same time, it may simply not fit into the category being explored here. Therefore, while we might note a degree of tension here regarding the use of ἀδελφοί language in Jas. 2:14–15,45 outside of that instance we find a relatively strong parallel between the use of ἀδελφοί language and the potential presence of Jesus’s teaching in some form. On the one hand, we cannot prove that ἀδελφοί language functions to demark or allude to Jesus’s teaching, and some of the instances of potential Jesus sayings are stronger than others. But we can certainly highlight a fairly consistent pattern of Jesus sayings coming after ἀδελφοί language (80 % of occurrences) and an even stronger association between ἀδελφοί language and Jesus (90 % of occurrences). Therefore, we can note that the presence of ἀδελφοί within the text could function to heighten our sense of expectation of an upcoming Jesus saying. It seems likely that the original hearers could similarly have, to one degree or another, considered the word ἀδελφοί to be key in evoking or demarking the words of Jesus. Certainly, if we were to consider the epistle of James to have been authored by ‘James the Lord’s brother’,46 then the fact that James refers to ἀδελφοί in the context of Jesus sayings may be significant. Surely, it would feel noteworthy that the ἀδελφός of Jesus highlights the words of Jesus through ἀδελφοί language.

Another significant use of ἀδελφοί language is in Jas. 5:12. As we have already noted, there is what Scot McKnight calls ‘substantial’ potential for Jesus’s teaching to be found in Jas. 5:12.47 What is more, the introductory phrase πρὸ πάντων δέ, ἀδελφοί μου again draws on ἀδελφοί language immediately preceding a Jesus saying. Interestingly, however, Jas. 5:12 adds the slightly more emphatic μου but lacks the language of ἀγαπάω that we have seen elsewhere. What is more, the inclusion of the phrase ‘and above everything’ may highlight a particular significance, or ultimacy to the words of Jas. 5:12. Certainly, the introduction to Jas. 5:12 would function to get the attention of the audience, particularly highlighted by the ἀδελφοί language and the hyperbolic sense of πρὸ πάντων. Thus, we might consider whether the opening words of Jas. 5:12 do function as an introductory formula of sorts for the words of Jesus. Certainly, they seem to carry with them an introductory sense and weight, in that the audience is called to pay particular attention to what follows. What is more, if Jas. 5:12 is considered to be the ‘strongest’ connection with Jesus’s teaching in James, especially syntactically, then perhaps the heightened call to pay attention may explain the added clarity with which the voice of Jesus comes through in Jas. 5:12. In sum, however, we can note a very strong correlation between the use of ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί and Jesus’s teaching as well as a fairly strong potential to find ἀδελφοί language connected with Jesus. We can also note a very strong connection between hearing/listening motifs and the presence of Jesus in James. Consequently, we can note the strong correlations we have observed may signal for us some potential ways that Jesus’s teaching is demarked or introduced within James. Certainly, this pattern of key phrases occurring in the immediate vicinity of Jesus sayings, especially phrases such as ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί plus an imperative, requires some sort of acknowledgement. In that sense, it seems feasible to argue that these phrases are used within James to demark and introduce Jesus and Jesus’s teaching, with the phrases functioning to highlight to the reader what is about to come.

4 Other Potential Introductory Phrases within James

We might also note the potential connection, as noted by Kloppenborg, between Jas. 5:1–3 and Luke 6:24, 12:33–34.48 Kloppenborg notes a number of helpful parallels, but also notes the introduction to Jas. 5:1 with the Greek phrase ἄγε νῦν. Kloppenborg notes the presence of this phrase in Jas. 4:13, but also its common usage within other classical Greek works.49 At the risk of overextending the argument we are making, we might consider the purpose of James’s use of ἄγε νῦν in both Jas. 4:13 and 5:1. As Batten notes, many scholars find a connection between the Jesus sayings of Luke 6:24, 12:33–34 and Jas. 5:1–3, but there also remains a potential connection between Jas. 4:13–14 and Matt. 6:34.50 Again, we do not find strong syntactic connections, but both passages mention the concept of αὔριον twice.51 Moreover, there are certainly thematic resonances between the texts regarding their mindset about the events of tomorrow and the associated disposition of the audience as a result. Whether James’s two uses of ἄγε νῦν form some kind of inclusio is difficult to tell but using our current framework we can find the potential for Jesus’s teaching in both passages immediately following the introductory ἄγε νῦν phrase. Whether we render this phrase ‘now listen’ or ‘come now’52 we find a phrase here that is calling for particular attention from the reader, a concept that seems to fit with the prior discussion of how James may introduce Jesus. These kind of phrases that highlight the importance of what is to come seem to frequently precede the Jesus sayings within James, as we have seen. There is a sense in which James is signalling to his audience a sense of particular need to pay attention or respond to the coming words. Consequently, when we are considering the potential methods for the ‘demarcation’ of Jesus’s teaching within James, the phrase ἄγε νῦν seems to have the potential to function in that capacity. Certainly, Kloppenborg notes the use of ἄγε νῦν within Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey and other Greek texts where the phrase seems to precede a command.53 While we might question the Jacobean audience’s knowledge of Greek classics, perhaps there is a sense in which the phrase ἄγε νῦν carries with it a particular call to focus on a coming command. That James then follows this phrase with a drawing upon of the words of Jesus may only function to add to the emphatic nature of the command, and the combination of ἄγε νῦν and the potential drawing upon of Jesus’s voice and authority may serve as a compelling rhetorical device. As there are only two occurrences of ἄγε νῦν within James it is hard to determine whether this is a pattern, but there is potential nevertheless for this phrase to highlight to the audience the presence of an upcoming Jesus saying. What is complex, however, is that it is not necessarily clear why ἄγε νῦν might demark the words of Jesus. However, we can simply note that the two occurrences of ἄγε νῦν in James are then followed by potential evocations of Jesus’s teaching.

Another potential avenue to explore could be the use of the word κύριος within James. Within James exactly who is in view when the word κύριος is used is often quite complex. Bauckham initially notes the fairly clear use of κύριος in relation to Jesus in Jas. 1:1 and 2:1, then formulates how the further uses of κύριος in Jas. 1:7, 3:9, 4:10, 15, 5:4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, and 15 either refer to ‘God’ or ‘Jesus’.54 In a sense, many of these uses either clearly are portraying God as κύριος, or as in Jas. 1:1 and 2:1 are clearly associated with Jesus. Then, Bauckham goes on to convincingly argue that the use of κύριος in Jas. 5:7–8, 14, and 15 would likely refer to Jesus.55 Specifically, in noting Apollonius’s Canon, a general pattern which notes that two nouns in a genitive construction either both have or both lack the definite article,56 Bauckham notes that in these verses (Jas. 5:7–8, 14, 15 as well as 1:1 and 2:1) where contextually the κύριος appears likely to be Jesus then Apollonius’s Canon seems to be evident.57 If Bauckham is right in positing that these verses do associate Jesus with κύριος, then perhaps it would seem likely that in these verses the word κύριος could function to evoke Jesus sayings. However, this does not seem to be the case. In fact, if anything we don’t seem to find any real resonances between Jesus’s teaching and the use of κύριος within James. This may be surprising as, in one sense, we might expect the presence of κύριος to prepare the way for a Jesus saying. In a similar way, while the use of the name Ἰησοῦς appears in both 1:1 and in 2:1 in a significant way, there does not appear to be a sense in which the name of Ἰησοῦς actually functions to introduce Jesus’s teaching. In a surprising way, we might consider that κύριος and Ἰησοῦς language and motifs do not seem to function to evoke Jesus’s teaching. Certainly, when studying the frequency and occurrences of Jesus saying and potential phrases that may introduce them, κύριος and Ἰησοῦς do not seem to have the same degree of correlation between their use and Jesus’s teaching as we find in listening/hearing language, sibling language, or the phrase ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί.

5 Conclusion

In sum, this study has broadly sought to draw upon the work of a wide variety of scholars who find Jesus’s teaching represented, alluded to, and evoked in the epistle of James. Rather than seek to focus on the presence or purpose of these Jesus sayings this study has sought to suggest some possible ways these Jesus sayings may be introduced or demarked within James. Particularly, this study has sought to analyse the words leading up to Jesus sayings in James and suggest some possibilities that have a very strong correlation between their occurrence in James and Jesus sayings immediately following them. Thus, the clearest suggestion may be the phrase ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί plus an imperative, which appears in 1:16, 1:19, and 2:5. Importantly, in the three occurrences of this phrase within James, each time it is immediately followed by words evocative of Jesus. Therefore, we might posit that ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί may function as an introductory phrase for Jesus’s teaching within James. Of course, in a sense it does in that every occurrence of the phrase in James is followed by a Jesus saying. Yet, this regular pattern may highlight for us a phrase that may have functioned to demark the words of Jesus in a specific way. On a similar note, we also noted the more prolific use of ἀδελφοί in general within James. In studying the use of ἀδελφοί in James we noted that 90 % of the occurrences within James are either in the context of a Jesus saying or, as per Jas. 2:1, in the context of a clear reference to Jesus. This does leave us with a quandary regarding the use of ἀδελφοί in 2:14–15, but we still find a fairly strong correlation between the use of ἀδελφοί and Jesus’s teaching. Similarly, we find that ‘listening’ language in James seems to occur with high frequency in the words immediately preceding Jesus’s teaching. Certainly, this could be explained by the way Jesus is found to begin teaching with a call to ‘listen’, for example in Mark 4:3. It is hard to pick up on a consistent pattern to the use of hearing and listening language in James, only to note a very strong correlation between this kind of language and the presence of Jesus’s teaching within the text. In a similar vein, we noted the phrase ἄγε νῦν occurs within the immediate introduction of potential Jesus sayings within James. We can also note that both appearances of ἄγε νῦν within James immediately precede Jesus’s teaching, but it is also hard to understand what about the phrase ἄγε νῦν would function to introduce or demark Jesus’s teaching. Yet, what we can note is a variety of potential ways that key words or phrases function within James to demark the presence of Jesus’s teaching within James. That we find such strong correlation between these phrases and the use of Jesus’s teaching within James gives us at the very least a problem to answer and a correlation to account for. While we are only able to simply note the connection between the two, it seems at least feasible that the strong correlation between Jesus’s teaching and the phrases ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί, ἀδελφοί, ἀκούω, ἀκροατής, and ἄγε νῦν functions to highlight to us some potential ways James may have demarked or introduced Jesus’s teaching.


Cf. Dale C. Allison, ‘The Audience of James and the Sayings of Jesus’, in James, 1 & 2 Peter, and Early Jesus Traditions, ed. by Alicia J. Batten and John S. Kloppenborg, LNTS 478 (London: Bloomsbury, 2014), 58–77 (75–77). Also, David Allen, The Historical Character of Jesus: Canonical Insights from Outside the Gospels (London: SPCK, 2013), 112–131. Alicia J. Batten, ‘The Urbanization of Jesus Traditions in James’, in Batten and Kloppenborg (eds), James, 1 & 2 Peter, and Early Jesus Traditions, 78–96 (78). For more on the person of Jesus within James, see Petr Mareček, ‘Die Person Jesu Christi im Jakobusbrief’, ASE 34 (2017), 343–61.


Dean B. Deppe, The Sayings of Jesus in the Epistle of James (Chelsea: Bookcrafters, 1989). Paul Foster, ‘Q and James: A Source-Critical Conundrum’, in Batten and Kloppenborg (eds), James, 1 & 2 Peter, and Early Jesus Traditions, 1–34. Batten, ‘Urbanization’, 79–83. Also, Alicia J. Batten, ‘The Jesus Tradition and the Letter of James’, RevExp 108 (2011), 381–90 (382); Ronald Deines, ‘God or Mammon. The Danger of Wealth in the Jesus Tradition and in the Epistle of James’, in Anthropologie und Ethik im Frühjudentum und im Neuen Testament: Wechselseitige Wahrnehmungen. Internationales Symposium in Verbindung mit dem Projekt Corpus Judaeo-Hellenisticum Novi Testamenti, ed. by Matthias Konradt and Esther Schläpfer (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2012), 327–86; Susanne Luther, ‘Von Feigenbäumen und Oliven: Die Rezeption, Transformation und Kreation sprachethischer Traditionen im Jakobusbrief’, ASE 34 (2017), 381–401 (391–96). In a broader sense, Alkema argues that the Catholic Epistles are ‘fundamentally’ built upon the Jesus tradition. Roelof Alkema, The Pillars and the Cornerstone: Jesus Tradition Parallels in the Catholic Epistles (Chicago: Eburon Academic, 2018), 295.


Of course, this is a source of debate: Batten, ‘Jesus Tradition’, 382. Christian Bemmerl, Der Jakobusbrief in der Alten Kirche: Eine Spurensuche vom Neuen Testament bis zu Origenes, WUNT II (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2021), 1–2. As McCartney notes, however, the sheer cumulative number of potential connections between James and Jesus’s teachings found in the Gospels makes it very unlikely that no connection at all exists between the two. Cf. D. G. McCartney, James, BECNT (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009), 49–50. Some do however argue that James had a direct knowledge of Matthew’s Gospel (Massey H. Shepherd, ‘The Epistle of James and the Gospel of Matthew’, JBL 75/1 [1956], 40–51 [47]) but it seems more likely that there is dependence on some kind of collection of Jesus traditions in oral or written forms (for example ‘Q’)—John S. Kloppenborg, Q, The Earliest Gospel: An Introduction to the Original Sayings and Stories of Jesus (Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2008), 111–20.


One question that may arise is whether these Jesus sayings would be identifiable to the original audience. A similar discussion takes place when considering ‘allusions’ to the Old Testament within the New Testament, with some scholars helpfully noting that the audience’s ability to detect an allusion does not impact whether an allusion is there or not. Cf. N. T. Wright, Paul and the Faithfulness of God (London: SPCK, 2013), 1451; Francis Watson, Paul and the Hermeneutics of Faith (London: T&T Clark, 2015), 43. In a similar way, we need not prove whether the audience would pick up on Jesus’s teachings or their demarcation, only the potential for them to exist.


The phrase ‘Jesus saying’ is used regularly in this article to denote the passages where James is evoking and drawing upon Jesus’s teaching. While not direct verbatim quotations, these passages are clearly inspired by Jesus’s teachings and as a result the concept of ‘Jesus saying’ is simply used to describe the kind of passages we can observe in Jas. 2:5, 5:12 and other key passages as a shorthand for acknowledging the presence of Jesus’s teachings within a given text.


Indeed, McKnight suggests that Matt. 5:3 and/or Luke 6:20 ‘surely is in the background to James’s statement’ in Jas. 2:5. Scot McKnight, The Letter of James, NICNT (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011), 195.


Allison, ‘Audience of James’, 66. Also, Deppe, Sayings of Jesus, 89–91; Foster, ‘Q and James’, 26–27; John S. Kloppenborg, ‘The Emulation of the Jesus Tradition in the Letter of James’, in Reading James with New Eyes: Methodological Reassessments of the Letter of James, ed. by Robert L. Webb and John S. Kloppenborg, LNTS 342 (London: T&T Clark, 2007), 122–41.


Patrick J. Hartin, James and the Q Sayings of Jesus (Sheffield: JSOT, 1991), 186; Allison, ‘Audience of James’, 68. Batten, ‘Urbanization’, 81–82. Also, Peter H. Davids, The Epistle of James: A Commentary on the Greek Text, New International Greek Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982), 188–92; D. J. Moo, The Letter of James, Pillar New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000), 231–34; Luke Timothy Johnson, The Letter of James: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, Anchor Yale Bible 37A (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), 326–29. In fact, Moo remarks that ‘Jesus’ teaching in Matt. 5:34–37 is particularly important in understanding James’ teaching, because it looks as if James is consciously reproducing that tradition.’ Moo, James, 233.


Kloppenborg, ‘Emulation’, 122. Also, Foster, ‘Q and James’, 29–30.


Specifically noting the encouragement to joy in the midst of suffering in Jas. 1:2, 5:10 and Luke 6:22–23. Kloppenborg, ‘Emulation’, 123.


Noting the combination of prayer and asking in Jas. 1:5 and Luke 11:9 (Kloppenborg, ‘Emulation’, 123–25) words that seem to find no resonances within Matthew, just like Luke 6:25 and its potential parallel in Jas. 4:9, or Luke 6:24 and its potential parallel in Jas. 5:1. Foster, ‘Q and James’, 23–30; Deppe, Sayings of Jesus, 236. For more on the concepts of wisdom in Jas. 1:5 and a comparison of the concepts of wisdom in the New Testament, see Oda Wischmeyer, ‘Jak 3,13–18 vor dem Hintergrund von 1 Kor 1,17–2,16: Frühchristliche Weisheitstheologie und der Jakobusbrief’, ASE 34 (2017), 403–30 (408–14).


This study purposefully shies away from a discussion of Q. Originating as a way to understand the so-called synoptic problem (B. H. Streeter, The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins, 2nd edn [London: Macmillan, 1930]; J. A. Fitzmyer, ‘The Priority of Mark and the “Q” source in Luke’, TPP 11 [1970], 131–170; Mark Goodacre, The Synoptic Problem: A Way Through the Maze [London: Continuum, 2001]), some scholars still consider Q to have been a written document with various iterations (Dale C. Allison, Constructing Jesus: Memory, Imagination and History [London: SPCK, 2010], 118–25). However, others offer a convincing suggestion that Q consisted of oral traditions, delivered performatively, so that Q itself consisted of oral Jesus traditions developing into text. See Jonathan Draper and Richard A. Horsley, Whoever Hears You Hears Me: Prophets, Performance, and Tradition in Q (Harrisburg: Trinity Press, 1999), 3–4.


Foster, ‘Q and James’, 4–5, 23–30. Bible passages are author translations unless otherwise stated. Also, see Batten, ‘Jesus Tradition’, 383, 387; John Painter, ‘James as the First Catholic Epistle’, Int 60/3 (2006), 245–59. See also Alkema, Pillars, 55–93. Of particular importance is the work of Roelof Alkema who studies the Catholic Epistles more broadly, including James, and seeks to develop a criteria-led approach towards identifying Jesus’s words in epistolary literature. These include looking for syntactical, propositional, and thematic resonances within the text. Alkema, Pillars, 34. Importantly, this study will only focus on those attested to be the most ‘likely’ instances of finding allusions to Jesus’s teaching within James.


Kloppenborg, ‘Emulation’, 133.


Richard Bauckham, James: Wisdom of James, Disciple of Jesus the Sage (London: Routledge, 1999), 81.


Wesley Hiram Wachob, The Voice of Jesus in the Social Rhetoric of James, SNTSMS106 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 150–51.


Certainly, it is helpful to note the overview of scholarly work on the presence of Jesus’s teachings within James (Alkema, Pillars, 42–55) as well as Alkema’s thorough overview of many of these examples (Alkema, Pillars, 55–95) leading to Alkema’s conclusion that ‘Jesus Tradition was obviously of great importance to James’. Alkema, Pillars, 98.


Bauckham, James, 81.


Wachob, Voice of Jesus, 150–51.


For example, what may be most salient is the use of introductory formulae within Matthew. Terrence Keegan offers an interesting study of the five key discourses within Matthew’s Gospel, and highlights key aspects of the introductory formulae of each discourse section: Terence J. Keegan, ‘Introductory Formulae for Matthean Discourses’, CBQ 44 (1982), 415–30. What is important to note is that Matthew seems to use key words, phrases, and contexts to introduce the discourse units. For example, Matthew seems to avoid the use of διδάσκω when introducing discourse material, but does talk regularly of Jesus sitting down, the disciples of Jesus approaching, and the presence of crowds, to introduce the five Matthean discourses. Keegan, ‘Introductory Formulae’, 417–28. Consequently, we may find in Matthew that Jesus’s teaching is introduced by what Keegan calls ‘an array of distinctive terminology which is found at the beginning of each of the five discourses’—Keegan, ‘Introductory Formulae’, 428. In a similar way, we might note a potential similar use of key words and phrases to introduce Jesus’s teaching in James.


It is helpful to consider the presence of Jesus’s teaching in other epistolary literature to note any potential demarcation or indication. One significant example is Rom. 12:1–15:13 (Michael B. Thompson, Clothed with Christ: The Example and Teaching of Jesus in Romans 12:1–15:13, JSNT [Sheffield: JSOT, 1991]). This text of Rom. 12:1–15:13 seems to draw on the same Sermon on the Mount and Sermon on the Plain traditions as James but seems to lack any ascribing to Jesus directly. Some suggest this is because they would widely have been known to originate from and evoke Jesus: D. J. Moo, The Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996), 780–81. Some scholars do point to the potential allusions to Jesus in 1 John 1:5 and 3:11, each with a similar introductory phrase. Thompson, Clothed with Christ, 41–42. Within 1 John there are a variety of potential Jesus traditions found in 1 John 1:5; 3:11, 23; 4:7, 11–12. Colin G. Kruse, The Letters of John, Pillar New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000), 132–33. Moreover, within the later work of 1 Clement we can note two potential Jesus sayings clearly attributed to Jesus in 1 Clem 13:2. Thompson, Clothed with Christ, 44–45. Accordingly, we can note the potential for Jesus’s teaching to have some form of introductory formula in similar literature.


Luke Timothy Johnson, ‘The Use of Leviticus 19 in the Letter of James’, JBL 101/3 (1982), 391–401 (393); Darian Lockett, ‘The Use of Leviticus 19 in James and 1 Peter: A Neglected Parallel’, CBQ 82 (2020), 456–72 (460). Also, see McKnight, The Letter of James, 204–05.


Allison notes also the section as a whole quotes Lev. 19:18, seems to allude to Lev. 19:15, and also may allude to other interpretations of Lev. 19, suggesting also that Lev. 19 similarly influences the letter of James in other sections as well. See Dale C. Allison, James (ICC): A Critical and Exegetical Commentary (London: Bloomsbury, 2013), 413. It is also noteworthy that James draws upon the Old Testament regularly, at points introducing citations of the Old Testament by using the word γραθή (2:8, 2:23, 4:5–6)—Duane F. Watson, ‘An Assessment of the Rhetoric and Rhetorical Analysis of the Letter of James’, in Webb and Kloppenborg (eds), Reading James with New Eyes, 99–120 (114).


D. A. Carson, ‘James’, in Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, ed. by D. A. Carson and G. K. Beale (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007), 997–1013 (1000).


Carson, ‘James’, 1000.


Carson, ‘James’, 1000. There is potential to suggest that Jesus’s own use of Lev. 19:18 may even stand behind the use of Lev. 19:18 here. For more on this concept of Jesus’s use of the Old Testament impacting the use of the Old Testament in the New Testament, see Craig A. Evans, ‘Why Did the New Testament Writers Appeal to the Old Testament?’, JSNT 38/1 (2015), 36–48.


For more on the potential use of Lev. 19 throughout the epistle of James see: Johnson, ‘Leviticus 19’, 391–401; Lockett, ‘Leviticus 19’, 456–72.


For some helpful work on this in regards to social memory theory and how key words and phrases may evoke a broader narrative through the process of ‘metonymic referencing’, cf. Catrin H. Williams, ‘How Scripture “Speaks”: Insights from the study of ancient media culture’, in Methodology in the Use of the Old Testament in the New: Context and Criteria, ed. by D. Allen and S. Smith (London: T&T Clark, 2019), 53–69. Also, see Tom Thatcher, ‘Cain and Abel in Early Christian Memory: A Case Study in “The Use of the Old Testament in the New” ’, CBQ 72/4 (2010), 721–51.


Johnson notes a significantly higher frequency of Lev. 19 allusions within James than those drawn upon here. For these see: Johnson, ‘Leviticus 19’, 393–96.


Similarly, we might note the concept of ‘metalepsis’ and how the New Testament quotes the Old Testament and draws upon the wider context. See Richard B. Hays, Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989); Richard B. Hays, Echoes of Scripture in the Gospels (Waco: Baylor University Press, 2016); J. K. Brown, ‘Metalepsis’, in Exploring Intertextuality: Diverse Strategies for New Testament Interpretation of Texts, ed. by B. J. Oropeza and S. Moyise (Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2016), 29–40. For a critical view, see C. D. Stanley, ‘ “Pearls before Swine”: Did Paul’s Audiences Understand His Biblical Quotations?’, NovT 41 (1999), 124–44. In a sense, we might consider how the regular and repeated allusions to Lev. 19 may be evoked and heightened via the use of the specific citation of Lev. 19:18. In a similar way, we might also ponder whether the same would be true of the use of the teaching of Jesus in the Sermon of the Mount within James. Namely, the regular and repeated drawing upon of the words of Jesus, and indeed the Old Testament, may in turn evoke a wider contextual framework.


Moo, James, 114–16. Also, Ben Witherington III, Jesus the Sage: The Pilgrimage of Wisdom (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1994), 242–43.


Cf. Carson, ‘James’. Also, Robert J. Foster, The Significance of Exemplars for the Interpretation of the Letter of James (Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2014).


Allison, ‘Audience of James’, 76–77.


Allison, James (ICC), 59.


Foster, ‘Q and James’, 4–5.


While some English translations place ‘listening’ language in 4:13 and 5:1, the actual introductory phrase is Ἄγε νῦν οἱ λέγοντες and will be discussed more fully below. Moreover, the NRSV located ‘listening’ language in Jas. 5:4, but the Greek word underlying that translation is ἰδού. Therefore, only texts in which ἀκούω or ἀκροατής are used are mentioned for this discussion.


What is more, if we do consider Jas. 2:5 to be a key verse, even the central verse, for the epistle (Watson, ‘Rhetorical Analysis’, 114–15) then the presence of the voice of Jesus, and the potential for a ‘demarking’ of that voice of Jesus via an introductory formula, is salient.


Outside of James, Margaret Mitchell notes the presence of Μὴ πλανᾶσθε (1 Cor. 6:9; 15:33; Gal. 6:6) and ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί (1 Cor. 15:58) within Pauline literature. Margaret Mitchell, ‘The Letter of James as a Document of Paulinism’, in Webb and Kloppenborg (eds), Reading James with New Eyes, 75–98 (89–90). In that sense, Mitchell argues that James may have connections with, or even be writing from within, Paulinism. Yet, we are simply noting here the correlation between the three occurrences of ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί in James.


Davids, James, 111.


Cf. Matt. 5:11–12//Luke 6:22—Foster, ‘Q and James’, 4. Also, Patrick J. Hartin, ‘Call to Be Perfect through Suffering (James 1,2–4): The Concept of Perfection in the Epistle of James and the Sermon on the Mount’, Bib 77/4 (1996), 477–92; John S. Kloppenborg, ‘The Reception of the Jesus Tradition in James’, in The Catholic Epistles and the Tradition, ed. by J. Schlosser, BETL 176 (Leuven: Peeters, 2004), 71–100 (89).


Cf. Matt. 23:13//Luke 20:47—Johnson, Letter of James, 255–56.


Cf. Matt. 7:1—Johnson, Letter of James, 293. Foster, ‘Q and James’, 5. Interestingly, Kloppenborg notes the connection between Matt. 7:1–2, Luke 6:37–38, Mark 4:24, and 1 Clem 13:2 and the ‘relative stability’ of the wordings conveyed in each of these texts. John S. Kloppenborg, ‘Memory, Performance and the Sayings of Jesus’, JSHJ 10/2 (2012), 97–132 (118).


Cf. Matt. 18:15–18—Johnson, Letter of James, 337–38.


For more on the potential meaning of Jas. 2:1 and other similar verses such as 1:1, see Martin Karrer, ‘Christus der Herr und die Welt als Stätte der Prüfung: zur Theologie des Jakobusbriefs’, KuD 35 (1989), 166–188; Richard Bauckham, ‘Messianic Jewish Identity in James’, in Muted Voices of the New Testament: Readings in the Catholical Epistles and Hebrews, ed. by Katherine M. Hockey et al. (London: T&T Clark, 2017), 101–20 (115–19). Some do question whether Jas. 2:1 may have some scribal additions, but there remains little textual evidence for that conclusion. See Bauckham, ‘Jewish Identity’, 115.


There are, of course, potential reasons for that. One could be that Jas. 2:14–15 represents a Jesus saying not recorded for us within Gospel material. Moreover, Davids notes the use of ἀδελφοί within James to introduce a new section. Davids, James, 120. As a result, we might note a dual focus for ἀδελφοί within James even. Either way, it is not necessary to make every use of ἀδελφοί fit within this framework, only to note the strong correlation between ἀδελφοί language and the presence of Jesus’s teaching.


Obviously, this is a lively source of debate. See Luke Timothy Johnson, Brother of Jesus, Friend of God: Studies in the Letter of James (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004), 24–38. Also, Sophie Laws, The Epistle of James, Black’s New Testament Commentary (London: Continuum, 1980), 38–42; Davids, James, 2–22; Moo, James, 9–28; Johnson, Letter of James, 92–106.


See McKnight, The Letter of James, 425.


Kloppenborg, ‘Emulation’, 137–41.


Kloppenborg, ‘Emulation’, 138. Johnson, Letter of James, 294–95.


Batten, ‘Jesus Tradition’, 93.


Batten, ‘Jesus Tradition’, 94.


Moo, James, 201–02.


Kloppenborg, ‘Emulation’, 137–38.


Bauckham, ‘Jewish Identity’, 115–17.


Bauckham, ‘Jewish Identity’, 116.


Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997), 250–52.


Bauckham, ‘Jewish Identity’, 118–19.

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