The Last Rites for Humanitarian Intervention

Darfur, Sri Lanka and R2P

in Global Responsibility to Protect
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Help

 

Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?

Connect

The politics of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) are interwoven with the ghosts of Rwanda and Srebrenica. Although R2P can clearly be seen as an attempt to legitimate intervening in sovereign states to protect human rights, the post-2001 emphasis of advocates on intervention actually reduced the chances of truly humanitarian action by complicating the calculations of sovereigns faced with unpredictable political risks. As the military dimension to R2P wanes, so the possibility of intervention on a truly humanitarian basis might increase. And thus, the real achievement of the last two decades, embedding the idea of civilian protection as an expectation, comes into view. It is harder than it was to publicly murder your own citizens with impunity. R2P has been a success, we might say, to the extent that it has helped establish the civilian protection principle. But the historical record suggests this emerging norm predates R2P. We can even interpret R2P as a decade-long interlude, a diversion, from the underlying trend toward establishing a post-Cold War norm of preventing atrocities against civilians. What we must not expect, in Syria as in Sri Lanka, is armed intervention in an internal conflict when the United States, China and Russia have vital and conflicting interests at stake.

Sections
References
  • 5

    Alex J Bellamy‘Responsibility to Protect or Trojan Horse? The Crisis in Darfur and Humanitarian Intervention after Iraq,’ Ethics and International Affairs19/2 (2005) pp. 38–39. Also MacFarlane Thielking and Weiss ‘The Responsibility to Protect’ pp. 983–985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Hugh Breakey‘The Responsibility to Protect and the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflicts: Review and Analysis,’ Institute for Ethics Governance and LawGriffith University May 2011 available at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/333844/Responsibility-to-Protect-and-the-Protection-of-Civilians-in-Armed-Conflict-Review-and-Analysis.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Alex J Bellamy‘The Responsibility to Protect and the Problem of Military Intervention,’ International Affairs84/4 (2008) p. 617. Also Francis M. Deng et alSovereignty as Responsibility: Conflict Management in Africa (Washington DC: Brookings 1996).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

     See for example Hugo Slim‘Dithering Over Darfur? A Preliminary Review of the International Response,’ International Affairs80/5 (2004) pp. 820–1. The former Assistant Secretary-General and Special Adviser to United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon Edward C Luck argues however that the endorsement of R2P in 2005 would have been unthinkable even as recently as 2000; see ‘The Responsibility to Protect: Growing Pains or Early Promise’ Ethics and International Affairs 24/4 (2012).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Adam Roberts‘Humanitarian War: Military Intervention and Human Rights,’ International Affairs 69/3 (1993) pp. 429–449 and Thomas M. Franck ‘The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance’ American Journal of International Law 86/1 (1992) pp. 46–91.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    WeissHumanitarian Intervention pp. 105–6.

  • 18

    Foley‘Normative Developments’ p. 13.

  • 30

    Thomas G Weiss‘R2P after 9/11 and the World Summit,’ Wisconsin International Law Journal24/3 (2005) pp. 745–46 750.

  • 31

    Bellamy‘The Responsibility to Protect and the Problem of Military Intervention’ p. 623.

  • 32

    Bellamy‘The Responsibility to Protect and the Problem of Military Intervention’ pp. 627–630 and Breakey ‘The Responsibility to protect’ p 34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Alex J Bellamy‘The Responsibility to Protect – Five Years on,’ Ethics and International Affairs24/2 (2010) p. 148. Also Breakey ‘The Responsibility to protect’ p 30.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    United Nations General Assembly‘Implementing the Responsibility to protect.’ Breakey ‘The Responsibility to protect’ p 38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Foley‘Normative Developments’ p. 12. Brazil later changed this to ‘logical sequencing.’ See Thorsten Brenner ‘Brazil as a norm entrepreneur: The “Responsibility While Protecting” initiative’ Global Public Policy Institute March 2013 p. 7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    Kersten Knipp‘In Munich, Diplomats Despair over Syria Civil War,’ Deutsche Welle4 February 2013: at http://www.dw.de/in-munich-diplomats-despair-over-syria-civil-war/a-16573158 accessed 14 February 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Gareth Evans‘Darfur: The world should be ready to intervene in Sudan,’ International Herald Tribune15 May 2004.

  • 43

     See Chantal MouffeOn the Political (London: Routledge2005): chap. 2.

  • 44

    Anne Peters‘The Security Council’s Responsibility to Protect,’ International Organization Law Reviewvol. 8 (2011) p. 38.

  • 46

    Bellamy‘The Responsibility to Protect – Five Years on’ pp. 159–160 165.

  • 53

    PowerA Problem from Hell p. 306.

  • 54

    Alex De Waal‘Darfur and the Failure of the Responsibility to Protect,’ International Affairs83/6 (2007) pp. 1039–1054.

  • 55

    Peters‘The Security Council’s Responsibility to Protect’ p. 39.

  • 57

    Breakey‘The Responsibility to Protect’ p. 81.

  • 58

     For example Thomas G. Weiss‘The Sunset of Humanitarian Intervention? The Responsibility to Protect in a Unipolar Era,’ Security Dialogue35/2 (2004) pp. 142–144 and Weiss ‘R2P after 9/11 and the World Summit’ p. 754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59

    MacFarlane Thielking and Weiss‘The Responsibility to Protect’ p. 982.

  • 62

     See Mary Ellen O’Connell‘How to Lose a Revolution,’ The Responsibility to Protect: Challenges and Opportunities in Light of the Libyan Interventione-International Relations November 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65

    Mepham and Ramsbotham‘Introduction’ p. 2.

  • 66

    Hugo Slim‘Dithering Over Darfur? A Preliminary Review of the International Response,’ International Affairs80/5 (2004) p. 819.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68

    Ibid. p. 346.

  • 69

    Allen D. HertzkeFreeing God’s Children: The Unlikely Alliance for Global Human Rights (Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield2004).

  • 70

    Gareth Evans‘Darfur and the Responsibility to Protect,’ The DiplomatAugust 2004.

  • 71

    Traub‘Unwilling and Unable’ pp. 4–7.

  • 73

    De Waal‘Darfur and the Failure of the Responsibility to Protect’ p. 1043.

  • 74

    Ibid. pp. 1042–43.

  • 75

    Mahmood MamdaniSaviors and Survivors: Darfur Politics and the War on Terror (London: Verso2009) p. 33.

  • 76

    Traub‘Unwilling and Unable’ p. 2.

  • 77

    Andrew Natsios‘Beyond Darfur: Sudan’s Slide Toward Civil War,’ Foreign AffairsMay/June 2008.

  • 79

    Slim‘Dithering Over Darfur?’ p. 826; Bellamy ‘Trojan Horse?’ p. 41.

  • 81

    Ibid pp. 26–29.

  • 82

    Ibid p. 27.

  • 86

    Francis Deng‘The Conflict in Sri Lanka – a Crisis Without Winners,’ Guardian17 May 2009.

  • 88

    International Crisis Group‘War Crimes in Sri Lanka,’ Asia Report 19117 May 2010.

  • 89

     See Leslie Vinjamuri‘Deterrence, Democracy, and the Pursuit of International Justice,’ Ethics and International Affairs24/2 (2010) pp. 191–211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    Hehir‘The Responsibility to Protect’ pp. 226–228.

  • 100

    Breakey‘The Responsibility to protect’ p. 61.

Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 157 152 28
Full Text Views 282 282 9
PDF Downloads 24 24 2
EPUB Downloads 1 1 0