The United Nations Secretaries-General (unsg), Kofi Annan and Ban Ki-moon, have devoted themselves to the development and diffusion of the responsibility to protect (r2p) norm for over a decade since the concept first appeared in 2001. However, it still remains unclear what roles they have actually played in promoting its normative development. By focusing on the notion of norm entrepreneurship proposed by social constructivist scholars in international relations, this article explores the process in which they have engaged and what effects their activities have had on the emergence and dissemination of r2p, especially the adoption of the un General Assembly resolutions on r2p in 2005 and 2009. The research concludes by arguing that the unsg can play a contributing role in enhancing norms by persuading and encouraging member states to collectively legitimise the norms, and stating theoretical implications pertaining to the role of the unsg in developing international norms.
Christina BadescuHumanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: Security and Human Rights (Abingdon: Routledge2011); Ekkehard Strauss The Emperor’s New Clothes? The United Nations and the Implementation of the Responsibility to Protect (Baden-Baden: Nomos 2009). In this article I use ‘he’ ‘his’ and ‘him’ when referring to the unsg because only men have been so far chosen. But there are no provisions concerning the issue in the un Charter.
Martha Finnemore‘Are Legal Norms Distinctive?’New York University Journal of International Law and Politics32/3: 699–705 (2000); Peter Katzenstein ed. The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics (New York: Columbia University Press 1996).
Sydney BaileyThe Secretariat of the United Nations (New York: Frederick A. Praeger1964); Leon Gordenker The un Secretary-General and the Maintenance of Peace (New York: Columbia University Press 1967); Stephen Schwebel The Secretary-General of the United Nations (Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1952).