It was the Italian scholar Giovanni Rotondi (1885–1918) who wrote, in 1917, that already the medieval canon lawyers took the first three steps on the road to a general remedy for unlawful acts by categorizing the actio legis Aquilia not so much as an actio poenalis, but as an actio poenabilis; first of all by understanding the sum to be paid by the defendant as damages rather than as a poena; secondly by considering the action as passively transmissible; and thirdly by enlarging the
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