‘From Purdah to Parliament’

The Twentieth Century According to Shaista Ikramullah

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Begum Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah was a Pakistani author, politician, diplomat and social-activist whose life bridges the late colonial and post-colonial phases of South Asian history. Her biography illustrates the discursive pressures shaping the lives of upper and intermediate class men and women of her generation, particularly as manifested in the unquestioned tropes of modernization theory. However, the same life reveals that her notion of the tradition-modernity dichotomy does not extend to the equation of Islam with tradition. The secular-religious divide, in fact, does not feature in her thought or activism at all. The latter activism also problematizes the assumption that Muslim women, any more of less than non-Muslims, are marginal or peripheral players in the history of the twentieth century.

References
  • Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah Papers Islamabad National Archives of Pakistan

  • IkramullahShaista S. “United Nations Discussion on Human Rights and Genocide” Pakistan Horizon 1948 1 4 228 235

  • IkramullahShaista S. “Some Impressions of Canada” Pakistan Horizon 1953 6 4 148 153

  • IkramullahShaista S. “The Ordeal of Jordan” Pakistan Horizon 1968 21 3 217 223

  • IkramullahShaista Suhrawardy “The Role of Women in the Life and Literature of Pakistan” Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 1958 106 5025 713 726

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  • Lambert-HurleySiobhan “Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah (1915–2000)” The Oxford History of Women in World History 2008 Oxford Oxford University Press [online]

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  • PirbhaiM. Reza “Pakistan and the Political Awakening of the Muslim ‘New Woman’ 1937–1947” hawwa: Journal of the Women of the Middle East and the Islamic World 2014 12 1 35

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  • WillmerDavid “Women as Participants in the Pakistan Movement: Modernization and the Promise of the Moral State” Modern Asian Studies 1996 30 3 573 590

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  • AhmadAkbar S. Jinnah Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin 1997 London Routledge

  • IkramullahBegum Shaista From Purdah to Parliament 1963 London Cresset Press

  • IkramullahBegum Shaista Suhrawardy Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy 1991 Karachi Oxford University Press

  • IkramullahShaista Koshish-i na Tamam 1950 Lahore Maktaba-i Jadid

  • IkramullahShaista Letters to Neena 1951 Karachi Kitab Publishers

  • IkramullahShaista Behind the Veil: Ceremonies Customs and Colour 1992 Karachi Oxford University Press

  • IkramullahShaista Akhtar Handbook of Urdu Literature: Including a Critical Survey of the Development of Urdu Literature 2003 New Delhi Indigo Books

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  • IkramullahShaista SuhrawardySiddiqiMuhammad Ali Common Heritage 1997 Karachi Oxford University Press

  • IkramullahShaista Suhrawardy Dilli ke Khawatin ki Kahawaten aur Muhavare 2005 Karachi Oxford University Press

  • IkramullahShaista Suhrawardy SalimAhmad Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah ki Muntakhab Tahriren: Mahnamah ʿIsmat 1934 ta 1988 2007 Karachi Oxford University Press

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  • JalalAyesha Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam since 1850 2000 London Routledge

  • MinaultGail Secluded Scholars: Women’s Education and Muslim Social Reform in Colonial India 1998 Delhi Oxford University Press

  • MumtazKhawarShaheedFarida Women of Pakistan 1987 London Zed Books

  • PapanekHannaMinaultGail Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia 1982 Columbia South Asia Books

  • SaigolRubina The Pakistan Perspective: A Feminist Perspective on Nation and Identity 2013 New Delhi Women Unlimited

  • ShahnawazJahanara Father and Daughter: A Political Autobiography 2002 Karachi Oxford University Press

  • TalbotIanSinghGurharpal The Partition of India 2009 New York Cambridge University Press

  • Begum Naz Ikramullah Ashraf by M. Reza Pirbhai (Karachi May 2016)

  • hrh Princess Sarvath al-Hasan of Jordan by M. Reza Pirbhai (Amman Feb. 2016)

  • 1

    For example see Siobhan Lambert-Hurley“Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah (1915–2000),” in The Oxford History of Women in World History (Oxford: Oxford University Press [online] 2008).

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  • 3

    IkramullahFrom Purdah to Parliament p. 5.

  • 4

    Ibid. p. 13.

  • 5

    Ibid. p. 29.

  • 6

    Ibid. p. 28.

  • 8

    IkramullahFrom Purdah to Parliament p. 50.

  • 9

    Ibid. pp. 64–65.

  • 10

    Ibid. p. 72.

  • 11

    Ibid. p. 72.

  • 12

    Ibid. p. 73.

  • 13

    Ibid. p. 73.

  • 14

    Ibid. pp. 76–77.

  • 15

    Ibid. pp. 79–80.

  • 16

    Ibid. p. 83.

  • 17

    Ibid. pp. 83–84.

  • 19

    Ibid. pp. 90 164.

  • 20

    Ibid. p. 12.

  • 21

    Ibid. p. 13.

  • 22

    Ibid. p. 13.

  • 23

    Ibid. p. 14.

  • 24

    Ibid. p. 15.

  • 25

    IkramullahFrom Purdah to Parliament p. 47.

  • 26

    Ibid. p. 48.

  • 27

    Ibid. pp. 85–87.

  • 28

    Ibid. pp. 86–87.

  • 29

    Ibid. pp. 87–88. Also see Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah Papers File 293 pp. 172–173.

  • 30

    IkramullahFrom Purdah to Parliament pp. 88–89.

  • 32

    Ibid. pp. 181–82.

  • 33

    IkramullahFrom Purdah to Parliament p. 92.

  • 34

    Ibid. p. 92.

  • 35

    Ibid.99.

  • 36

    For example see David Willmer“Women as Participants in the Pakistan Movement: Modernization and the Promise of the Moral State,” Modern Asian Studies 30:3 (1996): 573–90; and Ayesha Jalal Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam since 1850 (London: Routledge 2000) p. 464.

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  • 38

    See for example Akbar S. AhmadJinnah Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin (London: Routledge1997).

  • 40

    Ibid. p. 237.

  • 41

    Ibid. p. 240.

  • 42

    Ibid. p. 240.

  • 43

    IkramullahFrom Purdah to Parliament p. 144.

  • 44

    Ibid. p. 149.

  • 45

    Ibid. p. 149.

  • 46

    Ibid. p. 154.

  • 47

    Ibid. pp. 154–155.

  • 48

    Ibid. p. 154.

  • 49

    Ibid. p. 158.

  • 50

    Ibid. p. 159.

  • 54

    Shahnawaz p. 229.

  • 55

    IkramullahFrom Purdah to Parliament p. 166.

  • 56

    Shahnawaz p. 232.

  • 57

    See IkramullahHuseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy p. 70.

  • 58

    IkramullahFrom Purdah to Parliament p. 167.

  • 60

    IkramullahFrom Purdah to Parliament pp. 167–168.

  • 61

    Shaista S. Ikramullah“United Nations Discussion on Human Rights and Genocide,” Pakistan Horizon 1:4 (1948): 228–235.

  • 64

    Shaista IkramullahLetters to Neena (Karachi: Kitab Publishers1951) p. 2.

  • 65

    Ibid. p. 3.

  • 66

    Ibid. p. 3.

  • 67

    Ibid. p. 5.

  • 68

    Ibid. p. 6.

  • 70

    IkramullahLetters to Neena p. 15.

  • 71

    Ibid. p. 23.

  • 72

    Ibid. pp. 4–5 23.

  • 73

    Ibid. p. 23.

  • 74

    Ibid. p. 7.

  • 75

    Ibid. pp. 24–5.

  • 76

    Ibid. p. 24.

  • 77

    Ibid. p. 22.

  • 78

    Ibid. p. 45.

  • 79

    Ibid. pp. 45–6.

  • 80

    Ibid. p. 47.

  • 81

    Ibid. p. 43.

  • 82

    Shaista IkramullahBehind the Veil: Ceremonies Customs and Colour (Karachi: Oxford University Press1992) p. xxi.

  • 83

    Ibid. p. xiv.

  • 84

    Ibid. p. 3.

  • 85

    Ibid. p. 95.

  • 86

    Ibid. pp. 190–191.

  • 87

    Ibid. p. xxvii.

  • 88

    Ibid. pp. 187–188.

  • 89

    Ibid. pp. 43–44.

  • 92

    IkramullahHuseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy pp. 89–90.

  • 93

    IkramullahBehind the Veil p. xvii.

  • 94

    Ibid. p. xviii.

  • 95

    Shaista S. Ikramullah“Some Impressions of Canada,” Pakistan Horizon 6:4 (1953): 148–153.

  • 98

    IkramullahHuseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy p. 109.

  • 103

    Shaista S. Ikramullah“The Ordeal of Jordan,” Pakistan Horizon 21:3 (1968): 217–223.

  • 107

    IkramullahHuseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy pp. 118–119.

  • 109

    See Shaista Suhrawardy IkramullahDilli ke Khawatin ki Kahawaten aur Muhavare (Karachi: Oxford University Press2005). The biography is variously cited above.

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  • 111

    IkramullahLetters to Neena p. 27.

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