Bureaucratic Caesarism

A Gramscian Outlook on the Crisis of Europe

In: Historical Materialism
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  • 1 University of Paris-Sorbonne
  • 2 University of Paris-Villetaneuse

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In 2010, the Eurozone became the epicentre of the world crisis. The vulnerability of Europe appears to be linked to the specific institutional arrangement which organises monetary, financial and budgetary policies within the Eurozone. This article tries to understand the evolution of the eu during a short but decisive historical sequence (2007–12) in a theoretical framework that puts elements of Gramsci’s reflections on the theme of crisis, and especially his notion of ‘Caesarism’, at its centre. It addresses the current debate concerning the relationships between democratic politics and neoliberalism, while focusing on how the radicalisation of the crisis put at stake the co-construction of capitalism and representative democracy in the Western world since wwii.

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  • 1

    For an overview, see Frosini 2009.

  • 2

    Krätke 2011.

  • 3

    Burgio 2014; Fontana 2004; Liguori 2009.

  • 5

    Carchedi 2001.

  • 6

    Lapavitsas 2012a.

  • 7

    Krippner 2011; Streeck 2011.

  • 8

    For a general presentation, see Bieler 2005.

  • 11

    Q 10, § 13 [1932]; Gramsci 1971, p. 367.

  • 12

    Q 3, § 34 [1930]; Gramsci 1971, p. 276.

  • 13

    Buci-Glucksmann 1975; Thomas 2009.

  • 14

    Q 6, § 88 [1931]; Gramsci 1971, p. 263.

  • 16

    Q 15, § 5 [1933]; Gramsci 1971, p. 428.

  • 18

    Q 15, § 59 [1933]; Gramsci 1971, p. 106.

  • 19

    Burgio 2014, Chapter 11; Fontana 2004.

  • 20

    Mosse 1971.

  • 21

    Weber 1994, see also Baehr 2004.

  • 22

    In Weber 1994, originally written in 1917.

  • 23

    Spengler 1991.

  • 25

    Liguori 2009, p. 124.

  • 30

    Liguori 2009, p. 124.

  • 31

    Pisani-Ferry and Sapir 2010.

  • 32

    Pisani-Ferry and Sapir 2010, p. 350.

  • 33

    Davies, Atkins and Sakoui 2008.

  • 34

    European Commission 2009c.

  • 35

    European Commission 2009a, 2009b; Veron 2011.

  • 36

    Weber and Schmitz 2011.

  • 38

    Boyer 2012, p. 291.

  • 39

    Aglietta and Berrebi 2007; Bibow 2009.

  • 40

    Jones 2002, p. 12.

  • 42

    Lapavitsas 2012b.

  • 43

    Brender and Pisani 2007, pp. 64 and 90; Duménil and Lévy 2011, p. 17.

  • 46

    Haar, Rowell and Vassalos 2009.

  • 47

    Glassman 2006; Harvey 2005.

  • 50

    Chaffin, Barker and Hope 2011.

  • 52

    European Round Table of Industrialists 2011.

  • 53

    At the end of January 2012, this temporary programme shows no signs of ending even after €219bn of purchases. See Dobson 2012.

  • 55

    Corporate Europe Observatory 2012.

  • 56

    Spiegel, Peel and Wilson 2011; Baker 2011.

  • 59

    European Council 2011.

  • 61

    Kouvelakis 2011.

  • 62

    D’Argenio 2011.

  • 63

    Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa Group 2012.

  • 65

    See Jones 2012.

  • 66

    Black 2013.

  • 68

    van der Pijl 2012.

  • 69

    Sapir 2002.

  • 70

    Bourdieu 1999.

  • 71

    Bieler 2006.

  • 72

    Horn 2012.

  • 73

    Streeck 2011.

  • 74

    Cohen 2014.

  • 75

    Hope and Spiegel 2012.

  • 76

    Spiegel, Wiesmann and Hope 2012.

  • 77

    Bieler 2011.

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