The genus Cyathostegia consists of one or possibly two species from Ecuador and Peru. The wood anatomy of C. mathewsii (Benth.) Schery is described, thereby completing generic coverage of wood anatomy in the tribe Swartzieae sensu Polhill (1994b). In Cyathostegia, vessels are mainly in radial multiples, axial parenchyma is relatively sparse, storied and mainly paratracheal, and rays are 1–2-seriate and irregularly storied. Its wood anatomy is compared with that of other genera in the closely related tribes Sophoreae and Swartzieae, both of which have included Cyathostegia. The similarities and differences between Cyathostegia, Ateleia and Amburana are emphasised.
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