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ATLAS OF VESSEL ELEMENTS

Identification of Asian Timbers

In: IAWA Journal
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  • 1 University of HamburgDepartment of Wood Biology and Technology, , Leuschnerstraße 91, , D-21031, Hamburg, , Germany
  • | 2 Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute (TI), Institute of Wood Research, , Leuschnerstraße 91, , D-21031, Hamburg, , Germany
Open Access
Contents

Preface 252

How to use the vessel element atlas 253

Preparation of pulp samples for identification with the light microscope 254

Materials and Methods 255

Introduction to key features 257

Descriptions of woody angiosperms of tropical and temperate Asia 266

Monocots – introductory comments 267

Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro (Poaceae) 268

Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae) 270

Hardwoods with simple perforations 272

“APS” (All Pits Similar in size and shape) – introductory comments 272

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. (Acanthaceae) 274

Lophopetalum sp. (Celastraceae) 276

Koompassia malaccensis Maingay ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae) 278

Intsia sp. (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae) 280

Acacia mangium Willd. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) 282

Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) 284

Contents

  • Preface 252

  • How to use the vessel element atlas 253

  • Preparation of pulp samples for identification with the light microscope 254

  • Materials and Methods 255

  • Introduction to key features 257

  • Descriptions of woody angiosperms of tropical and temperate Asia 266

  • Monocots – introductory comments 267

    • Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro (Poaceae) 268

    • Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae) 270

  • Hardwoods with simple perforations 272

  • “APS” (All Pits Similar in size and shape) – introductory comments 272

    • Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. (Acanthaceae) 274

    • Lophopetalum sp. (Celastraceae) 276

    • Koompassia malaccensis Maingay ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae) 278

    • Intsia sp. (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae) 280

    • Acacia mangium Willd. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) 282

    • Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) 284

    • Durio sp. (Malvaceae) 286

    • Heritiera sp. (Malvaceae) 288

    • Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. (Paulowniaceae) 290

    • Tetramerista glabra Miq. (Tetrameristaceae) 292

    • Gonystylus sp. (Thymelaeaceae) 294

  • “VAS” (Vessel-ray pits Apparently Simple) – introductory comments 296

    • Campnosperma sp. (Anacardiaceae) 298

    • Gluta renghas L. (Anacardiaceae) 300

    • Mangifera sp. (Anacardiaceae) 302

    • Swintonia sp. (Anacardiaceae) 304

    • Canarium sp. (Burseraceae) 306

    • Calophyllum sp. (Calophyllaceae) 308

    • Dipterocarpus sp. (Dipterocarpaceae) 310

    • Parashorea sp. (Dipterocarpaceae) 312

    • Shorea subg. Anthoshorea (Dipterocarpaceae) 314

    • Shorea subg. Richetia (Dipterocarpaceae) 316

    • Shorea subg. Rubroshorea (Dipterocarpaceae) 318

    • Shorea subg. Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae) 320

    • Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) 322

    • Castanopsis argentea (Blume) A. DC. (Fagaceae) 324

    • Litsea resinosa Blume (Lauraceae) 326

    • Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae) 328

    • Syzygium dyerianum (King) Chantaran. & J. Parn. (Myrtaceae) 330

    • Madhuca sericea (Miq.) S. Moore (Sapotaceae) 332

    • Palaquium sp. (Sapotaceae) 334

  • Hardwoods with scalariform perforation plates – introductory comments 336

    • Liquidambar formosana Hance (Altingiaceae) 338

    • Ilex triflora var. kanehirai (Yamamoto) S.Y. Hu (Aquifoliaceae) 340

    • Nyssa javanica (Blume) Wangerin (Nyssaceae) 342

    • Rhizophora sp. (Rhizophoraceae) 344

    • Alniphyllum pterospermum Matsum. (Styracaceae) 346

    • Schima superba Gardn. & Champ. (Theaceae) 348

  • Conclusion 350

  • Acknowledgements 350

  • Abbreviations 350

  • References 351

PREFACE

Pulp production is increasing worldwide, especially in Southeast Asia and China (WWF 2009; Williams 2014; FAO 2015), and the use of tropical timbers from natural forests is not uncommon (Greenpeace 2012). To ensure that no protected timbers are used, those detected in pulp and paper products must be identified.

Individual vessel elements are best suited for the microscopic identification of wood species in those products on the basis of typical morphological features such as type of perforation plates, presence vs. absence of helical thickenings, and type and arrangement of vessel-ray pits (Core et al. 1979; Carlquist 2001).

To allow identification, a standardized morphological description of these features is required for commonly used timber. The fiber atlases by Carpenter and Leney (1952), Ezpeleta and Simon (1970, 1971), Harders-Steinhäuser (1974), Parham and Gray (1982) and Ilvessalo-Pfäffli (1995) describe these characteristics for the main species grown in the temperate zone and in plantations. There is, however, no corresponding database available for important Asian timbers.

In recent years, the rapid and reliable identification of wood species and their origin has become necessary (e.g. Dormontt et al. 2015; Koch & Schmitt 2015; Koch et al. 2015), owing to the following laws that have recently come into effect: the U.S. Lacey Act (USA, 1900/amended in 2008), the Illegal Logging Prohibition Act 2012 (Australia), and the European Timber Regulation (EUTR, No. 995/2010. implemented in 2013). Besides other timber products, these laws subject the fiber components of pulp and paper to strict controls, aiming to minimize the trade and use of illegally logged timber or products derived from it. Both producers and traders of wood products are responsible for the correct declaration of the species and origin (Koch & Schmitt 2015).

To support the request for due diligence, our team from the University of Hamburg and the Thünen Institute (Hamburg, Germany) developed this atlas of vessel elements for the identification of Asian timbers, with funding from the German Environmental Foundation (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt, DBU). The vessel atlas describes 38 tropical and temperate Asian timbers, known for their potential in utilization of pulp and paper, including for the first time also lesser known species and the monocots Bamboo and Coconut palm. Each species is illustrated with high-quality photomicrographs at standard magnification.

Important diagnostic features are highlighted in the text and figures for easy identification. The taxonomy of the individual species is described in detail in the PROSEA Timber volu