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Salvation Through Saving Others

toward a Tenrikyo-Muslim Comparative Theology for Japan Today

In: International Journal of Asian Christianity
Author:
Makoto Sawai Oyasato Institute for the Study of Religion, Tenri University, Tenri, Japan mvsawai@sta.tenri-u.ac.jp

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Abstract

Every year various disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, and floods hit Japan. In the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, approximately 16,000 people lost their lives due to the tsunami and the consequent collapse of buildings. Voluntary groups and religious institutions came to affected areas from every part of Japan to help the recovery of those struck by disasters. Drawing on the idea of “path” that is so prominent in Asia, including in Japan, Tenrikyo and Islam teach their adherents the importance of voluntary activities such as hinokishin in Tenrikyo and ṣadaqah in Islam, as the sure path to salvation. Various motivations are found in the activities and reverential attitudes to God by the adherents in both religious traditions. In this paper, by paying attention to the relationship between religious doctrines and voluntary activities in Tenrikyo and Islam, I try to compare the characteristics of both from the viewpoint of “salvation,” according to the practice of comparative theology.

Abstract

Every year various disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, and floods hit Japan. In the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, approximately 16,000 people lost their lives due to the tsunami and the consequent collapse of buildings. Voluntary groups and religious institutions came to affected areas from every part of Japan to help the recovery of those struck by disasters. Drawing on the idea of “path” that is so prominent in Asia, including in Japan, Tenrikyo and Islam teach their adherents the importance of voluntary activities such as hinokishin in Tenrikyo and ṣadaqah in Islam, as the sure path to salvation. Various motivations are found in the activities and reverential attitudes to God by the adherents in both religious traditions. In this paper, by paying attention to the relationship between religious doctrines and voluntary activities in Tenrikyo and Islam, I try to compare the characteristics of both from the viewpoint of “salvation,” according to the practice of comparative theology.

1 Introduction

The Tenrikyo religious tradition was founded in the Yamato District (at present, in Nara Prefecture) in 1838; it has a history of 183 years. According to Tenrikyo teachings, human beings were created by God in order to construct the Joyous Life (yōki gurashi) in this world, which is the primordial way of life for humankind. Human beings are expected to rebuild the world of Joyous Life by working together. In Tenrikyo, the relationship between God and human beings consists of that between the parent and children; human beings are brothers and sisters under God. Thus, Tenrikyo followers call the object of their faith “God the Parent” (Oyagami). God the Parent revealed the divine intention through the Foundress Miki Nakayama, i.e., Oyasama (“Our beloved Parent”), as the Tenrikyo adherents call Her. In order to attain God’s intention of saving people in this world, Tenrikyo followers perform their missionary activities. Since its earliest days, at the same time, Tenrikyo has engaged in service to society in order to build the world of Joyous Life on behalf of God the Parent.

Comparative theology, on which I focus here, does not merely mean the comparison between two religions, but also a careful investigation of the process of learning other religions. My point of view on comparative theology is linked to the “new comparative theology” which Clooney models in his works, 1 as widening the practice of comparative theology to include all those who encounter the adherents of other religions. Such persons need not be limited to religious persons. In our daily life, rather, the opportunity to engage in comparative theology should be opened to all individuals who are interested in comparative theology, since “theology” itself can be opened to every human person insofar as one has an interest in observing religions and learning from them. 2 Thus, each of us be a proponent of the inter-faith dialogue which comes into existence in our encounter.

This paper focuses on religions living in Asia by way of the examples of Tenrikyo and Islam, seen in the light of new comparative theology. I would like to consider their voluntary activities and motivations by paying attention to their role in disaster recovery. 3 First, I would like to argue the significance of comparative studies in Tenrikyo theology. Second, I would like to discuss the characteristics of the term “path,” which contains implications that are different from the term “religion.” On the basis of my discussion of these two issues, from the perspective of the new comparative theology, I would like to investigate the characteristics of the doctrines and practices in Tenrikyo and Islam in regard to disaster recoveries, especially focusing on two voluntary activities: hinokishin in Tenrikyo and ṣadaqah in Islam. In the Japanese context, religious groups are implicitly required to contribute to the Japanese community in disaster recovery, because natural disasters occur every year. This implies that one expects Islam to play a role as a public religion that is an institutional religion residing in public space: saving others who need help as well as seeking salvation. Thus, it is essential to understand religion in the Japanese context and to shed light on the idea of salvation for Tenrikyo adherents and Muslims living in Japan. Understanding the relationship between divine salvation and voluntary activities underlying Tenrikyo and Islam will lead us to a deeper understanding of disaster recovery as grounded in religious teaching.

2 Religions in Asia as the “Path”

In the academic field of the history of religions, which came into existence in the West in the latter part of the 19th century, there are such various concepts as “religion” and “mysticism,” 4 which are originally derived from Western cultures and religions. In Islamic tradition, however, the terminology is different. In Islam, the Arabic term shar͑īah today means the “divine law” and “Islamic jurisprudence,” but it originally means the “path leading to a water place.” Since a human being is not able to live without water, “a water place” symbolically implies the truth of God. Semantically speaking, Islam reformed the meaning of the term shar͑īah in order to imply the path to Allāh. As discussed below, the term sabīl meaning “path” or “way” is also mentioned in the Qur’an as the “way of God” (sabīl Allāh). Moreover, Arabic terms such as ṭarīqah and sunnah also mean a “path” or a “street.”

In the Islamic context, for example, the term ṭarīqah has come to mean a “Sufi order” or “the Sufi path” (al-ṭarīqah al-ṣūfīyah) since the twelfth century. This ṭarīqah is another way to reach God, different from shar͑īah. The former is the path of mysticism while the latter is the path of jurisprudence. In Islam, many adherents accept shar͑īah as the foundation of Islamic faith, for it defines daily activities in human life. On the other hand, those who desire to unite with God regard themselves as the “elect” (al-khāṣṣ) passing by the limited way, which is not for the sake of all. In the real world, most Sufis think that by both paths, shar͑īah and ṭarīqah, they reach God.

In Asia, too, the concept of “path” and its various usages are found in religions, arts, cultures, and so on. Its common usages imply mutual respect without rejecting and denouncing other paths. This means that mastering the secret of one’s path does not lead to one’s superiority. This view of “path” can be applied to religion. 5 Like the “Shinto path” (Shintō) and the “Buddhist path” (Butsudō), Tenrikyo followers call Tenrikyo religion the “path” (michi). In Japan, Shintoism as the “way of the gods” (kannagara no michi) represents faith in deities; in it, deities coexist without any contradiction. In China and Taiwan, Daoism as a popular faith has the doctrine of the Dao (tao), which means the law or fundamental truth underlying the world. Each path coexists by affirming other paths, or at least without denying other paths. Although Tenrikyo and Islam teach their divine path in order to demonstrate the way of divine salvation, these paths do not necessarily deny other paths.

In this sense, the expression of faith by means of the metaphorical term “path” may be very useful in comparative studies. In Islamic tradition, the Qur’an explains the “path” leading to the truth, and so does Ofudesaki (The Tip of the Writing Brush) in Tenrikyo. God as the transcendental reality orders human beings to walk in the path of God which is the path of salvation. Of course, in spite of the use of the same term “path,” the meaning of this term may differ in each religious context. We recognize, however, that they may be at the same level of adherents when they gaze at the prayers of other adherents and listen to the sayings of the Scriptures.

3 Walking in the Path of God

In the Tenrikyo religion, too, it is taught that God the Parent revealed the teachings by using the term “path” (michi). The teaching of God the Parent has been called “Tenrikyo” or “the teaching of the Truth of Heaven” from the viewpoint of “religion,” but it has been called Omichi or the “Path” by Tenrikyo adherents. In Ofudesaki, which is the Book of God’s Revelation written by Oyasama, the path of Tenrikyo is noted as follows:

What do you think this path is? It is the true path that will settle this world (Ofudesaki, 6:4).

According to this Tenrikyo teaching, the revelation of God the Parent is regarded as the ultimate path in comparison with other paths. The attitude of Tenrikyo followers toward other religions is suggested by the metaphor of “path”, and the implications of the term “path” cannot be grasped by the term “religion.” The paths that God the Parent has taught through previous teachings are contrasted with the “true path,” which God the Parent revealed through Oyasama. As for the end of the “path,” Tenrikyo aims to attain the ultimate goal of the Joyous Life by saving others and leading them to the path of Tenrikyo.

From the perspective of Comparative Theology, I would like to deepen the understanding of the path in order to learn the meaning of walking in the “path” more deeply. I do so now by looking briefly at the path in Islam. In the first chapter of the Qur’an (ṣūrat al-Fātiḥah), recited in the prayers five times a day, there is another word for “the path” (ṣirāṭ) that leads human beings to the divine truth:

Guide us to the straight path (al-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm) -

The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. (Q1: 6–7) 6

In the last two verses of the first chapter, one’s prayers to God are noted. The Qurʾan mentions the term “path” twice, and this implies the ideal way of human beings. These verses are the words of God as well as the words of human beings praying to God. There are two paths here in these verses: one is the “straight path” which is the Muslims faith heading to God. The other is the path for people who do not walk on God, i.e. the “those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray.” This path called ṣirāṭ in Arabic generally means “an open way,” but there is another meaning: “the name of a bridge over Hell.” Given the paths leading to Paradise as well as Hell, therefore, adherents ask God to make them walk in the path leading to the Paradise which is contrasted to “path of the Hell” (ṣirāṭ al-jaḥīm, Q37:23).

The scriptures of Tenrikyo and Islam thus show us how adherents of both traditions attempt to come to the goal: the Joyous Life in Tenrikyo and Heaven in Islam. In Islam as in Tenrikyo, action in this world connects with such goal in the next life. Though both traditions accept the idea of the path, and of service in this world, there are differences. Whereas Islam settles on the hereafter without supposing rebirth in this world, Tenrikyo accepts rebirths in this world without assuming a hereafter. In spite of such different view of the next life, both religious traditions encourage service to others in their daily activities.

4 Voluntary Activities for the Gratitude: hinokishin in Tenrikyo

I now turn to an example: how does the religious goal in each religion have a relationship with their motivation of disaster restoration in the case of the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in 2011? Japan is a country which suffers various kinds of disaster. Every year, disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, and floods occur somewhere in the country. Those disasters lead to deaths, while many others become refugees. In 2011, the earthquake whose epicenter was in Tohoku area occurred, and this is known as the Great East Japan Earthquake. Due to the tsunami and the consequent collapse of buildings, about 16,000 people lost their lives.

In regard to the activities of Tenrikyo when disasters occur, it is noteworthy that Tenrikyo Disaster Relief Hinokishin Corps (Saigai Kyūen Hinokishin Tai) are settled in each prefecture to help people by keeping in touch with the local governments. 7 Since the disaster relief of Tenrikyo dates back to 1891, this group of hinokishin, organized by Tenrikyo religion, is well known by the local governments. 8

The term hinokishin literally means “making contributions each day to God.” This word is an original term, unique to Tenrikyo teaching. Hinokishin is normally understood as a voluntary activity, which implies the “physical and spiritual expression of one’s mobilizing gratitude to God.” This is based on the Tenrikyo teaching of “a thing lent, a thing borrowed” (kashimono-karimono); this means that God the Parent rents a human body to each individual, while individuals borrow their body from God the Parent. The Doctrine of Tenrikyo explains this as the expression of gratitude in our attitudes and actions. 9 The activity of hinokishin may include not only one’s actions for others, but also one’s mental attitudes toward them. In the Mikagura-uta, performed with a hand dance, the term hinokishin is seen five times:

There is nothing so trying as illness;

So from now on, I, too, will devote myself to hinokishin. (Mikagura-uta iii:8)

A single word can be hinokishin.

I simply sprinkle My fragrance around. (Mikagura-uta vii:1)

Husband and wife working together in hinokishin;

This is the first seed of everything. (Mikagura-uta xi:2)

I behold more and more people coming from the world,

And bearing straw baskets in hinokishin. (Mikagura-uta xi:3)

Forgetting greed we work in hinokishin

This becomes the first fertilizer. (Mikagura-uta xi:4)

Hinokishin, i.e., an activity which does not demand anything in return, is fully voluntary and selfless working to save others. According to the teaching of Tenrikyo, all human beings are brothers and sisters under God the Parent. Therefore, helping those who are in trouble gradually leads to the construction of the world of Joyous Life. Hinokishin is one of the most fertile activities leading to the Joyous life. Even a single word may be regarded as hinokishin, insofar it is expressed for others, so that they are encouraged. At the same time, such activities are not limited to an individual. Accumulation of such small hinokishins eventually leads to the construction of the world of the Joyous Life, in which humans help one another mutually.

In regard to the post-earthquake efforts to save people, Yuichi Tanaka, administrator of Tenrikyo Disaster Relief Hinokishin Corps, explains the motivation of disaster recovery by differentiating hinokishin activity from volunteer activity.

When we explain about volunteer activity in one word, we can say that it is the most benevolent activity among human activities. One usually says “thank you” when one receives a benevolence from others. Some may be unhappy if they do not hear the words “thank you.” But hinokishin activity, which is based on our gratitude for God’s blessings, is our attitude of gratitude to God the Parent. Considering this meaning of hinokishin, it will not represent our gratitude to God the Parent if we are told “thank you” by others after we have done hinokishin activity. Thus, we had better avoid receiving the words of gratitude from others. Rather, we had better leave there, showing them our gratitude that we could do hinokishin for them. 10

It is true that hinokishin activity is semantically different from volunteer activity, but the idea includes a volunteer aspect, in that hinokishin activity is also based on free will. Since hinokishin is executed to express gratitude to God the Parent, however, it is different from ordinary volunteer activity in regard to motivation. As is shown in saying, “by saving others, we are also saved” (Ofudesaki, 3:47), the true salvation in Tenrikyo is established as an unexpected result bestowed by God the Parent, demonstrated in one’s attitude in saving others. On the basis of the above-mentioned Tenrikyo teaching and practice, through varieties of hinokishin, Tenrikyo followers save those who are in need materially as well as spiritually. Expressing gratitude to God the Parent is to walk on the path of the Joyous Life with mutual help.

5 Following the Path of Allah: ṣadaqah in Islam

If we make a comparison with the world of Joyous Life which is the goal for Tenrikyo followers and the divine salvation resulting from hinokishin, we can ask: how does Islam comprehend the goal for Muslims, and the divine salvation?

In Islam, there are various terms expressing charity and almsgiving on the basis of the Qur’an, Hadith, and juristic discussions. 11 In Islamic tradition, the term ẓakāt means “almsgiving,” and this is well known as one of the religious obligations which are called the “five pillars of Islam” (arkān al-Islām). As time went on, legal discussions on almsgiving activity developed in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh). In addition to charity in communal contexts, there are other charitable aspects in the personal context. For example, the term waqf (which means “detention”) indicates the religious endowment of property, which is a charity for the Muslim community. Moreover, the term ṣadaqah, overlapping with ẓakāt as “religious obligation,” means “voluntary effort,” such as “alms of spontaneity” (ṣadaqat al-taṭawwuʿ) and “alms of supererogation” (ṣadaqat al-nafl). In the Qur’an, almsgiving is regarded as a deed following the way of Allah:

The example of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah (fī sabīli Allāhi) is like a seed [of grain] which grows seven spikes; in each spike is a hundred grains. And Allah multiplies [His reward] for whom He wills. And Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing. Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah and then do not follow up what they have spent with reminders [of it] or [other] injury will have their reward with their Lord, and there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve. Kind speech and forgiveness are better than charity followed by injury. And Allah is Free of need and Forbearing. (Q2:261–263)

In Islamic tradition, almsgiving is a deed of reducing one’s property. As the Qur’an metaphorically narrates, however, sowing one seed of grain in almsgiving causes a hundred of grains as huge rewards. The final fruition of such grains seems to be the divine judgment on the Day of Resurrection (yawm al-Qiyāmah). 12 According to the Qur’an, Allah ascertains one’s piety whether one is entirely on the “way of Allah.” Thus, displaying benevolence toward others such as kind speech and forgiveness is associated with a positive motivation. Thus, kind words are better than money and properties with harsh words. Because of his or her haughty attitude, gift with thoughtless words neither means charity nor follows the way of Allah.

The voluntary aspect of ṣadaqah in the Qur’an demonstrates that small activities follow the “way of Allah,” as reports in Hadith narrate, such as this one:

Jābir b. ʿAbd Allāh reported: The Messenger of Allah (May Allah be peace and blessings upon him) said, “Every good deed (maʿrūf) is charity. Verily, it is a good deed to meet your brother with a cheerful face (bi-wajhin ṭalqin), and to pour what is left from your bucket into the vessel of your brother.” 13

Since every good deed is a charity, showing a cheerful face to siblings and sharing your own stuff with them are regarded as charity. Thus, good deed with a charitable consideration for others is an ideal ṣadaqah leading to the “approval of Allah” (Q2:265).

In the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, Muslim groups came on the run to the affected area in order to support afflicted people. 14 Statistically speaking, most Japanese people are not familiar with religions. However they keep vigilant eyes on religions. Given the condition of Japanese society, it is said that Muslim groups hesitated to introduce themselves as Muslims since they were in the affected area not for missionary activity but for charity work. The Japan Islamic Trust (jit), a Muslim ngo managed by the Otsuka Mosque in Tokyo, visited the affected area hundred times for volunteer activities. There are various Muslims here including in immigrant, Sunni Muslim, Shī‘ī Muslim, born Muslims, and native Japanese converting to Islam. 15

Concerning disaster recovery, jit brought in rescue supplies such as food and commodity. At first, people in afflicted areas mistakenly thought that jit whose members are mainly consisting of Pakistanis visited there to save their own affected people. But they kept explaining that they would like to support all the people in need, since human beings are equally descendants of Adam. 16 Aquil Siddiqui, president of jit, and Haroon Qureshi and Akira Nagai, board members of jit, explain that their volunteer activity is based on the teaching of the Qur’an. In spite of their different motivations for volunteer activity, they made attempts to support afflicted people. In the interview, Qureshi and Nagai reflect on their own motivations between their supportive motivation and God’s reward for them:

Qureshi: As for me, [supportive activity] will be executed for my [entering the Paradise], but it is for the sake of others. When we look at people in trouble, it is natural for us to feel that we would like to support them. [Supportive activity] will be for the sake of myself thereafter: if we receive reward from Allah, it will also be for the sake of myself.

Nagai: In my case, I am Japanese, so it is [supportive activity] that makes me feel calm, rather than my feeling that Allah gives me a reward. I cannot help but do so. I am ashamed that I do not come to realize Allah, but this is my real motive. 17

According to Islamic faith, nobody knows whether God bestows rewards on oneself. The reward for one is to reside in the Heaven hereafter. Despite realizing the meaning of salvation, Muslims could not help but save others suffering in afflicted areas. In addition to their religious duties, they devoted themselves to voluntary activities and charitable behaviors known as ṣadaqaḥ. In spite of realizing salvation, Muslims cannot help but save others. Without caring for their reward, they showed their pure intention to do their best for those who are in trouble. Based on the meaning of ṣadaqah, the path to the divine salvation in Islam is not only to follow the teaching formally but also to cultivate a voluntary motivation internally.

6 Conclusion

In Tenrikyo and Islam, the Scripture(s) provides adherents with the way of salvation. Their voluntary activities in order to save others closely connect with the divine intention revealed in their Scriptures. We learn this from both Tenrikyo and Islam, and so it is that in studying religious others, we can understand their religious teachings by attention to their voluntary activities.

The path to salvation, based on hinokishin activities in Tenrikyo is apparently different from that, based on ṣadaqah, in Islam. But Tenrikyo and Islam share the importance of one’s mind, that is, attitudes in saving people, in addition to the activity of helping others. In disaster recovery, one can observe the sincere attitudes of religious people. In this way, the new comparative theology, which focuses on comparison emerging from the encounter with other religions, may lead us to a deeper learning of both of them. From the perspectives of the new comparative theology, we can deeply understand that in both religious traditions, the voluntary activities of the adherents are derived from their reverential attitudes toward God.

The activities of hinokishin in Tenrikyo is a path for constructing the ideal world of the Joyous Life as well as a concrete way of expressing one’s gratitude to God the Parent. Moreover, the voluntary activities that Tenrikyo followers cannot help but do are expected by the Japanese community, since such is the role of a religious group. My suggestion is that in the Japanese context, careful attention to Islamic understandings of the path and of action sheds new light on Tenrikyo understandings of the path and action.

This approach, I hope to have shown, is preferable to a doctrinal comparison, and more appropriate to the Japanese understanding of religions, especially focusing on practice. Comparative theology, understood in this way, has the opportunity to become more relevant to the Japanese context.

This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers, 17K13336 and 20H01199.

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1

The practice of new comparative theology represented by F. Clooney recommends deep learning of each religion, after considering how Christian thinkers and missionaries constructed their comparative perspectives and interpreted other religious traditions in accord with their theological viewpoints. The new comparative theology does not merely exemplify the similarities and differences by comparing the one with the other, but aims at a great reflective depth of self-understanding. Cf. Francis C. Clooney, Comparative Theology: Deep Learning Across Religious Borders (Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010); Francis C. Clooney, ed, The New Comparative Theology: Interreligious Insights from the Next Generation (London; New York: T & T Clark, 2010).

2

Wilfred C. Smith, Towards A World Theology: Faith and the Comparative History of Religion (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1981).

3

After I was born in a family of Tenrikyo, I chose Religious Studies and Tenrikyo theology as my major topic. I studied Islamic mysticism or Sufism by staying in Malaysia, Egypt, and Turkey. At the same time, I have been interested in Islam and its relationship with Tenrikyo in the history of Tenrikyo. Since Islam is not much recognized in Japan or in relation to Tenrikyo theology, studying Islam in the light of Tenrikyo thought will produce a fruitful result, the learning of Tenrikyo more deeply.

4

Cf. Mark C. Taylor, ed, Critical Terms for Religious Studies (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998); Russel T. McCutcheon, Studying Religion: An Introduction (New York: Routledge, 2007).

5

Shinkichi Fukushima, ʻ<Omichi> to shite Katarareru <Shūkyō> Sekaiʼ, Shimazono, Susumu and Tsuruoka, Yoshio eds., “Shūkyō” Gainen Saikō (Tokyo: Perikan-sha, 2003) , 254–282; Jiro Sawai, ʻ"Ofudesaki" ni okeru "Kono Michi" ni kansuru Ichi Kōsatsu,ʼ Tenri Daigaku Oyasato Kenkyūsho Hō 21, 2015, pp. 1–14.

6

Concerning the English translation of the Qur’an, this paper refers to the Ṣaḥeeḥ International version. Saḥeeḥ International, trans., The Qur’ān: English Meanings (Jeddah: Abul-Qasim Publishing House, 1997).

7

Akinori Okubo, ‘Social Welfare and Practicalty of Hinokishin of Tenrikyō: A Proposal to the International Year of the Disabled Person’, Tenri Journal of Religion, 16 (1969), 1–36.

8

Concerning the disaster discovery of Tenrikyo, refer to: Akira Kaneko, Kaketsukeru Shikōsha-tachi: Tenrikyō Saigai Kyūen no Hyakunen (Tenri: Tenrikyo Dōyūsha, 2002); Barbara Ambros, ‘Mobilizing Gratitude: Contextualizing Tenrikyō’s Response after the Great East Japan Earthquake’, Mark R. Mullins and Koichi Nakano eds, Disasters and Social Crisis in Contemporary Japan: Political, Religious, and Sociocultural Responses (Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016), pp. 132–155.

9

“As our perception of the divine blessings in every event grows keener day by day, our gratitude to God the Parent comes to be expressed in our attitude and in our actions. This is taught by God the Parent in hinokishin.” Tenrikyo Headquarters, ed, The Doctrine of Tenrikyo (Tenri: Tenrikyo Church Headquarters, 1949), p. 59.

10

Oyasato Institute for the Study of Religion Tenri University, ed, Higashi-nihon Dai-shinsai ni okeru Tenrikyō no Kyūen (Tenri: Oyasato Institute for the Study of Religion Tenri University, 2012), p. 77.

11

Cf. Azim Nanji, ‘Almsgiving’, in H. A. R. Gibb, eds, Encyclopedia of the Qur’an, vol. 1 (Leiden: Brill, 2001) 64–70; T. H. Weir and A. Zysow, ‘Ṣadaḳa’, in C. E. Bosworth, eds, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed., vol. 8 (Leiden: Brill, 1995), pp. 708–716.

12

Toshihiko Izutsu, The Structure of the Ethical Terms in the Koran (Tokyo: Keio University, 1959), p. 70.

13

Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad Tirmidhī, al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ wa-huwa Sunan al-Tirmidhī, vol. 4 (Cairo: Maṭbuʿah Muṣṭafā al-Bābī, 1972), p. 347.

14

Susumu Nejima and Idiris Danismaz, ‘Musulimu ngo no Rinen to Katsudō: Pakistan to Toruko no Jirei kara’, Annual Journal of the Asian Cultures Research Institute, 47 (2012), 116–124; Hiroko Minesaki, ʻHigashi Nihon Daishinsai Shien ni miru Ibunka Kōryū, Jizen, Kyōsei: Isulāmu-kei ngo Humanity First to Hisaisha-tachi’, Religion and Social Contribution 3:1 (2013), 27–51.

15

Ahmed Shahab, What is Islam?: The Importance of Being Islamic (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2016).

16

Susumu Nejima, Musulimu ngo: Shinkō to Shakai Hōshi Katsudō (Tokyo: Yamakawa Shuppansha, 2014), p. 15.

17

Aquil Siddiqui, et al., ‘Muslimu wa Naze Tōhoku e Mukattanoka?: Japan Islamic Trust no Shien Katsudō to Chiiki Shakai’, Gendai Shūkyō 2015 (Tokyo: International Institute for the Study of Religions, 2015), pp. 232–233.

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