The Second World War in Europe continues to captivate the attention of scholars and the general public even as the generation that lived through and fought in the war passes. The military and political histories of the war reveal the contribution of the men who fought as well as the men who led. Less attention has been directed to the experiences of women during the conflict who also served alongside the men in the military as nurses or auxiliaries, or as wives of spies. The articles in this special issue illustrate some of the hidden roles and choices women made during the conflict despite additional hurdles created by racism, and gender expectations.

  • Baldoli Claudia , ed. Bombing, States and Peoples in Western Europe 1940–1945 (London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011).

  • Batinić Jelena . Women and Yugoslav Partisans: A History of World War ii Resistance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).

  • Bethke Elshtain Jean . Women and War (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1987).

  • Brooks Tomblin Barbara . G.I. Nightingales: The Army Nurse Corps in World War ii (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1996).

  • Burke Fessler Diane . No Time for Fear: Voices of American Military Nurses in World War ii (East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1997).

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  • Byfield Judith , Brown Carolyn , Parsons Timothy , and Sikainga Ahmad Alawad , eds. Africa and World War ii (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).

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  • Chickering Roger , Förster Stig , and Greiner Bernd , eds. A World at Total War: Global Conflict and the Politics of Destruction, 1937–1945 (Cambridge University Press, 2005).

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  • Cohn Marthe , with Holden Wendy . Behind Enemy Lines: The True Story of a French Jewish Spy in Nazi Germany (New York: Random House, 2007).

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  • Collingham Lizzie . The Taste of War: World War ii and the Battle for Food (London: Penguin, 2011).

  • Mark J. Crowley , and Dawson Sandra Trudgen , eds. Home Fronts: Britain and the Empire at War, 1939–45 (London: Boydell & Brewer 2017).

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  • DeGroot Gerard J. “Whose Finger on the Trigger? Mixed Anti-Aircraft Batteries and the Female Combat Taboo”. War in History 4 (4) (1997), 434-453.

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  • DeGroot Gerard J. “‘I Love the Scent of Cordite in Your Hair’: Gender Dynamics in Mixed Anti-Aircraft Batteries during the Second World War”. History 82 (265) (1997), 73-92.

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  • DeGroot Gerard J. , and Peniston-Bird Corinna . A Soldier and a Woman (London: Longman, 2000).

  • De Pauw Linda G. Battle Cries and Lullabies (Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998).

  • Edgerton David . Britain’s War Machine: Weapons, Resources, and Experts in the Second World War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).

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  • Enloe Cynthia . Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women’s Lives (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000).

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  • Enloe Cynthia . Does Khaki Become You? Militarisation in Women’s Lives (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1983).

  • Escott Beryl . Heroines of soe: Britain’s Secret Women in France (Stroud: The History Press, 2010).

  • Gildea Robert . Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015).

  • Goldstein Joshua . War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

  • Gobetti Ada . Partisan Diary: A Woman’s Life in the Italian Resistance, trans. Alano Jomarie (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

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  • Goldman Nancy . Female Soldiers – Combatants or Non-Combatants ( Arbor Ann , MI: University of Michigan Press, 1982).

  • Grayzel Susan . At Home and Under Fire: The Air Raid in Britain from the Great War to the Blitz (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).

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  • Heer Hannes , and Naumann Klaus . War of Extermination: The German Military in World War ii (New York: Berghahn, 2000).

  • Herbert Melissa . Camouflage Isn’t Only for Combat: Gender, Sexuality and Women in the Military (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

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  • Higonnet Margaret , and Higonnet Patrice . “The Double Helix”. In Behind the Line: Gender and the Two World Wars, eds. Higonnet M. , Jackson Jene , Muchel Sonya , and Weitz Margaret (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987).

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  • Holm Jeanne . Women in the Military: An Unfinished Revolution (San Francisco, CA: Presidio Press, 1992).

  • Jackson Ashley . The British Empire and the Second World War (New York: Continuum, 2006).

  • Khan Yasmin . The Raj at War: A People’s History of India’s Second World War (London: Vintage Digital, 2015).

  • Krylova Anna . Soviet Women in Combat: A History of Violence on the Eastern Front (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

  • Markwick Roger D. , and Cardona Euridice Charon . Soviet Women on the Frontline in the Second World War (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).

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  • Margolis Rachel . A Partisan from Vilna, trans. F. Jackson Piotrow (Boston, MA: Academic Studies Press, 2010).

  • Mcintosh Elizabeth P. Sisterhood of Spies: The Women of the oss (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2009).

  • Matveyevna, Zoya Smirnova-Medvedeva , and Cottam Kazimiera J. . On the Road to Stalingrad: Memoirs of a Woman Machine Gunner (Sydney: Nepean, 1997).

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  • Masson Madeleine . Christine: soe Agent and Churchill’s Favourite Spy: A Search for Christine Granville (London: Virago, 2005).

  • Noakes Jeremy . The Civilian in War: The Home Front in Europe, Japan and the usa in World War ii (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000).

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  • Norman Elizabeth . We Band of Angels: The Untold Story of the American Women Trapped on Bataan (New York: Random, 2013).

  • Obraztsov Youri . Soviet Women Snipers: of the Second World War (Paris: Histoire and Collections, 2014).

  • O’Connor Bernard . soe Heroines: The Special Operations Executive’s French Section and Free French Women Agents (Blandford, Dorset: Amberley Press, 2018).

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  • Pattinson Juliette . Behind Enemy Lines: Gender, Passing and the Special Operations Executive in the Second World War (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007).

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  • Pearson Judith L. The Wolves at the Door: The True Story of America’s Greatest Female Spy (New York: Diversion Books, 2014).

  • Peniston-Bird Corinna . “Of Hockey Sticks and Sten Guns: British Auxiliaries and Their Weapons in the Second World War”. Women’s History Magazine 76 (2014), 13-22.

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  • Peri Alexis . “Womanhood Under Fire: Gender Practice and Identity in Soviet Accounts of the Front Lines”. In Women’s Experiences of War: Exile, Occupation and Everyday Life, 1939–45, eds. Crowley Mark and Dawson Sandra Trudgen (London, forthcoming in 2020).

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  • Stone Tessa . “Creating a (Gendered?) Military Identity: The Women’s Auxiliary Air Force in Great Britain in the Second World War”. Women’s History Review 8 (4) (1999), 605-624.

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  • Schwarzkopf Jutta . “Combatant or Non-Combatant? The Ambiguous Status of Women in British Anti-Aircraft Batteries during the Second World War”. War & Society 28 (2) (2009), 105-131.

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  • Taylor Eric . Front-line Nurse: British Nurses in wwii (London: Robert Hale Ltd., 1997).

  • Threat Charissa J. Nursing Civil Rights: Gender and Race in the Army Nurse Corps (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2015).

  • Tyrer Nicole . Sisters in Arms: British Army Nurses Tell Their Story (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2008).

  • Wheelright Julie . Amazons and Military Maids (London: Pandora, 1994).

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