Conservation-oriented restoration – how to make it a success?

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Plant conservation biology needs a new paradigm to stop ongoing environmental degradation and species loss. This paper provides detailed methodological guidelines for the conceptual integration of conservation biology and restoration ecology through “conservation-oriented restoration” as introduced in a companion paper. Based on the latest theoretical developments in community ecology and vast experience gained by researchers in restoration ecology and conservation biology, this paper provides recommendations, among others, for (i) identification of a reference ecosystem; (ii) making operational species lists for introduction; (iii) choosing optimal restoration in terms of planting design, plant number and density; (iv) collecting, storing and using seeds; and (v) addressing plant–animal interactions.

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