Buddhism and Kalmyk Secular Law in the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries

in Inner Asia
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Help

 

Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?

Connect

Abstract

Buddhism endorses a set of rules and standards of conduct set out in the religion’s canonical texts. The text of the 1640 Steppe Code, both a peace treaty among the Mongols and an attempt at alliance building vis-à-vis the Manchus, also reflects the adaptation of the ethical norms of Buddhism to secular law and political relations. Secular law among the Kalmyks further evolved in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Toktols issued by Khan Donduk-Dashi in the eighteenth century addressed a wide range of religious and secular elements in Kalmyk life, while also serving to strengthen the moral authority of the Buddhist clergy. Further revisions to Kalmyk law and the position of Buddhism within the secular system were promulgated at the Jinjil assembly in 1822. The Kalmyks’ inclusion of religious provisions in secular law helped to strengthen the connection between Buddhism and Kalmyk society, consolidating the normative role of religion as the basis for secular conduct and action.

Sections
References
  • AhmadZ. 1970. Sino-Tibetan Relations in the Seventeenth Century. Rome: Instituto Italiano per il medio ed estremo Oriente.

  • BachininV.A. 2008. Pravo i religiya (metodologicheskie problemy sotsiokul’turnogo vzaimodeystviya) [Law and religion (methodological problems of socio-cultural interaction)]. Rossiyskiy Yuridicheskiy Zhurnal 5: 714.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BakaevaE.P. 1994. Buddizm v Kalmikii [Buddhism in Kalmykia]. Elista: Kalm. Kn. Izd-vo.

  • BoyleJ.A. & G.E. Wheeler. 2012. Kalmuk in P. BearmanTh. BianquisC.E. BosworthE. van Donzel & W.P. Heinrichs (eds.)Encyclopaedia of IslamSecond Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0429. Last accessed 30 August 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CasanovaJ. 1994. Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press.

  • DylykovS.D. (ed.) 1981. Ikh tsaaz (“Velikoe ulozhenie”): Pamyatnik mongol’skogo feodal’nogo prava XVII v.: Oiratskii tekst (Vvedenie i kommentar) [Ik Tsaaz (“The Great Code”): The landmark of Mongol feudal law in the 17th century: Oirat text (introduction and commentary)]. Moscow: Nauka.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EliadeM. 1959. The Sacred and the Profane: The nature of religion. New York (NY): Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

  • ElverskogJ. 2006. Our Great Qing: The Mongols Buddhism and the state in Late Imperial China. Honolulu (HI): University of Hawaii Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FaganG. 2012. Believing in Russia. Religious policy after communism. New York (NY): Routledge.

  • GazizovaV. 2009. Stupas and Their Consecration in Contemporary Kalmykia. Unpublished Master’s thesis University of Oslo.

    • Export Citation
  • GolstunskiyK.F. 1880. Mongolo-Oyratskie Zakony 1640. Dopolnitel’nye Ukazy Galdan Khun-taydzhiya i Zakony Sostavlennye dlya Volzhskikh Kalmykov pri Kalmytskom Khane Donduk-Dashi [Mongol-Oirat Laws of 1640. The additional orders of Galdan Khung-tayiji and the laws created for the Volga Kalmyks by Kalmyk Khan Donduk-Dashi]. St Petersburg: Tip. Imper. Akad. Nauk.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GoryaevM.S. 2014. Politika rossiyskogo pravitel’stva v Kalmykii vo vtoroy polovine хiх–nachale xx veka [Policy of the Russian government in Kalmykia in the second half of the 19th through the early 20th century]. Izvestiya Saratovskogo Universiteta. Seriya: Istoriya. Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniya 14: 93100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GroussetR. 1970. The Empire of the Steppes: A history of central Asia. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University Press.

  • GurlyandYa.I. 1904. Stepnoe Zakonodatel’stvo s Drevneyshikh Vremen po XVII Stoletie [Steppe law from ancient times to the 17th century]. Kazan: Tip. Imper. Uni.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HollandE.C. 2015. Competing interpretations of Buddhism’s revival in the Russian republic of Kalmykia.Europe-Asia Studies 67: 948969.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HumphreyC. 2002. ‘Eurasia’ and the political imagination in provincial Russia in C. Hann (ed.) Postsocialism: Ideals ideologies and practices in Eurasia: 258276. New York (NY): Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KeownD. 2004. Prātimokṣa in D. Keown (ed.) A Dictionary of Buddhism: 220221. New York (NY): Oxford University Press.

  • KhodarkovskyM. 1992. Where Two Worlds Met: The Russian state and the Kalmyk nomads 1600–1771. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KhodarkovskyM. 2002. Russia’s Steppe Frontier: The making of a colonial empire 1500–1800. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KlochkovV.V. 1978. Religiya Gosudarstvo Pravo [Religion state law]. Moscow: Misl’.

  • KomandzhaevE.A. 2009. Rasprostranenie obshcherossiyskogo zakonodatel’stva na kalmytskoe kochevoe obshchestvo v xix v. [The prevalence of Russian legislation in Kalmyk nomadic society in the 19th century] in Sovremennoe Sostoyanie i Perspektivy Normotvorcheskoy i Pravoprimenitel’noy Deyatel’nosti v Respublike Kalmykiya [The contemporary position and perspectives of norm-setting and law enforcement in the Republic of Kalmykia]: 1724. Elista: KGU.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KraderL. 1963. Social Organization of the Mongol-Turkic Pastoral Nomads. The Hague: Mouton.

  • KraderL. 1965. Mongol law in J. Gilissen (ed.) Bibliographical Introduction to Legal History and Ethnology E/15: 122. Brussels: Université Libre de Bruxelles.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KruegerJ.R. 1972. New materials on Oirat law and history: Part one: the Jinjil Decrees.Central Asiatic Journal 16: 194205.

  • KruegerJ.R. 1975. Written Oirat and Kalmyk studies.Mongolian Studies 2: 93113.

  • KurapovA.A. 2010. Zakonotvorcheskaya deyatel’nost’ kalmytskogo buddiyskogo dukhovenstva (xvii–xix vv.) [Legislative activity of the Kalmyk Buddhist clergy (17th–19th centuries)]. Izvestiya Ural’skogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta. Ser. 1 Problemy Obrazovaniya Nauki i Kul’tury 85: 262268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeontovichF.I. 1879. K istorii prava russkikh inorodtsev: Drevnii Mongolo-Kalmytskii i Oyratskii ustav vzyskanii (Tsaadzhin Bichik) [On the history of the rights of Russian national minorities: old Mongol-Kalmyk and Oirat charter(Tsaajin-Bichig)]. Odessa: Ul’rikh.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeontovichF.I. 1880. Kalmytskoe pravo: Chast’ I. Ulozhenie 1822 goda (tekst). Primechaniya: Sostav istochniki i obshchii kharakter ulozheniya. Obshchestvennyi byt po kalmytskim ustavam [Kalmyk law: Part 1. Code of 1822 (text). Notes: composition sources and general nature of the code. Public life under the Kalmyk charters]. Odessa: Ul’rikh.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LytkinG.S. 1969. Materialy dlya oyratov [Materials for the Oirats] in A.V. Badmaev (ed.) Kalmytskie istoriko-literaturnye pamyatniki v russkom perevode [Kalmyk historical-literary landmarks in Russian translation]: 81131. Elista: Kalmytskii Nauchno-Issledovatel’skii Institut Yazyka, Literatury i Istorii.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MiyawakiJ. 1984. The Qalqa Mongols and the Oyirad in the seventeenth century.Journal of Asian History 18: 136173.

  • MorganD.O. 1986. The ‘Great Yāsā of Chingiz Khān’ and Mongol law in the Īlkhānate. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 49: 163176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MorganD.O. 2005. The ‘Great Yasa of Chinggis Khan’ revisited in R. Amitai & M. Biran (eds.) Mongols Turks and Others: Eurasian nomads and the sedentary world: 291308. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Munkh-ErdeneL. 2010. The 1640 Great Code: an Inner Asian parallel to the Treaty of Westphalia. Central Asian Survey 29: 269288.

  • OchirovaN.G. 2011. Religioznie protsessi v respublike Kalmykiya v perekhodnii period (90–c gg. 20 veka) [Religious processes in the republic of Kalmykia in the transition period (1990s)].Nauchnie Problemi Gumanitarnikh Issledovaniy 6: 8288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PochekaevR.Yu. 2013. Pravovye aspekty rasprostraneniya buddizma v Mongolii v xiii–xviii vv. [The legal aspects of the spread of Buddhism in Mongolia in the 13th–18th centuries]. Strany i Narody Vostoka. Tsentral’naya Aziya i Dal’niy Vostok 34: 1633.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PrinceJ.D. 1904. The Code of Hammurabi.The American Journal of Theology 8: 601609.

  • Ratnabkhadra. 2003. Biografiya Zaya pandity [The biography of Zaya Pandita]. Elista: Kalm. Knizh. Izd-vo.

  • RiazanovskyV.A. 1931. Mongol’skoe Pravo (Preimushchestvenno Obychnoe). [The Mongolian law (with special reference to customary law)]. Harbin: N.E. Chinareva.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RiazonovskyV.A. 1965. Fundamental Principles of Mongol Law. The Hague: Mouton.

  • SazykinA.G. 1980. Etiko-pravovye printsipy literatury‘narodnogo buddizma’ i mongol’skie zakonoulozheniya xvii–xviii vekov [Ethical and legal principles of works of ‘folk Buddhism’ and Mongolian law of the 17th and 18th centuries] in U. Erdniev (ed.) Lamaizm v Kalmykii i Voprosy Nauchnogo Ateizma [Lamaism in Kalmykia and questions of scientific atheism]: 129137. Elista: Kalmytskii Nauchno-Issledovatel’skiii Institut Istorii, Filologii i Ekonomiki.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchorkowitzD. 1992. Die soziale und politische Organisation bei den Kalmücken (Oiraten) und Prozesse der Akkulturation vom 17. Jahrhundert bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahr‑hunderts: Ethnohistorische Untersuchungen über die mongolischen Völkerschaften [The social and political organisation of the Kalmyks (Oirats) and processes of acculturation from the 17th Ccntury to the mid 19th century: ethnohistorical studies on Mongolian peoples]. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchorkowitzD. 2001. Staat und Nationalitäten in Rußland. Der Integrationsprozeß der Burjaten und Kalmücken 1822–1925 [The state and nationalities in Russia: the integration process of the Buryats and Kalmyks 1822–1925]. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sergeev V.S. & B.V. Sergeev. 1998. Ugolovnoe i Grazhdanskoe Pravo Kalmykov XVII–XIX vv. (Istoriko-Pravovye Ocherki) [The criminal and civil law of the Kalmyks 17th–19th centuries (Historical-Legal Works)]. Elista: Dzhangar.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SinclairT. 2008. Tibetan reform and the Kalmyk revival of Buddhism.Inner Asia 10: 241259.

  • SneathD. 2007. The Headless State: Aristocratic orders kinship society and misrepresentations of nomadic Inner Asia. New York (NY): Columbia University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SonamT. & R. Sarin. 1994. The Trials of Telo Rinpoche. Documentary. London: British Broadcasting Corporation.

  • UlanovM.S. 2009. Buddizm v sotsiokul’turnom prostranstve Rossii [Buddhism in the sociocultural space of Russia]. Elista: Izd-vo KalmGU.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UlanovM.S.V.N. Badmaev & N.P. Matsakova. 2016. Buddizm i pravovaya traditsiya v Mongolii [Buddhism and legal tradition in Mongolia].Bylye Gody 42: 168176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VernadskyG. 1938. The scope and contents of Chingis Khan’s Yasa. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 3: 337360.

Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 288 251 25
Full Text Views 238 233 2
PDF Downloads 16 14 1
EPUB Downloads 8 6 0