The Mongolian Autonomous county of Henan, known in Tibetan as Malho or Sogpo, raises interesting questions about representation and identity. The paper, by tracing the history of education of this county from 1950 onwards, argues that the Mongols from Henan re-defined their identity through state-sponsored policies and with the active involvement of the elite. As a case study, the paper introduces two authors from this county, Tsering Dondup and Jangbu (Dorje Tsering), who write only in Tibetan language and have made a name with their works. Their identity is, however, a contested issue in the Tibetan literary scene. Even though their works are included in the Tibetan literary canon, remarks concerning their ethnicity and origin are frequent among literary critics. This marginalisation is not only evidenced by these two authors but starts already when Mongol students attend the same classes as Tibetan students.