Discovery of new species confirms Oriental origin of Orussus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Orussidae)

in Insect Systematics & Evolution
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The genus Orussus is reviewed, with primary focus on taxa from the Oriental Region; a revised key to the world species is presented. The newly described species are analysed with a comprehensive morphological data set encompassing the entire family. The discovery of the new species corroborates the earlier proposed hypothesis that Orussus originated in the Oriental Region. The following new species are described: O. areolatus Blank & Vilhelmsen from Morocco, O. hanumanus Vilhelmsen & Blank from India (described for O. decoomani auct.), O. punctulatissimus Blank & Vilhelmsen from Malaysia, and O. zhui Vilhelmsen, Liu, Smith & Blank from China. Currently O. decoomani Maa, 1950 from Vietnam cannot be interpreted properly and is considered a species inquirenda. Orussus mikagei Togashi, 2008 is proposed as a new synonym of O. rufipes Tsuneki, 1963.

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References
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Figures
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    Orussus areolatus sp.n., male, holotype (specimen no. DEI-GISHym 335). (1–2) Habitus, dorsal and lateral. (3–4) Head, lateral and anterior. (5) Fore wing. (6) Thorax, dorsal. (7) Terga 1–5 dorsal, arrows indicate on smooth areas laterally on tergum 2. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Orussus rufipesTsuneki, 1963, female, holotype of O. mikageiTogashi, 2008 (specimen no. DEI-GISHym 5121). (35–36) Habitus, lateral, dorsal. (37) Thorax, dorsal. (38–39) Head, anterior, lateral. (40) Antenna, boundaries (arrowheads) of particular antennomeres numbers. (41) Fore wing, cells and veins identified in text, veins indicated by arrows, cells in italics. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Orussus boninensis Yasumatsu, 1954, female, holotype (specimen no. DEI-GISHym 5120). (8) Habitus, dorsal. (9) Fore wing. (10) Abdomen and hind leg, lateral. (11) Terga 1–5, dorsal. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Orussus boninensis Yasumatsu, 1954, female, holotype (specimen no. DEI-GISHym 5120). (12–13) Head, lateral and anterior. (14) Ocellar corona, laterofrontal view. (15) Thorax, dorsal. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Orussus hanumanus sp.n., female, holotype (specimen no. ZMUC-GISHym 1101, Figs 16–18, 20, 22), paratype (no. 1105, Figs 19, 21). (16–17) Habitus, dorsal and lateral. (18) Head, anterior. (19) Antennomeres 8–10. (20) Fore wing. (21) Terga 1–6, dorsal. (22) Head, lateral. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Orussus hanumanus sp.n., female, paratype (specimen no. ZMUC-GISHym 1105, Fig. 23), male, paratypes (no. 1106, Fig. 24; no. 1106, Fig. 25–26). (23) Thorax, dorsal, arrows indicating weak mesoscutellar sulcus. (24) Distal male abdominal segments, lateral. (25) Male antenna. (26) Fore wing. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Orussus punctulatissimus sp.n., female, holotype (specimen no. DEI-GISHym 5124, Figs 27–29, 31–33), paratypes (no. 5126, Fig. 30; no. 5127, Fig. 34). (27–28) habitus, dorsal and lateral. (29) Thorax, dorsal. (30) Abdomen, dorsal. (31–32) Head, anterior and lateral. (33) Ocellar corona, laterofrontal view. (34) Fore wing. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Orussus rufipesTsuneki, 1963, male, holotype (specimen no. DEI-GISHym 5122). (42–43) Habitus, dorsal and lateral. (44) Terga 1–6, dorsal. (45–46) Head, lateral and anterior. (47) Thorax, dorsal. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Orussus striatusMaa, 1950, female, holotype (specimen no. DEI-GISHym 10942). (48–49) Habitus, dorsal and lateral. (50–51) Head, anterior and lateral. (52) Terga 1–6, dorsal; arrows indicating left smooth area on tergum 2. (53) Mesepisternum, lateral, anterior to the right; arrows indicating oblique vertical carina. (54) Thorax, dorsal. (55). Fore wing. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Orussus zhui sp.n., female, holotype (specimen no. ZMUC-GISHym 1096, Figs 56–61, 63), paratype (no. 1098). (56–57) habitus, dorsal and lateral. (58–59) Head, anterior and lateral. (60) Terga 1–5, dorsal. (61) Thorax, dorsal. (62) Fore wing. (63) Antenna. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Strict consensus tree of 5 trees produced by implied weights analysis with concavity constant set to 6.

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    Strict consensus tree of 18 trees produced by implied weights analysis with concavity constant set to 12.

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    Strict consensus tree of 1240 trees of 814 steps produced by equal weights analysis. Bremer/jacknife support values are shown below branches.

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