A taxonomic revision of the Canthon subgenus Pseudepilissus Martínez, 1954 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)

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The subgenus Canthon (Pseudepilissus) Martínez, 1954 is revised. Four valid species are redescribed: Canthon (Pseudepilissus) muticus Harold, 1867; C. (P.) lunatus Schmidt, 1922; C. (P.) planus Lucas, 1857 and C. (P.) reichei Felsche, 1910. Three species assigned to other groups are transferred in the subgenus: C. (P.) quadratus Blanchard, 1843 [previously Canthonincertae sedis”]; C. (P.) edentulus Harold, 1868 [previously Canthonincertae sedis”] and C. (P.) seminulus Harold, 1867 comb. nov. [previously Vulcanocanthon]. The genus Vulcanocanthon Pereira & Martínez, 1960 syn. nov. is synonymized with Canthon (Pseudepilissus). Three subspecies are raised to species level: C. (P.) tibialis Schmidt, 1922 stat. nov. [previously C. (P.) lunatus tibialis]; C. (P.) granuliceps Felsche, 1910 stat. nov. [previously C. edentulus granuliceps] and C. (P.) hendrichsi Halffter & Martínez, 1968 stat. nov. [previously C. (P.) muticus hendrichsi]. C. (P.) honsi Balthasar, 1939 syn. nov. is synonymized with C. (P.) reichei Felsche, 1910. Four new species are described: Canthon (P.) arriagadai sp. nov., Canthon (P.) bonaerensis sp. nov., Canthon (P.) vidaurrei sp. nov. and Canthon (P.) ziggy sp. nov., bringing the number of species in the subgenus to 14. Lectotypes are designated for six species C. (P.) muticus Harold, 1867; C. (P.) reichei Felsche, 1910; C. (P.) planus Lucas, 1857; C. (P.) seminulus Harold, 1867; C. (P.) granuliceps Felsche, 1910 and C. (P.) quadratus Blanchard, 1843. A detailed literature review, synonymies, description, illustration of key morphological characters, data on the studied material and geographic distribution are provided for each species.

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Figures
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    Species of Canthon (Pseudepilissus), dorsal view. A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) edentulus; B. Canthon (P.) granuliceps; C. Canthon (P.) hendrichsi; D. Canthon (P.) lunatus; E. Canthon (P.) muticus; F. Canthon (P.) planus; G. Canthon (P.) quadratus (white arrow: pre-scutellar median depression; yellow arrow: post-scutellar depression); H. Canthon (P.) reichei; I. Canthon (P.) seminulus. Scale: 1.0 mm (A-F, H, I); 2.0 mm (G).

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    Head (dorsal view). A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) edentulus; B. Canthon (P.) granuliceps; C. Canthon (P.) hendrichsi; D. Canthon (P.) lunatus; E. Canthon (P.) muticus; F. Canthon (P.) planus; G. Canthon (P.) reichei; H. Canthon (P.) bonaerensis sp. nov.; I. Canthon (P.) tibialis. Scale: 0.5 mm. (red arrow: transverse carina).

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    Hypomera. A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) lunatus (yellow arrow: carina incomplete); B. Canthon (P.) quadratus (white arrow: carina complete). Scale: 0.5 mm.

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    Abdomen (ventral view). A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) quadratus ♂; B. Canthon (P.) ziggy sp. nov. ♂; C. Canthon (P.) tibialis ♂; D. Canthon (P.) quadratus ♀; E. Canthon (P.) ziggy sp. nov. ♀; F. Canthon (P.) tibialis ♀. Scale: 1.0 mm (A, D); 0.5 mm (B, C, E, F).

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    Structural details. A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) lunatus, protibia, dorsal view (white arrow: carina with tubercles); B. Canthon (P.) lunatus, protibia, ventral view (white arrows: carina with tubercles); C. Canthon (P.) reichei, metatibia (black arrow: apical spine. Blue arrow: spur. Red arrow: row of setae); D. Canthon (P.) ziggy sp. nov., surface of pronotum; E. Canthon (P.) lunatus, metatarsomeres. Scale: 0.2 mm (D); 0.5 mm (A, B, C, E).

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    Pygidium. A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) lunatus ♀; B. Canthon (P.) ziggy sp. nov. ♂; C. Canthon (P.) quadratus ♀; D. Canthon (P.) quadratus ♂. White arrow: pygidium with carina at base. Yellow arrow: pygidium lacking carina at base. Scale: 0.5 mm.

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    A. Known composite distribution of the Canthon subgenus Pseudepilissus Martínez, 1954; B. Known distribution of Canthon (Pseudepilissus) lunatus, Canthon (P.) tibialis and Canthon (P.) ziggy sp. nov.; C. Known distribution of Canthon (Pseudepilissus) hendrichsi and Canthon (P.) muticus; D. Known distribution of Canthon (Pseudepilissus) planus and Canthon (P.) reichei.

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    Aedeagi (lateral view). A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) edentulus; B. Canthon (P.) granuliceps; C. Canthon (P.) hendrichsi; D. Canthon (P.) lunatus; E. Canthon (P.) muticus; F. Canthon (P.) planus; G. Canthon (P.) quadratus; H. Canthon (P.) reichei; I. Canthon (P.) seminulus; J. Canthon (P.) tibialis; K. Canthon (P.) ziggy sp. nov.; L. Canthon (P.) arriagadai sp. nov.; M. Canthon (P.) vidaurrei sp. nov.; N. Canthon (P.) bonaerensis sp. nov.. Scale: 0.2 mm.

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    Species of Canthon (Pseudepilissus), dorsal view. A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) ziggy sp. nov.; B. Canthon (P.) arriagadai sp. nov.; C. Canthon (P.) vidaurrei sp. nov.; D. Canthon (P.) bonaerensis sp. nov.; E. Canthon (P.) tibialis. Scale: 1.0 mm.

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    Canthon (Pseudepilissus) planus. A. Body (lateral view); B. Detail of the elytral apex (white arrow: tubercles or carinae). Scale: 1.0 mm.

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    Detail of the pronotal surface. A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) lunatus; B. Canthon (P.) seminulus; C. Canthon (P.) arriagadai sp. nov.; D. Canthon (P.) vidaurrei sp. nov.. Scale: 0.2 mm (C); 0.5 mm (A, B, D).

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    Detail of the metasternal punctures. A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) arriagadai sp. nov.; B. Canthon (P.) vidaurrei sp. nov.. Scale: 0.2 mm (A); 0.5 mm (B).

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    Detail of the dorsal surface of head. A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) edentulus; B. Canthon (P.) granuliceps. Scale: 0.2 mm.

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    Aedeagi (ventral view). A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) edentulus; B. Canthon (P.) granuliceps; C. Canthon (P.) hendrichsi; D. Canthon (P.) lunatus; E. Canthon (P.) muticus; F. Canthon (P.) planus; G. Canthon (P.) quadratus; H. Canthon (P.) reichei; I. Canthon (P.) seminulus; J. Canthon (P.) tibialis; K. Canthon (P.) ziggy sp. nov.; L. Canthon (P.) arriagadai sp. nov.; M. Canthon (P.) vidaurrei sp. nov.; N. Canthon (P.) bonaerensis sp. nov. Scale: 0.2 mm.

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    A. Known distribution of Canthon (Pseudepilissus) edentulus, Canthon (P.) granuliceps, Canthon (P.) quadratus and Canthon (P.) bonaerensis sp. nov.; B. Known distribution of Canthon (Pseudepilissus) seminulus, Canthon (P.) arriagadai sp. nov. and Canthon (P.) vidaurrei sp. nov.

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    Sclerites of endophallus. A, B, C. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) edentulus; D, E, F. Canthon (P.) granuliceps. A. Complex of axial and subaxial sclerites (A+SA); B. Fronto-lateral peripheral sclerite (FLP); C. Superior right peripheral sclerite (SRP); D. A+SA; E. FLP; F. SRP. Scale: 0.1 mm.

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    Aedeagi (dorsal view). A. Canthon (Pseudepilissus) edentulus; B. Canthon (P.) granuliceps; C. Canthon (P.) hendrichsi; D. Canthon (P.) lunatus; E. Canthon (P.) muticus; F. Canthon (P.) planus; G. Canthon (P.) quadratus; H. Canthon (P.) reichei; I. Canthon (P.) seminulus; J. Canthon (P.) tibialis; K. Canthon (P.) ziggy sp. nov.; L. Canthon (P.) arriagadai sp. nov.; M. Canthon (P.) vidaurrei sp. nov.; N. Canthon (P.) bonaerensis sp. nov. Scale: 0.2 mm.

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