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New Dates for Megalithic Stele Monuments of Gedeo, South Ethiopia

In: Journal of African Archaeology
Authors:
Ashenafi G. Zena Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, State Historical Society of North Dakota Bismarck, ND 58505 USA
Hawassa University Sidama Regional State Ethiopia

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https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5387-4703
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Andrew I. Duff Department of Anthropology, Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-4910 USA

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https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9531-7024
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Addisalem Melesse Department of Anthropology, Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-4910 USA
Hawassa University Sidama Regional State Ethiopia

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John A. Wolff School of the Environment, Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-2812 USA

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Alemseged Beldados Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Department of Archeology and Heritage Management, College of Social Sciences, Addis Ababa University P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa Ethiopia

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https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0730-6080
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M. Steven Shackley Geoarchaeological XRF Laboratory 8100 Wyoming Blvd NE, Ste M4-158, Albuquerque, NM 87113-1946 USA

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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4122-0427
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Abstract

This paper reports the results of an archaeological survey and test excavation conducted in one of the ancient megalithic stele sites in south Ethiopia, Sakaro Sodo. The Sakaro Sodo stele site is situated in Gedeo zone, which is known to have the largest number and highest concentration of megalithic stele monuments in Africa, with an estimate of more than 10,000 stelae in sixty or more sites. Prior to our work, only one absolute date was available (850 ± 40 BP) (Joussaume 2012) from a stele site in the Gedeo zone, suggesting stele sites began to be constructed in the region approximately a millennium ago. We report here new AMS dates suggesting that stelae were being emplaced about 2000 BP, pushing the creation of these monuments back at least a millennium. Additionally, we report preliminary findings from characterizing the geochemical properties of obsidian artifacts recovered from stele sites, and stone used to make stelae. While compositional analysis of obsidian suggests long-distance movement of material from sources located in northern Kenya, petrographic microscopy and electron microprobe analyses show a strong connection of stelae to local geological tuff exposures/sources.

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